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Protein & Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597152/glycosylation-engineering-of-therapeutic-igg-antibodies-challenges-for-the-safety-functionality-and-efficacy
#1
REVIEW
Yusuke Mimura, Toshihiko Katoh, Radka Saldova, Roisin O'Flaherty, Tomonori Izumi, Yuka Mimura-Kimura, Toshiaki Utsunomiya, Yoichi Mizukami, Kenji Yamamoto, Tsuneo Matsumoto, Pauline M Rudd
Glycosylation of the Fc region of IgG has a profound impact on the safety and clinical efficacy of therapeutic antibodies. While the biantennary complex-type oligosaccharide attached to Asn297 of the Fc is essential for antibody effector functions, fucose and outer-arm sugars attached to the core heptasaccharide that generate structural heterogeneity (glycoforms) exhibit unique biological activities. Hence, efficient and quantitative glycan analysis techniques have been increasingly important for the development and quality control of therapeutic antibodies, and glycan profiles of the Fc are recognized as critical quality attributes...
June 8, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593618/rig-i-a-multifunctional-protein-beyond-a-pattern-recognition-receptor
#2
REVIEW
Xiao-Xiao Xu, Han Wan, Li Nie, Tong Shao, Li-Xin Xiang, Jian-Zhong Shao
It was widely known that retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) functions as a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that initiates innate antiviral immunity by detecting exogenous viral RNAs. However, recent studies showed that RIG-I participates in other various cellular activities by sensing endogenous RNAs under different circumstances. For example, RIG-I facilitates the therapy resistance and expansion of breast cancer cells and promotes T cell-independent B cell activation through interferon signaling activation by recognizing non-coding RNAs and endogenous retroviruses in certain situations...
June 8, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585179/effective-gene-editing-by-high-fidelity-base-editor-2-in-mouse-zygotes
#3
LETTER
Puping Liang, Hongwei Sun, Ying Sun, Xiya Zhang, Xiaowei Xie, Jinran Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuxi Chen, Chenhui Ding, Yuanyan Xiong, Wenbin Ma, Dan Liu, Junjiu Huang, Zhou Songyang
Targeted point mutagenesis through homologous recombination has been widely used in genetic studies and holds considerable promise for repairing disease-causing mutations in patients. However, problems such as mosaicism and low mutagenesis efficiency continue to pose challenges to clinical application of such approaches. Recently, a base editor (BE) system built on cytidine (C) deaminase and CRISPR/Cas9 technology was developed as an alternative method for targeted point mutagenesis in plant, yeast, and human cells...
June 5, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585178/editing-base-in-mouse-model
#4
Haoyi Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585177/potent-and-conditional-redirected-t-cell-killing-of-tumor-cells-using-half-dvd-ig
#5
Philip D Bardwell, Matthew M Staron, Junjian Liu, Qingfeng Tao, Susanne Scesney, Gail Bukofzer, Luis E Rodriguez, Chee-Ho Choi, Jennifer Wang, Qing Chang, Feng Dong, Cherrie Donawho, Jieyi Wang, Christine M Grinnell, Edit Tarcsa, Charles Hutchins, Tariq Ghayur, Jijie Gu
Novel biologics that redirect cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to kill tumor cells bearing a tumor associated antigen hold great promise in the clinic. However, the ability to safely and potently target CD3 on CTL toward tumor associated antigens (TAA) expressed on tumor cells remains a challenge of both technology and biology. Herein we describe the use of a Half DVD-Ig format that can redirect CTL to kill tumor cells. Notably, Half DVD-Ig molecules that are monovalent for each specificity demonstrated reduced non-specific CTL activation and conditional CTL activation upon binding to TAA compared to intact tetravalent DVD-Ig molecules that are bivalent for each specificity, while maintaining good drug like properties and appropriate PK properties...
June 5, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585176/the-crystal-structure-of-ac-achbp-in-complex-with-%C3%AE-conotoxin-lvia-reveals-the-mechanism-of-its-selectivity-towards-different-nachr-subtypes
#6
Manyu Xu, Xiaopeng Zhu, Jinfang Yu, Jinpeng Yu, Sulan Luo, Xinquan Wang
The α3* nAChRs, which are considered to be promising drug targets for problems such as pain, addiction, cardiovascular function, cognitive disorders etc., are found throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. The α-conotoxin (α-CTx) LvIA has been identified as the most selective inhibitor of α3β2 nAChRs known to date, and it can distinguish the α3β2 nAChR subtype from the α6/α3β2β3 and α3β4 nAChR subtypes. However, the mechanism of its selectivity towards α3β2, α6/α3β2β3, and α3β4 nAChRs remains elusive...
June 5, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555377/alphalisa-detection-of-alpha-synuclein-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-its-potential-application-in-parkinson-s-disease-diagnosis
#7
LETTER
Hongli Zhao, Jue Zhao, Jiapeng Hou, Siqing Wang, Yu Ding, Boxun Lu, Jian Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540654/a-110-year-old-wise-man-professor-libin-t-cheng-one-of-the-founders-of-biochemistry-and-nutrition-in-china
#8
He Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540653/il-2-and-il-15-dependent-thymic-development-of-foxp3-expressing-regulatory-t-lymphocytes
#9
REVIEW
Cécile Apert, Paola Romagnoli, Joost P M van Meerwijk
Immunosuppressive regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 play a vital role in the maintenance of tolerance of the immune-system to self and innocuous non-self. Most Treg that are critical for the maintenance of tolerance to self, develop as an independent T-cell lineage from common T cell precursors in the thymus. In this organ, their differentiation requires signals from the T cell receptor for antigen, from co-stimulatory molecules, as well as from cytokine-receptors. Here we focus on the cytokines implicated in thymic development of Treg, with a particular emphasis on the roles of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15...
May 24, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536942/lrrc25-plays-a-key-role-in-all-trans-retinoic-acid-induced-granulocytic-differentiation-as-a-novel-potential-leukocyte-differentiation-antigen
#10
Weili Liu, Ting Li, Pingzhang Wang, Wanchang Liu, Fujun Liu, Xiaoning Mo, Zhengyang Liu, Quansheng Song, Ping Lv, Guorui Ruan, Wenling Han
Leukocyte differentiation antigens (LDAs) play important roles in the immune system, by serving as surface markers and participating in multiple biological activities, such as recognizing pathogens, mediating membrane signals, interacting with other cells or systems, and regulating cell differentiation and activation. Data mining is a powerful tool used to identify novel LDAs from whole genome. LRRC25 (leucine rich repeat-containing 25) was predicted to have a role in the function of myeloid cells by a large-scale "omics" data analysis...
May 23, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523434/salivary-exosomal-psma7-a-promising-biomarker-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Xiaowen Zheng, Feng Chen, Qian Zhang, Yulan Liu, Peng You, Shan Sun, Jiuxiang Lin, Ning Chen
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal immune-dysfunctional disease worldwide whose prevalence increasing in Asia including China. It is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown cause. Exosomes are small vesicles in various body fluids. They have diameters of 40-120 nm, and one of their functions is long-distance transfer of various substances. In this study, we investigated the contents of salivary exosomes in patients with IBD and in healthy controls to explore a new biomarker in patients with IBD...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523433/structural-and-functional-roles-of-ether-lipids
#12
REVIEW
John M Dean, Irfan J Lodhi
Ether lipids, such as plasmalogens, are peroxisome-derived glycerophospholipids in which the hydrocarbon chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is attached by an ether bond, as opposed to an ester bond in the more common diacyl phospholipids. This seemingly simple biochemical change has profound structural and functional implications. Notably, the tendency of ether lipids to form non-lamellar inverted hexagonal structures in model membranes suggests that they have a role in facilitating membrane fusion processes...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523432/novel-t-cells-with-improved-in-vivo-anti-tumor-activity-generated-by-rna-electroporation
#13
Xiaojun Liu, Shuguang Jiang, Chongyun Fang, Hua Li, Xuhua Zhang, Fuqin Zhang, Carl H June, Yangbing Zhao
The generation of T cells with maximal anti-tumor activities will significantly impact the field of T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy. In this report, we found that OKT3/IL-2-stimulated T cells were phenotypically more heterogeneous, with enhanced anti-tumor activity in vitro and when locally administered in a solid tumor mouse model. To further improve the OKT3/IL-2-based T cell manufacturing procedure, we developed a novel T cell stimulation and expansion method in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells were electroporated with mRNA encoding a chimeric membrane protein consisting of a single-chain variable fragment against CD3 and the intracellular domains of CD28 and 4-1BB (OKT3-28BB)...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500538/lian-cang-xu-the-founder-of-management-psychology-in-china
#14
Jing Li, Yong-Kang Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500537/zhongxian-lin-founder-of-color-psychology-in-china
#15
Hai-Feng Li, Xiao-Mei Li, Bu-Xin Han
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497315/energy-coupling-mechanism-of-the-multidrug-resistance-transporter-acrb-evidence-for-membrane-potential-driving-hypothesis-through-mutagenic-analysis
#16
LETTER
Min Liu, Xuejun C Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488247/distinct-pd-l1-binding-characteristics-of-therapeutic-monoclonal-antibody-durvalumab
#17
LETTER
Shuguang Tan, Kefang Liu, Yan Chai, Catherine W-H Zhang, Shan Gao, George F Gao, Jianxun Qi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488246/potential-coordination-role-between-o-glcnacylation-and-epigenetics
#18
REVIEW
Donglu Wu, Yong Cai, Jingji Jin
Dynamic changes of the post-translational O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) are controlled by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) and the glycoside hydrolase O-GlcNAcase (OGA) in cells. O-GlcNAcylation often occurs on serine (Ser) and threonine (Thr) residues of the specific substrate proteins via the addition of O-GlcNAc group by OGT. It has been known that O-GlcNAcylation is not only involved in many fundamental cellular processes, but also plays an important role in cancer development through various mechanisms...
May 9, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488245/chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-modified-natural-killer-cell-based-immunotherapy-and-immunological-synapse-formation-in-cancer-and-hiv
#19
REVIEW
Dongfang Liu, Shuo Tian, Kai Zhang, Wei Xiong, Ndongala Michel Lubaki, Zhiying Chen, Weidong Han
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the body's immune defenses. Current chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cell immunotherapy shows strong promise for treating various cancers and infectious diseases. Although CAR-modified NK cell immunotherapy is rapidly gaining attention, its clinical applications are mainly focused on preclinical investigations using the NK92 cell line. Despite recent advances in CAR-modified T cell immunotherapy, cost and severe toxicity have hindered its widespread use...
May 9, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466387/cellular-microparticles-and-pathophysiology-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Zilong Zhao, Yuan Zhou, Ye Tian, Min Li, Jing-Fei Dong, Jianning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The finding that cellular microparticles (MPs) generated by injured cells profoundly impact on pathological courses of TBI has paved the way for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. MPs are subcellular fragments or organelles that serve as carriers of lipids, adhesive receptors, cytokines, nucleic acids, and tissue-degrading enzymes that are unique to the parental cells. Their sub-micron sizes allow MPs to travel to areas that parental cells are unable to reach to exercise diverse biological functions...
May 2, 2017: Protein & Cell
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