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Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism

Mustafa Tosur, Mary L Brandt, Ioanna D Athanassaki, Surya P Rednam
Individuals with PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (PHTS) are at greatly increased risk for developing well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Specific circumstances in which total thyroidectomies should be considered have not been defined. A 14-year-old macrocephalic female with history of developmental delay and lipoma over her left flank presented with neck swelling and was found have multinodular goiter and auto-immune thyroiditis. Asymptomatic tracheal narrowing was also detected on her initial diagnostic imaging...
September 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nagi I Ali, Abdullah O Alamoudi, Ishag Adam
Background: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4) and T3 levels are varied in the different settings with disorders of thyroid homeostasis. It is recommended that every setting has to establish its own reference intervals (RIs) for these hormones. Methods: A multi-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of a Sudanese adult (>20 years of age) in Nyala in western Sudan in the Darfur region during the period between January and June 2016 to establish RIs of thyroid-related hormones (TSH, T4 and T3)...
September 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Reem Sami Alquoqa, Violet Kasabri, Randa Naffa, Amal Akour, Yasser Bustanji
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with obesity, which triggers the release of inflammatory substances. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a peroxidase enzyme, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), an acute-phase protein, are known to be released in patients with inflammatory conditions and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: In this study, we investigated the correlation between MPO and AGP levels in pre/diabetic and MetS patients by conducting a cross-sectional study at The University of Jordan Hospital (UoJH) at the diabetes and endocrinology outpatient clinics...
September 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Suresh Rama Chandran, Jaydutt Bhalshankar, Rashida Farhad Vasanwala, Yi Zhao, Katharine R Owen, Daphne Su-Lyn Gardner
Background: Young adults with diabetes in Asia represent a heterogeneous group. Using traditional clinical criteria to preselect individuals for testing for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) may exclude a large proportion from testing. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has shown promise as a biomarker to differentiate hepatic nuclear factor 1 alpha ( HNF1A )-MODY from type 2 diabetes. We aimed to compare the use of hs-CRP as a biomarker versus traditional criteria, to guide testing for HNF1A -MODY among a cohort of young adults with diabetes in Singapore...
September 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Grzegorz M Rdzak, Laura M Whitman, Silvio E Inzucchi
Persistent elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a common clinical problem in outpatient clinics treating patients with primary hypothyroidism. One challenge to practitioners involves predicaments where patients have an inadequate response to a seemingly appropriate dose of levothyroxine (L-T4). A patient's self-assessed compliance to hormone replacement therapy or verification refill history at the patient's pharmacy might not be a reliable form of confirmation of non-adherence to the drug by the patient, which has been referred to as "L-T4 pseudo-malabsorption...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Samira Kahnamouyi, Mohammad Nouri, Laya Farzadi, Masoud Darabi, Vahid Hosseini, Amir Mehdizadeh
Mammalian reproduction systems are largely regulated by the secretion of two gonadotropins, that is, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The main action of LH and FSH on the ovary is to stimulate secretion of estradiol and progesterone, which play an important role in the ovarian function and reproductive cycle control. FSH and LH secretions are strictly controlled by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is secreted from the hypothalamus into the pituitary vascular system...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mabrouk Bahloul, Olfa Turki, Anis Chaari, Mounir Bouaziz
Hyperglycaemia is often observed in severe scorpion-envenomed patients. It is due to a severe autonomic storm with a massive release of catecholamines, increased glucagon levels, cortisol levels, and either decreased insulin levels or insulin resistance. The presence of hyperglycaemia is an indicator of severity in this specific condition. Indeed, hyperglycaemia was associated with the severity of clinical manifestations of severe scorpion envenomation requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In fact, the presence of hyperglycaemia was associated with the presence of respiratory failure, pulmonary oedema, haemodynamic instability, neurological failure, multisystem organ failure, and an increased mortality and ICU length of stay...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lalantha Leelarathna, Donna Ashley, Carrie Fidler, Witesh Parekh
Background: Fast-acting insulin aspart is a new formulation of the rapid-acting insulin analogue insulin aspart and represents an advancement over current rapid-acting insulin analogues in terms of onset of action and postprandial glucose control. The objective of the current analysis was to demonstrate the cost impact of prescribing fast-acting insulin aspart instead of insulin aspart, to highlight the value of fast-acting insulin aspart for the treatment of people with diabetes requiring mealtime insulin...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Francesco Freni, Bruno Galletti, Francesco Galletti, Gianlorenzo Dionigi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sait Sager, Esra Hatipoglu, Burcak Gunes, Sertac Asa, Lebriz Uslu, Kerim Sönmezoğlu
Background: It is necessary to stimulate serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels either endogenously by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) or exogenously by administration of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) for radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. Thyrotropin alfa (Thyrogen) has many advantages over THW. Radiation dose to laboratory staff while drawing blood for tests on the day 5 is one of the disadvantages of preferring Thyrogen. Our aim was to compare day 3 and day 5 blood test results after Thyrogen injections...
June 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Patrick Timpel, Fernando Henpin Yue Cesena, Christiane da Silva Costa, Matheus Dorigatti Soldatelli, Emanuel Gois, Eduardo Castrillon, Lina Johana Jaime Díaz, Gabriela M Repetto, Fanah Hagos, Raul E Castillo Yermenos, Kevin Pacheco-Barrios, Wafaa Musallam, Zilda Braid, Nesreen Khidir, Marcela Romo Guardado, Roberta Muriel Longo Roepke
Background: Overweight and obesity are significant public health concerns that are prevalent in younger age cohorts. Preventive or therapeutic interventions are difficult to implement and maintain over time. On the other hand, the majority of adolescents in the United States have a smartphone, representing a huge potential for innovative digitized interventions, such as weight loss programs delivered via smartphone applications. Although the number of available smartphone applications is increasing, evidence for their effectiveness in weight loss is insufficient...
June 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Torben Biester, Olga Kordonouri, Thomas Danne
For paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes, intensified insulin therapy with either multiple daily injection or insulin pump therapy is currently the only method of treatment. To optimize this therapy, insulin analogues are fixed parts of all therapy regimens. New ultra-rapid insulins seem to be beneficial not only in adults but also in this age group. New developments in long-acting analogues have demonstrated safety and will be regular in paediatrics, we hope, soon. Furthermore, the psychosocial approach for consideration of real-life aspects becomes more the focus of therapeutic regimens and is implemented into international guidelines...
May 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Taylor R Inman, Erika Plyushko, Nicholas P Austin, Jeremy L Johnson
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes necessitates the development of new treatment options to individualize therapy. Basal insulin has been a standard treatment option for years, while glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have grown in use over the past decade due to glucose-lowering efficacy and weight loss potential. There are two new combination injectable products that have recently been approved combining basal insulins with GLP-1 RAs in single pen-injector devices. United States guidelines recently emphasize the option to use combination injectable therapy with GLP-1 RAs and basal insulin once the basal insulin has been optimally titrated as a second- or third-line agent in addition to metformin without reaching the goal A1c...
May 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Venkat Vangaveti, Venkatesh Shashidhar, Fiona Collier, Jason Hodge, Catherine Rush, Usman Malabu, Bernhard Baune, Richard Lee Kennedy
Background: Both activation of monocytes and increased serum fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) occur in diabetes and are associated with increased atherosclerosis. The oxidized lipid, 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) increases FABP4 in macrophages, and is a ligand for G protein-coupled receptor 132 (GPR132). We investigated the involvement of GPR132 in mediating the 9-, 13-HODE stimulation of FABP4 secretion, and whether GPR132 expression is increased in monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes...
May 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Renato Pasquali
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder in women in their reproductive years and is characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology. It is also associated with several metabolic abnormalities, particularly insulin resistance and obesity, which play an important role in the pathophysiology of PCOS and, in particular, negatively influence ovarian function and fertility. This review article summarizes the available treatment for women with PCOS. Specifically, current and potentially new therapies are discussed...
April 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Scott M Pearson, Jennifer M Trujillo
Background: We wanted to determine whether basal insulin requirements change when patients transition from insulin glargine U-100 (Gla-100) to insulin glargine U-300 (Gla-300) or insulin degludec. Methods: This study involved subjects seen in the University of Colorado Health Endocrine Clinic who were transitioned from Gla-100 to either Gla-300 ( n = 95) or insulin degludec ( n = 39). The primary outcome was the difference between baseline Gla-100 dose and dose of Gla-300 or insulin degludec prescribed after first follow-up visit within 1-12 months...
April 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sami H Alzahrani, Marwan A Bakarman, Saleh M Alqahtani, Maha S Alqahtani, Nadeem Shafique Butt, Emad M Salawati, Ahmad Alkatheri, Ahmad Azam Malik, Khaled Saad
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the foremost cause of blindness. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness of DR and its related risk factors among patients with DM in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with DM attending primary health care centers at the Ministry of Health in Jeddah. A structured, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on the sociodemographic and DM- and DR-related characteristics of the patients...
April 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sudhanshu Kumar Bharti, Supriya Krishnan, Ashwini Kumar, Awanish Kumar
Diabetes Mellitus, characterized by persistent hyperglycaemia, is a heterogeneous group of disorders of multiple aetiologies. It affects the human body at multiple organ levels thus making it difficult to follow a particular line of the treatment protocol and requires a multimodal approach. The increasing medical burden on patients with diabetes-related complications results in an enormous economic burden, which could severely impair global economic growth in the near future. This shows that today's healthcare system has conventionally been poorly equipped towards confronting the mounting impact of diabetes on a global scale and demands an urgent need for newer and better options...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Wesley Nuffer, Ashley Guesnier, Jennifer M Trujillo
There have been several new treatment approaches established for the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D), with treatment guidelines listing both glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and basal insulin therapies as considerations for patients who have failed to control their blood glucose with oral antidiabetic agents. New studies have highlighted the importance of initiating combination therapy earlier in the T2D disease process to avoid clinical inertia and prevent the long-term complications arising from uncontrolled diabetes...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Andrew S Bzowyckyj, Amanda M Stahnke
Objective: The objective of this study was to raise awareness of hypersensitivity reactions to human insulin analogs (HIAs) in insulin-naïve patients and encourage consistent and detailed reporting of HIA reactions. Data sources: A search of PubMed, MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts using the terms 'insulin' and 'hypersensitivity' was completed with English language, humans, and publication date after 1 January 1990 as limits. Study selection and data extraction: The initial search identified 598 articles...
February 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
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