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Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803793/sacubitril-valsartan-in-heart-failure-latest-evidence-and-place-in-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Edgardo Kaplinsky
Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain at high risk for HF progression and death. Sacubitril/valsartan (previously known as LCZ696) is a first-in-class medicine that contains a neprilysin (NEP) inhibitor (sacubitril) and an angiotensin II (Ang-II) receptor blocker (valsartan). NEP is an endopeptidase that metabolizes different vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides, bradykinin and Ang-II. In consequence, its inhibition increases mainly the levels of both, natriuretic peptides (promoting diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilatation) and Ang-II whose effects are blocked by the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan (reducing vasoconstriction and aldosterone release)...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803792/mepolizumab-for-severe-refractory-eosinophilic-asthma-evidence-to-date-and-clinical-potential
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Menzella, Mirco Lusuardi, Carla Galeone, Sofia Taddei, Nicola Facciolongo, Luigi Zucchi
Severe asthma is characterized by major impairment of quality of life, poor symptom control and frequent exacerbations. Inflammatory, clinical and causative factors identify different phenotypes and endotypes of asthma. In the last few years, new treatment options have allowed for targeted treatments according to the different phenotypes of the disease. To accurately select a specific treatment for each asthmatic variant, the identification of appropriate biomarkers is required. Eosinophilic asthma is a distinct phenotype characterized by thickening of the basement membrane and corticosteroid responsiveness...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583124/the-relationship-of-management-modality-in-saudi-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-to-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-%C3%AE-glutamyl-transferase-and-highly-sensitive-c-reactive-protein
#3
Suhad M Bahijri, Maimoona Ahmed, Khalid Al-Shali, Samia Bokhari, Amani Alhozali, Anwar Borai, Amani Gusti, Ghada Ajabnoor, Ahmed Alghamdi, Mohammed Asiri, Jaakko Tuomilehto
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among management modality, glycemic control, components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and serum levels of γ glutamyl transferase (GGT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Patients with T2DM, not suffering from diabetes complications, were recruited from outpatients clinics at two hospitals in Jeddah. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure (BP) were taken...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583123/antipsychotic-use-in-dementia-a-systematic-review-of-benefits-and-risks-from-meta-analyses
#4
Rajesh R Tampi, Deena J Tampi, Silpa Balachandran, Shilpa Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the data on the use of antipsychotics in individuals with dementia from meta-analyses. METHODS: We performed a literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane collaboration databases through 30 November, 2015 using the following keywords: 'antipsychotics', 'dementia' and 'meta-analysis'. The search was not restricted by the age of the patients or the language of the study. However, in the final analysis we only included studies involving patients that were published in English language journals or had official English translations...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583122/prescribing-attitudes-behaviors-and-opinions-regarding-metformin-for-patients-with-diabetes-a-focus-group-study
#5
Katy E Trinkley, Daniel C Malone, Jennifer A Nelson, Joseph J Saseen
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the reasons why metformin prescribing is suboptimal. METHODS: Two semi-structured focus groups with attitudinal questionnaires and a brief educational presentation were held in two US cities. Participants included providers (physicians, pharmacists, midlevel practitioners) caring for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in an ambulatory setting. Outcome measures included provider attitudes, behaviors and opinions regarding the use of metformin...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433311/ustekinumab-in-crohn-s-disease-evidence-to-date-and-place-in-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Tal Engel, Uri Kopylov
Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with uncertain etiology. Biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of CD but nonresponders remain a challenge. Ustekinumab is an interleukin 12/23p40 inhibitor that was recently found effective in treating CD. We reviewed the current literature regarding the efficacy of ustekinumab in treating CD and concluded that ustekinumab is a novel, promising and relatively safe agent for the treatment of moderate to severe CD. Additional data from randomized controlled studies and real-life cohorts are pending...
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433310/dimethyl-fumarate-in-multiple-sclerosis-latest-developments-evidence-and-place-in-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Ralf A Linker, Aiden Haghikia
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is one of the newer additions to the armamentarium of potent immunomodulators for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). After more than 2 years of real-world experience and more than 190,000 patients currently treated with DMF worldwide, it is a good timepoint to review the experience gathered so far and to re-evaluate the potential of this first-line oral multiple sclerosis (MS) drug. Post-hoc analyses of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, some comprising more than 6 years of drug exposure including patients from the clinical trials, and the overall notion in clinical practice widely confirm the good efficacy of DMF in RRMS...
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433309/h-p-acthar-gel-repository-corticotropin-injection-treatment-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-diabetes
#8
Christen Kutz
BACKGROUND: Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses can be complex in patients with concomitant diabetes. Corticosteroids and adrenocorticotropic hormones are known to cause alterations in glucose tolerance. Many patients have poor tolerability to therapy, necessitating alternative treatment options. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (H.P. Acthar Gel, repository corticotropin injection, Mallinckrodt ARD Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA) is currently indicated for the treatment of MS relapses...
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347365/corrigendum
#9
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/2040622315579059.].
May 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347364/current-and-future-treatment-options-for-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Claire Edmondson, Jane C Davies
Treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) has conventionally targeted downstream consequences of the defect such as mucus plugging and infection. More recently, significant advances have been made in treating the root cause of the disease, namely a defective CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. This review summarizes current pulmonary treatment options and highlights advances in research and development of new therapies.
May 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347363/patient-reported-functioning-in-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Waguih William IsHak, David M James, James Mirocha, Haidy Youssef, Gabriel Tobia, Sarah Pi, Katherine L Collison, Robert M Cohen
OBJECTIVES: Compared with the general population, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) report substantial deficits in their functioning that often go beyond the clinical resolution of depressive symptoms. This study examines the impact of MDD and its treatment on functioning. METHODS: From the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial, we analyzed complete data of 2280 adult outpatients with MDD at entry and exit points of each level of antidepressant treatment and again 12 months post treatment...
May 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347362/the-prevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-associated-with-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-version-5-defined-anxious-distress-specifier-in-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder-results-from-the-international-mood-disorders-collaborative-project
#12
Roger S McIntyre, Hanna O Woldeyohannes, Joanna K Soczynska, Maj Vinberg, Danielle S Cha, Yena Lee, Laura A Gallaugher, Roman S Dale, Mohammad T Alsuwaidan, Rodrigo B Mansur, David J Muzina, Andre Carvalho, Sidney Kennedy
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of and illness characteristics in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) with anxious distress specifier (ADS) enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project, which is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Canada and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. METHODS: Data from participants who met criteria for a current major depressive episode as part of MDD (n = 830) were included in this post hoc analysis...
May 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347361/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-as-hiv-prevention-in-the-uk
#13
Michael Brady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977282/gout-optimizing-treatment-to-achieve-a-disease-cure
#14
REVIEW
José Antonio Bernal, Neus Quilis, Mariano Andrés, Francisca Sivera, Eliseo Pascual
Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention...
March 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977281/opioid-induced-constipation-advances-and-clinical-guidance
#15
REVIEW
Alfred D Nelson, Michael Camilleri
Currently opioids are the most frequently used medications for chronic noncancer pain. Opioid-induced constipation is the most common adverse effect associated with prolonged use of opioids, having a major impact on quality of life. There is an increasing need to treat opioid-induced constipation. With the recent approval of medications for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, there are several therapeutic approaches. This review addresses the clinical presentation and diagnosis of opioid-induced constipation, barriers to its diagnosis, effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract, differential tolerance to opiates in different gastrointestinal organs, medications approved and in development for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, and a proposed clinical management algorithm for treating opioid-induced constipation in patients with noncancer pain...
March 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977280/new-perspectives-on-management-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Silvia Puglisi, Sebastiano Emanuele Torrisi, Virginia Vindigni, Riccardo Giuliano, Stefano Palmucci, Massimiliano Mulè, Carlo Vancheri
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive parenchymal lung disease characterized by a median survival of 3-5 years following diagnosis. The diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histopathological evaluation. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team is needed to reach the correct diagnosis. For a long time, supportive care and lung transplantation in selected cases, have been considered the only possible treatments for IPF. In the last decade many studies have investigated IPF pathogenesis, leading to an improved knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the disease and to the approval of two new drugs for IPF treatment (pirfenidone and nintedanib)...
March 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977279/the-glp-1-agonist-liraglutide-as-a-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#17
REVIEW
James Crane, Barbara McGowan
There is a global obesity epidemic that will continue to be a financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Tackling obesity through diet and exercise should always be the first intervention, but this has not proved to be effective for a large number of patients. Pharmacotherapeutic options have been limited and many previously available drugs have been withdrawn due to safety concerns. Currently, only bariatric surgery has the capability to induce both substantial and durable weight loss. This article briefly reviews the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity before focusing on the clinical trial evidence for the use of the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide as a weight loss agent and comparing its efficacy with other emerging drug therapies for obesity...
March 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770670/a-review-of-the-medical-treatment-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-in-the-21st-century
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Goode, Simon M Rushbrook
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that progresses to end-stage liver disease and cirrhosis. Recurrent biliary inflammation is thought to lead to dysplasia, and as such PSC confers a high risk of cholangiocarcinoma. PSC accounts for 10% of all UK liver transplants, although transplantation does not guarantee a cure with 20% recurrence in the graft. At present there are no effective medical treatment options for PSC, and trials of novel therapeutic agents are limited by the time taken to reach clinically significant endpoints with no well defined early surrogate markers for disease outcome...
January 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770669/ocular-itch-associated-with-allergic-conjunctivitis-latest-evidence-and-clinical-management
#19
REVIEW
Stacey Ackerman, Lisa M Smith, Paulo J Gomes
Allergic conjunctivitis is one of the most common allergic conditions worldwide. Its incidence is increasing due to changing climate, pollution, increased pollen loads, and the subject's heightened immunological sensitivity in response to these environmental changes. The pathophysiology predominantly involves immunoglobulin E-related mast-cell activation, with release of histamine and other mediators contributing to the propagation of the response by calling in other immune cells and further inflammation. This article presents the evolution of ocular allergy treatments, from vasoconstrictors, to antihistamines and mast-cell stabilizers, to the dual-acting agents, as well as corticosteroid and immunomodulatory options...
January 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770668/eosinophilic-airway-inflammation-role-in-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
REVIEW
Leena George, Christopher E Brightling
The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10-40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a sputum eosinophilia is associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and tailored strategies aimed to normalize sputum eosinophils reduce exacerbation frequency and severity...
January 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
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