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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920901/preface-to-multifunctional-nanostructures-for-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-diseases
#1
Nguyễn T K Thanh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920900/polyelectrolyte-coating-on-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-interface-between-magnetic-core-and-biorelevant-media
#2
Etelka Tombácz, Katalin Farkas, Imre Földesi, Márta Szekeres, Erzsébet Illés, Ildikó Y Tóth, Daniel Nesztor, Tamás Szabó
Nanoparticles do not exist in thermodynamical equilibrium because of high surface free energy, thus they have only kinetic stability. Spontaneous changes can be delayed by designed surface coating. In biomedical applications, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) require an optimized coating in order to fulfil the expectation of medicine regulatory agencies and ultimately that of biocompatibility. In this work, we show the high surface reactivity of naked SPIONs due to ≡Fe-OH sites, which can react with H(+)/OH(-) to form pH- and ionic strength-dependent charges...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920899/diagnosing-clean-margins-through-raman-spectroscopy-in-human-and-animal-mammary-tumour-surgery-a-short-review
#3
REVIEW
I A Birtoiu, C Rizea, D Togoe, R M Munteanu, C Micsa, M I Rusu, M Tautan, L Braic, L O Scoicaru, A Parau, N D Becherescu-Barbu, M V Udrea, A Tonetto, R Notonier, C E A Grigorescu
Breast cancer frequency in human and other mammal female populations has worryingly increased lately. The acute necessity for taxonomy of the aetiological factors along with seeking for new diagnostic tools and therapy procedures aimed at reducing mortality have yielded in an intense research effort worldwide. Surgery is a regular method to counteract extensive development of breast cancer and prevent metastases provided that negative surgical margins are achieved. This highly technical challenge requires fast, extremely sensitive and selective discrimination between malignant and benign tissues even down to molecular level...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920898/quantum-dots-dna-bioconjugates-synthesis-to-applications
#4
REVIEW
Anusuya Banerjee, Thomas Pons, Nicolas Lequeux, Benoit Dubertret
Semiconductor nanoparticles particularly quantum dots (QDs) are interesting alternatives to organic fluorophores for a range of applications such as biosensing, imaging and therapeutics. Addition of a programmable scaffold such as DNA to QDs further expands the scope and applicability of these hybrid nanomaterials in biology. In this review, the most important stages of preparation of QD-DNA conjugates for specific applications in biology are discussed. Special emphasis is laid on (i) the most successful strategies to disperse QDs in aqueous media, (ii) the range of different conjugation with detailed discussion about specific merits and demerits in each case, and (iii) typical applications of these conjugates in the context of biology...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920897/impact-of-biopolymer-matrices-on-relaxometric-properties-of-contrast-agents
#5
Alfonso Maria Ponsiglione, Maria Russo, Paolo Antonio Netti, Enza Torino
Properties of water molecules at the interface between contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging and macromolecules could have a valuable impact on the effectiveness of metal chelates. Recent studies, indeed, demonstrated that polymer architectures could influence CAs' relaxivity by modifying the correlation times of the metal chelate. However, an understanding of the physico-chemical properties of polymer/CA systems is necessary to improve the efficiency of clinically used CAs, still exhibiting low relaxivity...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920896/assessing-the-hyperthermic-properties-of-magnetic-heterostructures-the-case-of-gold-iron-oxide-composites
#6
Elvira Fantechi, Paula M Castillo, Erika Conca, Francesca Cugia, Claudio Sangregorio, Maria Francesca Casula
Gold-iron oxide composites were obtained by in situ reduction of an Au(III) precursor by an organic reductant (either potassium citrate or tiopronin) in a dispersion of preformed iron oxide ultrasmall magnetic (USM) nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis and mid-infrared spectroscopy show the successful deposition of gold domains on the preformed magnetic nanoparticles, and the occurrence of either citrate or tiopronin as surface coating. The potential of the USM@Au nanoheterostructures as heat mediators for therapy through magnetic fluid hyperthermia was determined by calorimetric measurements under sample irradiation by an alternating magnetic field with intensity and frequency within the safe values for biomedical use...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920895/organosilane-functionalization-of-nanostructured-indium-tin-oxide-films
#7
R Pruna, F Palacio, M Martínez, O Blázquez, S Hernández, B Garrido, M López
Fabrication and organosilane-functionalization and characterization of nanostructured ITO electrodes are reported. Nanostructured ITO electrodes were obtained by electron beam evaporation, and a subsequent annealing treatment was selectively performed to modify their crystalline state. An increase in geometrical surface area in comparison with thin-film electrodes area was observed by atomic force microscopy, implying higher electroactive surface area for nanostructured ITO electrodes and thus higher detection levels...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920894/recent-advances-in-the-preparation-and-application-of-multifunctional-iron-oxide-and-liposome-based-nanosystems-for-multimodal-diagnosis-and-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Marzia Marciello, Juan Pellico, Irene Fernandez-Barahona, Fernando Herranz, Jesus Ruiz-Cabello, Marco Filice
Nowadays, thanks to the successful discoveries in the biomedical field achieved in the last two decades, a deeper understanding about the complexity of mechanistic aspects of different pathological processes has been obtained. As a consequence, even the standard therapeutic protocols have undergone a vast redesign. In fact, the awareness about the necessity to progress towards a combined multitherapy in order to potentially increase the final healing chances has become a reality. One of the crucial elements of this novel approach is that large amounts of detailed information are highly needed and in vivo imaging techniques represent one of the most powerful tools to visualize and monitor the pathological state of the patient...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920893/antibody-drug-conjugates-and-other-nanomedicines-the-frontier-of-gynaecological-cancer-treatment
#9
REVIEW
David Howard, Jetzabel Garcia-Parra, Gareth D Healey, Cynthia Amakiri, Lavinia Margarit, Lewis W Francis, Deyarina Gonzalez, R Steven Conlan
Gynaecological cancers: malignancies of the cervix, uterus, ovaries, vagina and vulva, are responsible for over 1.1 million new cancer cases and almost half a million deaths annually. Ovarian cancer in particular is difficult to treat due to often being diagnosed at a late stage, and the incidence of uterine and vulvar malignancies are both on the rise. The field of nanomedicine is beginning to introduce drugs into the clinic for oncological applications exemplified by the liposomal drugs, Doxil and Myocet, the nanoparticle, Abraxane and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), Kadcyla and Adcetris...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920892/surface-modification-and-cellular-uptake-evaluation-of-au-coated-ni80fe20-nanodiscs-for-biomedical-applications
#10
Gabriele Barrera, Loredana Serpe, Federica Celegato, Marco Coїsson, Katia Martina, Roberto Canaparo, Paola Tiberto
A nanofabrication technique based on self-assembling of polystyrene nanospheres is used to obtain magnetic Ni80Fe20 nanoparticles with a disc shape. The free-standing nanodiscs (NDs) have diameter and thickness of about 630 nm and 30 nm, respectively. The versatility of fabrication technique allows one to cover the ND surface with a protective gold layer with a thickness of about 5 nm. Magnetization reversal has been studied by room-temperature hysteresis loop measurements in water-dispersed free-standing NDs...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920891/working-principle-and-application-of-magnetic-separation-for-biomedical-diagnostic-at-high-and-low-field-gradients
#11
REVIEW
Sim Siong Leong, Swee Pin Yeap, JitKang Lim
Magnetic separation is a versatile technique used in sample preparation for diagnostic purpose. For such application, an external magnetic field is applied to drive the separation of target entity (e.g. bacteria, viruses, parasites and cancer cells) from a complex raw sample in order to ease the subsequent task(s) for disease diagnosis. This separation process not only can be achieved via the utilization of high magnetic field gradient, but also, in most cases, low magnetic field gradient with magnitude less than 100 T m(-1) is equally feasible...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920890/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-equipped-with-surface-nanovalves-for-ph-controlled-liberation-of-doxorubicin
#12
N V Roik, L A Belyakova
Silica carriers equipped with molecular and supramolecular pH-sensitive nanovalves were designed by combination of sol-gel synthesis and selective postsynthetic modification. Mesoporous structure of synthesized materials was characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption, small-angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Chemical immobilization of N-[N'-(N'-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]aminoalkyl groups was confirmed by IR spectral and chemical analyses of surface layer. Loading and release behaviour of synthesized drug carriers was studied in phosphate buffer solutions with pH 5...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708767/progress-and-perspectives-in-signal-transduction-actin-dynamics-and-movement-at-the-cell-and-tissue-level-lessons-from-dictyostelium
#13
REVIEW
Till Bretschneider, Hans G Othmer, Cornelis J Weijer
Movement of cells and tissues is a basic biological process that is used in development, wound repair, the immune response to bacterial invasion, tumour formation and metastasis, and the search for food and mates. While some cell movement is random, directed movement stimulated by extracellular signals is our focus here. This involves a sequence of steps in which cells first detect extracellular chemical and/or mechanical signals via membrane receptors that activate signal transduction cascades and produce intracellular signals...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708766/hybrid-vertex-midline-modelling-of-elongated-plant-organs
#14
John A Fozard, Malcolm J Bennett, John R King, Oliver E Jensen
We describe a method for the simulation of the growth of elongated plant organs, such as seedling roots. By combining a midline representation of the organ on a tissue scale and a vertex-based representation on the cell scale, we obtain a multiscale method, which is able to both simulate organ growth and incorporate cell-scale processes. Equations for the evolution of the midline are obtained, which depend on the cell-wall properties of individual cells through appropriate averages over the vertex-based representation...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708765/prediction-of-traction-forces-of-motile-cells
#15
Clément Roux, Alain Duperray, Valérie M Laurent, Richard Michel, Valentina Peschetola, Claude Verdier, Jocelyn Étienne
When crawling on a flat substrate, living cells exert forces on it via adhesive contacts, enabling them to build up tension within their cytoskeleton and to change shape. The measurement of these forces has been made possible by traction force microscopy (TFM), a technique which has allowed us to obtain time-resolved traction force maps during cell migration. This cell 'footprint' is, however, not sufficient to understand the details of the mechanics of migration, that is how cytoskeletal elements (respectively, adhesion complexes) are put under tension and reinforce or deform (respectively, mature and/or unbind) as a result...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708764/comparison-of-cell-migration-mechanical-strategies-in-three-dimensional-matrices-a-computational-study
#16
Jie Zhu, Alex Mogilner
Cell migration on a two-dimensional flat surface has been extensively studied and is generally characterized by a front-protrusion-rear-contraction process. In a three-dimensional (3D) environment, on the other hand, cells adopt multiple migration strategies depending on the cell type and the properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). By using computer simulations, we find that these migration strategies can be classified by various spatial-temporal dynamics of actin protrusion, actin-myosin contraction and actin-ECM adhesion...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708763/multimodality-imaging-and-mathematical-modelling-of-drug-delivery-to-glioblastomas
#17
Ahmed Boujelben, Michael Watson, Steven McDougall, Yi-Fen Yen, Elizabeth R Gerstner, Ciprian Catana, Thomas Deisboeck, Tracy T Batchelor, David Boas, Bruce Rosen, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Mark A J Chaplain
Patients diagnosed with glioblastoma, an aggressive brain tumour, have a poor prognosis, with a median overall survival of less than 15 months. Vasculature within these tumours is typically abnormal, with increased tortuosity, dilation and disorganization, and they typically exhibit a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although it has been hypothesized that the 'normalization' of the vasculature resulting from anti-angiogenic therapies could improve drug delivery through improved blood flow, there is also evidence that suggests that the restoration of BBB integrity might limit the delivery of therapeutic agents and hence their effectiveness...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708762/review-on-experiment-based-two-and-three-dimensional-models-for-wound-healing
#18
REVIEW
Daphne Weihs, Amit Gefen, Fred J Vermolen
Traumatic and chronic wounds are a considerable medical challenge that affects many populations and their treatment is a monetary and time-consuming burden in an ageing society to the medical systems. Because wounds are very common and their treatment is so costly, approaches to reveal the responses of a specific wound type to different medical procedures and treatments could accelerate healing and reduce patient suffering. The effects of treatments can be forecast using mathematical modelling that has the predictive power to quantify the effects of induced changes to the wound-healing process...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708761/collective-migration-under-hydrodynamic-interactions-a-computational-approach
#19
W Marth, A Voigt
We consider a generic model for cell motility. Even if a comprehensive understanding of cell motility remains elusive, progress has been achieved in its modelling using a whole-cell physical model. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility, actin polymerization, actin-myosin dynamics and substrate mediated adhesion (if applicable), and combines them with steric cell-cell and hydrodynamic interactions. The model predicts the onset of collective cell migration, which emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions of neighbouring cells...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708760/local-modulation-of-chemoattractant-concentrations-by-single-cells-dissection-using-a-bulk-surface-computational-model
#20
J A Mackenzie, M Nolan, R H Insall
Chemoattractant gradients are usually considered in terms of sources and sinks that are independent of the chemotactic cell. However, recent interest has focused on 'self-generated' gradients, in which cell populations create their own local gradients as they move. Here, we consider the interplay between chemoattractants and single cells. To achieve this, we extend a recently developed computational model to incorporate breakdown of extracellular attractants by membrane-bound enzymes. Model equations are parametrized, using the published estimates from Dictyostelium cells chemotaxing towards cyclic AMP...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
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