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Anatomy & Cell Biology

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[This corrects the article on p. 79 in vol. 51, PMID: 29984051.].
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Ji Hyun Kim, Zhe Wu Jin, Gen Murakami, Ok Hee Chai, José Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
Persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is a common anomaly of the venous system. Although candidates for future PRUV were expected to occur more frequently in earlier specimens, evaluation of serial horizontal sections from 58 embryos and fetuses of gestational age 5-7 weeks found that only two of these embryos and fetuses were candidates for anomalies. In a specimen, a degenerating right umbilical vein (UV) joined the thick left UV in a narrow peritoneal space between the liver and abdominal cavity, and in the other specimen, a degenerating left UV joined a thick right UV in the abdominal wall near the liver...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Eleni Panagouli, Gregory Tsoucalas, Theodoros Papaioannou, Aliki Fiska, Dionysios Venieratos, Panagiotis Skandalakis
The aortic arch may present a plethora of anatomical variations, which my cause a cluster of complications in interventional procedures in surgery and angiography. We present a rare case of a common origin of both the common carotids arteries from the brachiocephalic trunk (anonymous artery), with the left common carotid artery emerging from the initial portion of it, forming a small common trunk. The great importance towards an excellent knowledge of the topographical aortic arch anatomy is stressed out.
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Gregory Tsoucalas, Eleni Panagouli, Aliki Fiska, Theodoros Troupis, Dionysios Venieratos
The profunda femoris artery (PFA) represents the first and largest branch of the femoral artery in the thigh. A series of anatomical variations are reported, mostly concerning its point of origin and its altered trajectories within the lower limb. We present a rare case of a double PFA, where each separate branch followed the expected arterial pattern. Our case aim to alert surgeons and radiologists for the possibility to encounter an unexpected vascular alternation. Knowledge of topographical anatomy of the PFA and its variations is essential for possible complications after interventional procedures to be avoided...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Satheesha B Nayak, Ashwini P Aithal, Abhinitha Padavinangadi, Gayathri Prabhu
Gallbladder shows frequent variations in position, shape, interior, and its duct system. These variations may go unnoticed lifelong; however, they may predispose it for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. We observed a double pouched gallbladder in an adult male cadaver. The gallbladder was folded to have a sigmoid shape. It had two broad pouches: anterior and posterior and a narrow isthmus in between. Its anterior pouch was covered by peritoneum, whereas the posterior pouch was covered by extrahepatic connective tissue...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Bhagyam Valappil, Lalu Krishna, Ranjith Sreedharan, Ashwija Shetty
Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly usually presented with triad characteristic feature of deficient abdominal muscles, cryptorchidism, and urinary tract anomalies. Here, we present a case with all the characteristic features of prune belly and the associated secondary features which were observed on detailed dissection and exploration of the fetus.
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Vasant Shinde, Hyejin Lee, Yogesh Yadav, Pranjali Waghmare, Nilesh Jadhav, Jong Ha Hong, Yong Jun Kim, Dong Hoon Shin
The Harappan Civilization, one of the earliest complex societies in the world, flourished on the Indian subcontinent. Although many additional Harappan settlements and cemeteries have been discovered and investigated, no coupled burials at Harappan cemeteries have been reported to date. In 2013-2016, we excavated the cemetery of the Rakhigarhi site (Haryana), the largest city of the Harappan Civilization. At the site, we found a grave that turned out to be a coupled (joint) burial of the primary type. This report is the first anthropologically confirmed case of coupled burial from a Harappan cemetery...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Sang Pil Yoon, Jinu Kim
The hallmark of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury is the necrotic cell death in the kidney proximal tubules. However, an effective approach to limit cisplatin nephrotoxicity remains unknown. Spermidine is a polyamine that protects against oxidative stress and necrosis in aged yeasts, and the present study found that exogenous spermidine markedly attenuated tubular necrosis and kidney dysfunction, but not apoptosis, during cisplatin nephrotoxicity. In addition, exogenous spermidine potently inhibited oxidative/nitrative DNA damage, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation and ATP depletion after cisplatin injection...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Somayeh Niknazar, Shahram Darabi, Navid Ahmady Roozbahany, Ali Noori-Zadeh, Seyed Kamran Ghoreishi, Maryam Sadat Khoramgah, Yousef Sadeghi
Spinal cord injury is a significant cause of motor dysfunctions. There is no definite cure for it, and most of the therapeutic modalities are only symptomatic treatment. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effectiveness of stem cell therapy in the treatment of the spinal cord injuries in animal models was studied and evaluated. A systematic search through medical databases by using appropriate keywords was conducted. The relevant reports were reviewed in order to find out cases in which inclusion and exclusion criteria had been fulfilled...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla, Humoud Al Dhuhli, Ahmed Al Abri, Ahmed Salmi, Sathish Kumar Jayapal, Crosetto Sara, Sanjay Jaju
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is characterized by calcification of different entheseal sites including the anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. There is no documented information about DISH in Oman. This study determined the prevalence of DISH and associated factors among elderly subjects in a national tertiary care referral hospital in Oman. This retrospective study reviewed chest X-rays of all patients aged more than 50 years, referred to the radiology department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in the year 2016, based on the Resnick's criteria...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Ashraf Youssef Nasr, Mohammad El Tahlawi
This study was carried out to investigate the morphometric parameters and variations of coronary ostia in the hearts of adult human cadavers and coronary angiographs. The hearts of 60 adult human cadavers and 400 coronary angiographs were used in this study. The root of the aorta was carefully dissected to clear aortic sinuses, coronary ostia, and sinutubular junction (STJ). Number, locations, internal diameter distance between coronary ostia and their corresponding STJ, sinus bottom, and valve commissures were investigated...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Marjan Ghorbani Anarkooli, Sara Sayad Fathi, Hassan Moladoust, Ebrahim Zaeimi, Mohammad Hadi Bahadori, Ebrahim Nasiri
The aim of medical education is to teach the essence of practical skills alongside with the theoretical knowledge. Teaching anatomy, as the center of medical education, should be leading to use this knowledge as a skill during clinical period. According to the rising numbers of dentistry faculties' experiences, inappropriate education results in misguidance during clinic. Thus, this study was conducted to find about the pre-clinical and clinical dentistry students' points of view on the helpfulness of anatomy classes in achieving clinical goals...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Masahito Yamamoto, Jőrg Wilting, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Shin-Ichi Abe
In and after the third trimester, the lung surface is likely to become smooth to facilitate respiratory movements. However, there are no detailed descriptions as to when and how the lung surface becomes regular. According to our observations of 33 fetuses at 9-16 weeks of gestation (crown-rump length [CRL], 39-125 mm), the lung surface, especially its lateral (costal) surface, was comparatively rough due to rapid branching and outward growing of bronchioli at the pseudoglandular phase of lung development. The pulmonary pleura was thin and, beneath the surface mesothelium, no or little mesenchymal tissue was detectable...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Celiac trunk is the artery of foregut, arising from the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 vertebral body. It extends approximately 1.5 to 2 cm horizontally forwards before dividing into three branches: left gastric, common hepatic, and splenic arteries. Out of the three ventral branches of abdominal aorta, celiac trunk is more prone to have variations. During routine dissection of abdomen for undergraduate students we found some rare variations in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk. Absence of celiac trunk with hepatomesenteric trunk, quadrifurcation with dorsal pancreatic artery arising from it, quadrifurcation with middle colic artery arising from it, left inferior phrenic artery arising from celiac trunk, highly tortuous splenic artery supplying distal 1/3rd of transverse colon and hepatosplenic trunk...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Satheesha B Nayak
The objective of this case report is to alert the cardiologists and radiologists about the possibility of an extremely rare trifurcation of the right coronary artery. During dissection classes, an early trifurcation of the right coronary artery (RCA) was observed in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 65 years. The RCA had a normal origin from the anterior aortic sinus. After a course of just 2 mm, it trifurcated into a conus artery, a huge right ventricular branch and then a main continuation of the RCA...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Satheesha B Nayak, Naveen Kumar, Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla, Srilatha Parampalli Srinivas, Narendra Pamidi, Surekha D Shetty
Osteochondromas develop as cartilaginous nodules in the periosteum of bones. They are the commonest benign tumors of the skeleton, generally observed in the long bones. Rarely, they are also found in the axial skeleton, flat bones of skull and facial bones. During a regular dissection, we came across a solitary osteochondroma in posterior surface of the body of the right pubic bone. Histopathology of the bony projection confirmed the typical features of the osteochondroma. The symptomatic osteochondromas are usually evaluated during radiographic examination...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Yoonsoo Park, Hyun-Jin Tae, Jeong Hwi Cho, In-Shik Kim, Taek Geun Ohk, Chan Woo Park, Joong Bum Moon, Myoung Cheol Shin, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae-Chul Lee, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Seok Hoon Kang, Moo-Ho Won, Jun Hwi Cho
Cardiac arrest (CA) is sudden loss of heart function and abrupt stop in effective blood flow to the body. The patients who initially achieve return of spontaneous circulation (RoSC) after CA have low survival rate. It has been known that multiorgan dysfunctions after RoSC are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most previous studies have focused on the heart and brain in RoSC after CA. Therefore, the aim of this research was to perform serological, physiological, and histopathology study in the lung and to determine whether or how pulmonary dysfunction is associated with low survival rate after CA...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Theresa Titilayo Afolabi, Ahmad Bolakale Abdulwahab, Adelaja Abdulazeez Akinlolu
Cuprizone is a neurotoxin with copper-chelating ability used in animal model of multiple sclerosis in which oxidative stress has been documented as one of the cascade in the pathogenesis. Moringa oleifera is a phytomedicinal plant with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. This study aimed at evaluating the ameliorative capability of M. oleifera in cuprizone-induced behavioral and histopathological alterations in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of Wistar rats. Four groups of rats were treated with normal saline, cuprizone, M...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Yuganti Prabhakar Vaidya, Aditya M Tarnekar, Moreshwar R Shende
The purpose of this study was to ascertain change in structure of mucosa of small intestine, if any, in small intestine of Swiss albino mice as an effect of chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-Ibuprofen. Longitudinal study conducted on 46 adult Swiss albino mice, 23 as experimental and 23 as control. Ibuprofen was given at a dose of 40 µg/g body weight per day for 6 weeks by intragastric route in experimental group of mice while control group of mice received same volume of distilled water...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Satoshi Ishizuka, Zhe Wu Jin, Masahito Yamamoto, Gen Murakami, Takeshi Takayama, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Abe
CD57 (synonyms: Leu-7, HNK-1) is a well-known marker of nerve elements including the conductive system of the heart, as well as natural killer cells. In lung specimens from 12 human fetuses at 10-34 weeks of gestation, we have found incidentally that segmental, subsegmental, and more peripheral arteries strongly expressed CD57. Capillaries near developing alveoli were often or sometimes positive. The CD57-positive tissue elements within intrapulmonary arteries seemed to be the endothelium, internal elastic lamina, and smooth muscle layer, which corresponded to tissue positive for a DAKO antibody reactive with smooth muscle actin we used...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
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