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Interface Focus

James B Isbister, Akihiro Eguchi, Nasir Ahmad, Juan M Galeazzi, Mark J Buckley, Simon Stringer
We discuss a recently proposed approach to solve the classic feature-binding problem in primate vision that uses neural dynamics known to be present within the visual cortex. Broadly, the feature-binding problem in the visual context concerns not only how a hierarchy of features such as edges and objects within a scene are represented, but also the hierarchical relationships between these features at every spatial scale across the visual field. This is necessary for the visual brain to be able to make sense of its visuospatial world...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Guy Ben-Yosef, Shimon Ullman
Computational models of vision have advanced in recent years at a rapid rate, rivalling in some areas human-level performance. Much of the progress to date has focused on analysing the visual scene at the object level-the recognition and localization of objects in the scene. Human understanding of images reaches a richer and deeper image understanding both 'below' the object level, such as identifying and localizing object parts and sub-parts, as well as 'above' the object level, such as identifying object relations, and agents with their actions and interactions...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Benjamin Kunsberg, Daniel Holtmann-Rice, Emma Alexander, Steven Cholewiak, Roland Fleming, Steven W Zucker
Two dilemmas arise in inferring shape information from shading. First, depending on the rendering physics, images can change significantly with (even) small changes in lighting or viewpoint, while the percept frequently does not. Second, brightness variations can be induced by material effects-such as pigmentation-as well as by shading effects. Improperly interpreted, material effects would confound shading effects. We show how these dilemmas are coupled by reviewing recent developments in shape inference together with a role for colour in separating material from shading effects...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Jayati Banerjee, Helena S Azevedo
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2016.0138.].
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Maurice Fallon
In this article, we review methods for localization and situational awareness of biped and quadruped robotics. This type of robot is modelled as a free-floating mechanical system subject to external forces and constrained by whole-body distributed rigid contacts. Measurements of the state of the robot can be made using a variety of sensor information-such as kinematics (the sensing of the joint angles of the robot), contact force (pressure sensors in the robot's feet), accelerometers and gyroscopes as well as external sensors such as vision and LIDAR...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Kalanit Grill-Spector, Kevin S Weiner, Jesse Gomez, Anthony Stigliani, Vaidehi S Natu
A central goal in neuroscience is to understand how processing within the ventral visual stream enables rapid and robust perception and recognition. Recent neuroscientific discoveries have significantly advanced understanding of the function, structure and computations along the ventral visual stream that serve as the infrastructure supporting this behaviour. In parallel, significant advances in computational models, such as hierarchical deep neural networks (DNNs), have brought machine performance to a level that is commensurate with human performance...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
David H Brainard, Nicolas P Cottaris, Ana Radonjić
Perceived object colour and material help us to select and interact with objects. Because there is no simple mapping between the pattern of an object's image on the retina and its physical reflectance, our perceptions of colour and material are the result of sophisticated visual computations. A long-standing goal in vision science is to describe how these computations work, particularly as they act to stabilize perceived colour and material against variation in scene factors extrinsic to object surface properties, such as the illumination...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Junkyung Kim, Matthew Ricci, Thomas Serre
The advent of deep learning has recently led to great successes in various engineering applications. As a prime example, convolutional neural networks, a type of feedforward neural network, now approach human accuracy on visual recognition tasks like image classification and face recognition. However, here we will show that feedforward neural networks struggle to learn abstract visual relations that are effortlessly recognized by non-human primates, birds, rodents and even insects. We systematically study the ability of feedforward neural networks to learn to recognize a variety of visual relations and demonstrate that same-different visual relations pose a particular strain on these networks...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Thomas Stone, Michael Mangan, Antoine Wystrach, Barbara Webb
Visual memory is crucial to navigation in many animals, including insects. Here, we focus on the problem of visual homing, that is, using comparison of the view at a current location with a view stored at the home location to control movement towards home by a novel shortcut. Insects show several visual specializations that appear advantageous for this task, including almost panoramic field of view and ultraviolet light sensitivity, which enhances the salience of the skyline. We discuss several proposals for subsequent processing of the image to obtain the required motion information, focusing on how each might deal with the problem of yaw rotation of the current view relative to the home view...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Mary M Hayhoe, Jonathan Samir Matthis
The development of better eye and body tracking systems, and more flexible virtual environments have allowed more systematic exploration of natural vision and contributed a number of insights. In natural visually guided behaviour, humans make continuous sequences of sensory-motor decisions to satisfy current goals, and the role of vision is to provide the relevant information in order to achieve those goals. This paper reviews the factors that control gaze in natural visually guided actions such as locomotion, including the rewards and costs associated with the immediate behavioural goals, uncertainty about the state of the world and prior knowledge of the environment...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Graham D Finlayson
In computer vision, illumination is considered to be a problem that needs to be 'solved'. The colour cast due to illumination is removed to support colour-based image recognition and stable tracking (in and out of shadows), among other tasks. In this paper, I review historical and current algorithms for illumination estimation. In the classical approach, the illuminant colour is estimated by an ever more sophisticated analysis of simple image summary statistics often followed by a bias correction step. Bias correction is a function applied to the estimates made by a given illumination estimation algorithm to correct consistent errors in the estimations...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Michael Hopkins, Garibaldi Pineda-García, Petruţ A Bogdan, Steve B Furber
State-of-the-art computer vision systems use frame-based cameras that sample the visual scene as a series of high-resolution images. These are then processed using convolutional neural networks using neurons with continuous outputs. Biological vision systems use a quite different approach, where the eyes (cameras) sample the visual scene continuously, often with a non-uniform resolution, and generate neural spike events in response to changes in the scene. The resulting spatio-temporal patterns of events are then processed through networks of spiking neurons...
August 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Andrea Francesco Verre, Alessandro Faroni, Maria Iliut, Claudio Silva, Cristopher Muryn, Adam J Reid, Aravind Vijayaraghavan
There is urgent need to improve the clinical outcome of peripheral nerve injury. Many efforts are directed towards the fabrication of bioengineered conduits, which could deliver stem cells to the site of injury to promote and guide peripheral nerve regeneration. The aim of this study is to assess whether graphene and related nanomaterials can be useful in the fabrication of such conduits. A comparison is made between graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO substrates. Our results show that the graphene substrates are highly biocompatible, and the reduced GO substrates are more effective in increasing the gene expression of the biomolecules involved in the regeneration process compared to the other substrates studied...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Jakub Jakowiecki, Agnieszka Sztyler, Slawomir Filipek, Pingzuo Li, Karthik Raman, Natarajan Barathiraja, Seeram Ramakrishna, Jairam R Eswara, Ali Altaee, Adel O Sharif, Pulickel M Ajayan, Venkatesan Renugopalakrishnan
The aquaporin superfamily of hydrophobic integral membrane proteins constitutes water channels essential to the movement of water across the cell membrane, maintaining homeostatic equilibrium. During the passage of water between the extracellular and intracellular sides of the cell, aquaporins act as ultra-sensitive filters. Owing to their hydrophobic nature, aquaporins self-assemble in phospholipids. If a proper choice of lipids is made then the aquaporin biomimetic membrane can be used in the design of an artificial kidney...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Kai-Hung Yang, Alexander K Nguyen, Peter L Goering, Anirudha V Sumant, Roger J Narayan
Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) has been demonstrated to have attractive features for biomedical applications and can be combined with nanoporous membranes for applications in drug delivery systems, biosensing, immunoisolation and single molecule analysis. In this study, free-standing nanoporous UNCD membranes with pore sizes of 100 or 400 nm were fabricated by directly depositing ultrathin UNCD films on nanoporous silicon nitride membranes and then etching away silicon nitride using reactive ion etching...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Denver P Linklater, Vladimir A Baulin, Saulius Juodkazis, Elena P Ivanova
Growing interest in the bactericidal effect of graphene and graphene-derived nanomaterials has led to the investigation and effective publication of the bactericidal effects of the substratum, many of which present highly conflicting material. The nature of bacterial cell death on graphene bio-interfaces, therefore, remains poorly understood. Here, we review recent findings on the bactericidal effect of graphene and graphene-derived nanomaterials, and proposed mechanisms of cell inactivation, due to mechanical contact with graphene materials, including lipid extraction, physical damage to membranes and pore formation...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
F Bugli, M Cacaci, V Palmieri, R Di Santo, R Torelli, G Ciasca, M Di Vito, A Vitali, C Conti, M Sanguinetti, M De Spirito, M Papi
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for serious hospital infections worldwide and represents a global public health problem. Curcumin, the major constituent of turmeric, is effective against MRSA but only at cytotoxic concentrations or in combination with antibiotics. The major issue in curcumin-based therapies is the poor solubility of this hydrophobic compound and the cytotoxicity at high doses. In this paper, we describe the efficacy of a composite nanoparticle made of curcumin (CU) and graphene oxide (GO), hereafter GOCU, in MRSA infection treatment...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Rupy Kaur Matharu, Harshit Porwal, Lena Ciric, Mohan Edirisinghe
A novel class of ultra-thin fibres, which affect microbial growth, were explored. The microbial properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) fibres containing 2, 4 and 8 wt% of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were studied. GNPs were dispersed in a polymeric solution and processed using pressurized gyration. Electron microscopy was used to characterize GNP and fibre morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of beaded porous fibres. GNP concentration was found to dictate fibre morphology. As the GNP concentration increased, the average fibre diameter increased from 0...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
A De Sanctis, S Russo, M F Craciun, A Alexeev, M D Barnes, V K Nagareddy, C D Wright
Graphene-based materials are being widely explored for a range of biomedical applications, from targeted drug delivery to biosensing, bioimaging and use for antibacterial treatments, to name but a few. In many such applications, it is not graphene itself that is used as the active agent, but one of its chemically functionalized forms. The type of chemical species used for functionalization will play a key role in determining the utility of any graphene-based device in any particular biomedical application, because this determines to a large part its physical, chemical, electrical and optical interactions...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Arghya Narayan Banerjee
Graphene and its derivatives possess some intriguing properties, which generates tremendous interests in various fields, including biomedicine. The biomedical applications of graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted great interests over the last decade, and several groups have started working on this field around the globe. Because of the excellent biocompatibility, solubility and selectivity, graphene and its derivatives have shown great potential as biosensing and bio-imaging materials. Also, due to some unique physico-chemical properties of graphene and its derivatives, such as large surface area, high purity, good bio-functionalizability, easy solubility, high drug loading capacity, capability of easy cell membrane penetration, etc...
June 6, 2018: Interface Focus
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