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Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777394/biomechanical-impact-of-wrong-positioning-of-a-dedicated-stent-for-coronary-bifurcations-a-virtual-bench-testing-study
#1
Claudio Chiastra, Maik J Grundeken, Carlos Collet, Wei Wu, Joanna J Wykrzykowska, Giancarlo Pennati, Gabriele Dubini, Francesco Migliavacca
The treatment of coronary bifurcations is challenging for interventional cardiologists. The Tryton stent (Tryton Medical, Inc., USA) is one of the few devices specifically designed for coronary bifurcations that underwent large clinical trials. Although the manufacturer provides specific recommendations to position the stent in the bifurcation side branch (SB) according to four radio-opaque markers under angiographic guidance, wrong device positioning may accidentally occur. In this study, the virtual bench testing approach was used to investigate the impact of wrong positioning of the Tryton stent in coronary bifurcations in terms of geometrical and biomechanical criteria...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761409/the-roles-of-matrix-stiffness-and-%C3%A3-catenin-signaling-in-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-aortic-valve-endothelial-cells
#2
Aileen Zhong, Zahra Mirzaei, Craig A Simmons
Valve stiffening is a hallmark of aortic valve stenosis caused by excess extracellular matrix accumulation by myofibroblasts. We aimed to elucidate whether matrix stiffness regulates endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of adult valvular endothelial cells (VECs) to myofibroblasts as a mechanism to further promote valve fibrosis. In addition, we specifically examined the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the development of myofibroblasts during EndMT, as Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in EndMT during heart development, is reactivated in valve disease, and is required for mechanically-regulated myofibrogenesis of valve interstitial cells...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761408/parametric-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-cardiac-motion-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Narjes Benameur, Enrico Gianluca Caiani, Younes Arous, Nejmeddine Ben Abdallah, Tarek Kraiem
The assessment of wall motion abnormalities such as hypokinesia or dyskinesia and the identification of their extent as well as their degree of severity allow an accurate evaluation of several ischemic heart diseases and an early diagnosis of heart failure. These dysfunctions are usually revealed by a drop of contraction indicating a regional hypokinesia or a total absence of the wall motion in case of akinesia. The discrimination between these contraction abnormalities plays also a significant role in the therapeutic decision through the differentiation between the infarcted zones, which have lost their contractile function, and the stunned areas that still retain viable myocardial tissues...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761407/editorial-special-issue-on-heart-valve-mechanobiology-new-insights-into-mechanical-regulation-of-valve-disease-and-regeneration
#4
EDITORIAL
Craig A Simmons, Hanjoong Jo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700783/modeling-right-ventricle-failure-after-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-device-a-biventricular-finite-element-and-lumped-parameter-analysis
#5
Francesco Scardulla, Valentina Agnese, Giuseppe Romano, Gabriele Di Gesaro, Sergio Sciacca, Diego Bellavia, Francesco Clemenza, Michele Pilato, Salvatore Pasta
The risk of right ventricle (RV) failure remains a major contraindication for continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation in patients with heart failure. It is therefore critical to identify the patients who will benefit from early intervention to avoid adverse outcomes. We sought to advance the computational modeling description of the mechanisms underlying RV failure in LVAD-supported patients. RV failure was studied by computational modeling of hemodynamic and cardiac mechanics using lumped-parameter and biventricular finite element (FE) analysis...
April 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700782/fabrication-and-testing-of-electrospun-polyurethane-blended-with-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-vascular-graft-applications
#6
Ranjeeta Subramaniam, Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan
In this study, a small vascular graft based on polyurethane (PU) blended with chitosan (Ch) nanoparticles was fabricated using electrospinning technique. Initially, the chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized using ionic gelation method. UV-Vis spectrophotometer confirmed the presence of synthesized Ch nanoparticles by exhibiting absorption peak at 288 nm and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the existence of the chitosan. Further, the synthesized Ch nanoparticles showed size diameter in the range of 134 ± 58 nm as measured using ImageJ...
April 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675697/computational-fluid-dynamics-assessment-associated-with-transcatheter-heart-valve-prostheses-a-position-paper-of-the-iso-working-group
#7
REVIEW
Zhenglun Alan Wei, Simon Johannes Sonntag, Milan Toma, Shelly Singh-Gryzbon, Wei Sun
The governing international standard for the development of prosthetic heart valves is International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 5840. This standard requires the assessment of the thrombus potential of transcatheter heart valve substitutes using an integrated thrombus evaluation. Besides experimental flow field assessment and ex vivo flow testing, computational fluid dynamics is a critical component of this integrated approach. This position paper is intended to provide and discuss best practices for the setup of a computational model, numerical solving, post-processing, data evaluation and reporting, as it relates to transcatheter heart valve substitutes...
April 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654509/realistic-vascular-replicator-for-tavr-procedures
#8
Oren M Rotman, Brandon Kovarovic, Chander Sadasivan, Luis Gruberg, Baruch B Lieber, Danny Bluestein
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an over-the-wire procedure for treatment of severe aortic stenosis (AS). TAVR valves are conventionally tested using simplified left heart simulators (LHS). While those provide baseline performance reliably, their aortic root geometries are far from the anatomical in situ configuration, often overestimating the valves' performance. We report on a novel benchtop patient-specific arterial replicator designed for testing TAVR and training interventional cardiologists in the procedure...
April 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651685/cardiogoniometry-compared-to-fractional-flow-reserve-at-identifying-physiologically-significant-coronary-stenosis-the-cardioflow-study
#9
Oliver I Brown, Andrew L Clark, Raj Chelliah, Benjamin J Davison, Adam N Mather, Michael S Cunnington, Joseph John, Albert Alahmar, Richard Oliver, Konstantinos Aznaouridis, Angela Hoye
Cardiogoniometry (CGM) is method of 3-dimensional electrocardiographic assessment which has been shown to identify patients with angiographically defined, stable coronary artery disease (CAD). However, angiographic evidence of CAD, does not always correlate to physiologically significant disease. The aim of our study was to assess the ability of CGM to detect physiologically significant coronary stenosis defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR). In a tertiary cardiology centre, elective patients with single vessel CAD were enrolled into a prospective double blinded observational study...
April 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603061/aiding-the-detection-of-qrs-complex-in-ecg-signals-by-detecting-s-peaks-independently
#10
Pooja Sabherwal, Latika Singh, Monika Agrawal
In this paper, a novel algorithm for the accurate detection of QRS complex by combining the independent detection of R and S peaks, using fusion algorithm is proposed. R peak detection has been extensively studied and is being used to detect the QRS complex. Whereas, S peaks, which is also part of QRS complex can be independently detected to aid the detection of QRS complex. In this paper, we suggest a method to first estimate S peak from raw ECG signal and then use them to aid the detection of QRS complex...
March 30, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589332/the-mechanical-characterisation-of-bovine-embolus-analogues-under-various-loading-conditions
#11
F Malone, E McCarthy, P Delassus, P Fahy, J Kennedy, A J Fagan, L Morris
Embolus Analogues (EAs) can provide understanding of the mechanical characteristics of blood clots of cardiac origin. Bovine EAs (n = 29) were fabricated with varying concentrations of thrombin (0-20 NIHU/ml blood). Histological staining confirmed that EA composition compared sufficiently with human samples reported in literature. EAs were mechanically described under seven testing conditions: tensile, compression, shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWE), parallel plate rheometry, indentation, creep and relaxation...
March 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582244/a-comparison-of-five-algorithms-for-fetal-magnetocardiography-signal-extraction
#12
Diana Escalona-Vargas, Hau-Tieng Wu, Martin G Frasch, Hari Eswaran
Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) provides accurate and reliable measurements of electrophysiological events in the fetal heart and is capable of studying fetuses with congenital heart diseases. A variety of techniques exist to extract the fMCG signal with the demand for non-invasively obtained fetal cardiac information. To the best of our knowledge, there is no comparative study published in the field as to how the various extraction algorithms perform. We perform a comparative study of the ability of five methods to extract the fMCG using real biomagnetic signals, two of those methods are applied to real fMCG data for the first time...
March 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560585/three-dimensional-strain-measurements-of-a-tubular-elastic-model-using-tomographic-particle-image-velocimetry
#13
Azuma Takahashi, Xiaodong Zhu, Yusuke Aoyama, Mitsuo Umezu, Kiyotaka Iwasaki
The evaluation of strain induced in a blood vessel owing to contact with a medical device is of significance to examine the causes leading to vascular injury and rupture. The development of a method to assess strain in largely deformed elastic materials is expected. This study's scope was to measure strain in deformed tubular elastic mock vessels using tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV), and to show the applicability of this measurement method by comparing the results with data derived from a finite element analysis (FEA)...
March 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549620/efficient-computational-modeling-of-human-ventricular-activation-and-its-electrocardiographic-representation-a-sensitivity-study
#14
Jonathan P Cranford, Thomas J O'Hara, Christopher T Villongco, Omar M Hafez, Robert C Blake, Joseph Loscalzo, Jean-Luc Fattebert, David F Richards, Xiaohua Zhang, James N Glosli, Andrew D McCulloch, David E Krummen, Felice C Lightstone, Sergio E Wong
Patient-specific models of the ventricular myocardium, combined with the computational power to run rapid simulations, are approaching the level where they could be used for personalized cardiovascular medicine. A major remaining challenge is determining model parameters from available patient data, especially for models of the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs): the sites of initial ventricular electrical activation. There are no non-invasive methods for localizing PMJs in patients, and the relationship between the standard clinical ECG and PMJ model parameters is underexplored...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532332/experimental-assessment-of-flow-fields-associated-with-heart-valve-prostheses-using-particle-image-velocimetry-piv-recommendations-for-best-practices
#15
REVIEW
Vrishank Raghav, Sudeep Sastry, Neelakantan Saikrishnan
Experimental flow field characterization is a critical component of the assessment of the hemolytic and thrombogenic potential of heart valve substitutes, thus it is important to identify best practices for these experimental techniques. This paper presents a brief review of commonly used flow assessment techniques such as Particle image velocimetry (PIV), Laser doppler velocimetry, and Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and a comparison of these methodologies. In particular, recommendations for setting up planar PIV experiments such as recommended imaging instrumentation, acquisition and data processing are discussed in the context of heart valve flows...
March 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508375/effect-of-interstitial-fluid-flow-on-drug-coated-balloon-delivery-in-a-patient-specific-arterial-vessel-with-heterogeneous-tissue-composition-a-simulation-study
#16
Sarifuddin, Prashanta Kumar Mandal
Angioplasty with drug-coated balloons (DCBs) using excipients as drug carriers is emerging as a potentially viable strategy demonstrating clinical efficacy and proposing additional compliance for the treatment of obstructive vascular diseases. An attempt is made to develop an improved computational model where attention has been paid to the effect of interstitial flow, that is, plasma convection and internalization of bound drug. The present model is capable of capturing the phenomena of the transport of free drug and its retention, and also the internalization of drug in the process of endocytosis to atherosclerotic vessel of heterogeneous tissue composition comprising of healthy tissue, as well as regions of fibrous cap, fibro-fatty, calcified and necrotic core lesions...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497966/coating-and-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-air-spray-coated-drug-coated-balloons
#17
Emily A Turner, Marzieh K Atigh, Megan M Erwin, Uwe Christians, Saami K Yazdani
Drug coated balloons (DCB) are becoming the standard-care treatment for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). DCB use excipients to transfer and retain anti-proliferative drugs, such as paclitaxel. Excipients thus play a vital role in the design and function of DCB, however methods to coat balloons with excipients and anti-proliferative drugs remain unknown. The goal of this study was to thus develop an approach to coat and evaluate DCB for various excipients. An air sprayer method was developed to deposit paclitaxel and various excipients onto non-coated commercially available angioplasty balloons...
March 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497965/pressure-and-flow-rate-changes-during-contrast-injections-in-cerebral-angiography-correlation-to-reflux-length
#18
Brandon Kovarovic, Henry H Woo, David Fiorella, Baruch B Lieber, Chander Sadasivan
Cerebral angiography involves the antegrade injection of contrast media through a catheter into the vasculature to visualize the region of interest under X-ray imaging. Depending on the injection and blood flow parameters, the bolus of contrast can propagate in the upstream direction and proximal to the catheter tip, at which point contrast is said to have refluxed. In this in vitro study, we investigate the relationship of fundamental hemodynamic variables to this phenomenon. Contrast injections were carried out under steady and pulsatile flow using various vessel diameters, catheter sizes, working fluid flow rates, and injection rates...
March 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484539/mechanical-properties-and-composition-of-the-basal-leaflet-annulus-region-of-the-tricuspid-valve
#19
Avik Basu, Carla Lacerda, Zhaoming He
The Tricuspid valve (TV) annulus is a transition structure from the leaflets to the myocardium, with 3 different annulus segments corresponding to the TV leaflets, which includes both basal leaflets and bordering myocardium. The objective of this study was to understand TV annulus mechanical properties and correlate it to the biological composition. The uniaxial testing of the annulus segments from ten porcine TVs was performed to measure Young's modulus (E) and extensibility (εT ). Western blotting and histology were executed...
February 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340885/quantifying-diastolic-function-from-e-waves-as-triangles-to-physiologic-contours-via-the-geometric-method
#20
Mikhail Golman, William Padovano, Leonid Shmuylovich, Sándor J Kovács
Conventional echocardiographic diastolic function (DF) assessment approximates transmitral flow velocity contours (Doppler E-waves) as triangles, with peak (Epeak ), acceleration time (AT), and deceleration time (DT) as indexes. These metrics have limited value because they are unable to characterize the underlying physiology. The parametrized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism provides a physiologic, kinematic mechanism based characterization of DF by extracting chamber stiffness (k), relaxation (c), and load (x o ) from E-wave contours...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
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