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Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006817/mechanical-characterization-of-the-lamellar-structure-of-human-abdominal-aorta-in-the-development-of-atherosclerosis-an-atomic-force-microscopy-study
#1
Alireza Rezvani-Sharif, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Alberto Avolio
Atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms of interaction of atherosclerotic plaque development and local stiffness of the lamellar structure of the arterial wall are not well established. In the current study, the local Young's modulus of the wall and plaque components were determined for three different groups of healthy, mildly diseased and advanced atherosclerotic human abdominal aortas. Histological staining was performed to highlight the atherosclerotic plaque components and lamellar structure of the aortic media, consisting of concentric layers of elastin and interlamellar zones...
July 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951830/transcatheter-mitral-valve-replacement-functional-requirements-for-device-design-bench-top-and-pre-clinical-evaluation
#2
Ramji Iyer, Aaron Chalekian, Randy Lane, Mike Evans, Seung Yi, John Morris
Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement (TMVR) is currently under clinical investigation as a viable treatment option for mitral regurgitation (MR). Therefore, it is important to outline the key functional requirements of a TMVR prosthesis in order to provide an overall approach to assessing mitral valve replacement devices utilizing a combination of in vitro and preclinical methods. This article provides a review of the mitral valve disease as well as general considerations and guidance for developing a TMVR device based on International Industry Standards...
June 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947016/a-shape-memory-alloy-based-miniaturized-actuator-for-catheter-interventions
#3
Yueh-Hsun Lu, Karthick Mani, Bivas Panigrahi, Saurabh Hajari, Chia-Yuan Chen
In the current scenario of endovascular intervention, surgeons have to manually navigate the catheter within the complex vasculature of the human body under the guidance of X-ray. This manual intervention upsurges the possibilities of vessel damage due to frequent contact between the catheter and vasculature wall. In this context, a shape memory alloy-based miniaturized actuator was proposed in this study with a specific aim to reduce vessel wall related damage by improving the bending motions of the guidewire tip in a semi-automatic fashion...
June 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948838/impact-of-clinically-relevant-elliptical-deformations-on-the-damage-patterns-of-sagging-and-stretched-leaflets-in-a-bioprosthetic-heart-valve
#4
Deepa Sritharan, Parinaz Fathi, Jason D Weaver, Stephen M Retta, Changfu Wu, Nandini Duraiswamy
After implantation of a transcatheter bioprosthetic heart valve its original circular circumference may become distorted, which can lead to changes in leaflet coaptation and leaflets that are stretched or sagging. This may lead to early structural deterioration of the valve as seen in some explanted transcatheter heart valves. Our in vitro study evaluates the effect of leaflet deformations seen in elliptical configurations on the damage patterns of the leaflets, with circular valve deformation as the control...
June 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948837/development-of-an-in-vitro-cardiac-ischemic-model-using-primary-human-cardiomyocytes
#5
Pezhman Hafez, Shiplu R Chowdhury, Shinsmon Jose, Jia Xian Law, B H I Ruszymah, Abdul Rahman Mohd Ramzisham, Min Hwei Ng
Developing experimental models to study ischemic heart disease is necessary for understanding of biological mechanisms to improve the therapeutic approaches for restoring cardiomyocytes function following injury. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro hypoxic/re-oxygenation model of ischemia using primary human cardiomyocytes (HCM) and define subsequent cytotoxic effects. HCM were cultured in serum and glucose free medium in hypoxic condition with 1% O2 ranging from 30 min to 12 h. The optimal hypoxic exposure time was determined using Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) as the hypoxic marker...
June 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858822/the-effect-of-acute-pulmonary-hypertension-on-tricuspid-annular-height-strain-and-curvature-in-sheep
#6
Manuel K Rausch, Marcin Malinowski, William D Meador, Penny Wilton, Asghar Khaghani, Tomasz A Timek
The tricuspid annulus shows significant alterations in patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation-tricuspid valve dysfunction that is secondary to other diseases such as pulmonary hypertension. Early changes in annular shape and dynamics may provide an understanding of disease mechanisms and could predict disease progression. To gain a mechanistic insight into these early changes we perform a spatially-resolved analysis of the effect of acute pulmonary hypertension on the tricuspid annulus in sheep. To this end, we suture sonomicrometry crystals to the annulus of nine sheep and record their locations in the beating heart, before and after inducing acute pulmonary hypertension...
June 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785664/effect-of-pneumatic-tubing-system-transport-on-platelet-apheresis-units
#7
Jevgenia Zilberman-Rudenko, Frank Z Zhao, Stephanie E Reitsma, Annachiara Mitrugno, Jiaqing Pang, Joseph J Shatzel, Beth Rick, Christina Tyrrell, Wohaib Hasan, Owen J T McCarty, Martin A Schreiber
Platelet apheresis units are transfused into patients to mitigate or prevent bleeding. In a hospital, platelet apheresis units are transported from the transfusion service to the healthcare teams via two methods: a pneumatic tubing system (PTS) or ambulatory transport. Whether PTS transport affects the activity and utility of platelet apheresis units is unclear. We quantified the gravitational forces and transport time associated with PTS and ambulatory transport within our hospital. Washed platelets and supernatants were prepared from platelet apheresis units prior to transport as well as following ambulatory or PTS transport...
May 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777394/biomechanical-impact-of-wrong-positioning-of-a-dedicated-stent-for-coronary-bifurcations-a-virtual-bench-testing-study
#8
Claudio Chiastra, Maik J Grundeken, Carlos Collet, Wei Wu, Joanna J Wykrzykowska, Giancarlo Pennati, Gabriele Dubini, Francesco Migliavacca
The treatment of coronary bifurcations is challenging for interventional cardiologists. The Tryton stent (Tryton Medical, Inc., USA) is one of the few devices specifically designed for coronary bifurcations that underwent large clinical trials. Although the manufacturer provides specific recommendations to position the stent in the bifurcation side branch (SB) according to four radio-opaque markers under angiographic guidance, wrong device positioning may accidentally occur. In this study, the virtual bench testing approach was used to investigate the impact of wrong positioning of the Tryton stent in coronary bifurcations in terms of geometrical and biomechanical criteria...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761409/the-roles-of-matrix-stiffness-and-%C3%A3-catenin-signaling-in-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-aortic-valve-endothelial-cells
#9
Aileen Zhong, Zahra Mirzaei, Craig A Simmons
Valve stiffening is a hallmark of aortic valve stenosis caused by excess extracellular matrix accumulation by myofibroblasts. We aimed to elucidate whether matrix stiffness regulates endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of adult valvular endothelial cells (VECs) to myofibroblasts as a mechanism to further promote valve fibrosis. In addition, we specifically examined the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the development of myofibroblasts during EndMT, as Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in EndMT during heart development, is reactivated in valve disease, and is required for mechanically-regulated myofibrogenesis of valve interstitial cells...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761408/parametric-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-cardiac-motion-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Narjes Benameur, Enrico Gianluca Caiani, Younes Arous, Nejmeddine Ben Abdallah, Tarek Kraiem
The assessment of wall motion abnormalities such as hypokinesia or dyskinesia and the identification of their extent as well as their degree of severity allow an accurate evaluation of several ischemic heart diseases and an early diagnosis of heart failure. These dysfunctions are usually revealed by a drop of contraction indicating a regional hypokinesia or a total absence of the wall motion in case of akinesia. The discrimination between these contraction abnormalities plays also a significant role in the therapeutic decision through the differentiation between the infarcted zones, which have lost their contractile function, and the stunned areas that still retain viable myocardial tissues...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700783/modeling-right-ventricle-failure-after-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-device-a-biventricular-finite-element-and-lumped-parameter-analysis
#11
Francesco Scardulla, Valentina Agnese, Giuseppe Romano, Gabriele Di Gesaro, Sergio Sciacca, Diego Bellavia, Francesco Clemenza, Michele Pilato, Salvatore Pasta
The risk of right ventricle (RV) failure remains a major contraindication for continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation in patients with heart failure. It is therefore critical to identify the patients who will benefit from early intervention to avoid adverse outcomes. We sought to advance the computational modeling description of the mechanisms underlying RV failure in LVAD-supported patients. RV failure was studied by computational modeling of hemodynamic and cardiac mechanics using lumped-parameter and biventricular finite element (FE) analysis...
April 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700782/fabrication-and-testing-of-electrospun-polyurethane-blended-with-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-vascular-graft-applications
#12
Ranjeeta Subramaniam, Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan
In this study, a small vascular graft based on polyurethane (PU) blended with chitosan (Ch) nanoparticles was fabricated using electrospinning technique. Initially, the chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized using ionic gelation method. UV-Vis spectrophotometer confirmed the presence of synthesized Ch nanoparticles by exhibiting absorption peak at 288 nm and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the existence of the chitosan. Further, the synthesized Ch nanoparticles showed size diameter in the range of 134 ± 58 nm as measured using ImageJ...
April 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797229/correction-to-editorial-special-issue-on-heart-valve-mechanobiology-new-insights-into-mechanical-regulation-of-valve-disease-and-regeneration
#13
Craig A Simmons, Hanjoong Jo
Original article has been updated to include names and affiliations of authors.
June 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761407/editorial-special-issue-on-heart-valve-mechanobiology-new-insights-into-mechanical-regulation-of-valve-disease-and-regeneration
#14
EDITORIAL
Craig A Simmons, Hanjoong Jo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508375/effect-of-interstitial-fluid-flow-on-drug-coated-balloon-delivery-in-a-patient-specific-arterial-vessel-with-heterogeneous-tissue-composition-a-simulation-study
#15
Sarifuddin, Prashanta Kumar Mandal
Angioplasty with drug-coated balloons (DCBs) using excipients as drug carriers is emerging as a potentially viable strategy demonstrating clinical efficacy and proposing additional compliance for the treatment of obstructive vascular diseases. An attempt is made to develop an improved computational model where attention has been paid to the effect of interstitial flow, that is, plasma convection and internalization of bound drug. The present model is capable of capturing the phenomena of the transport of free drug and its retention, and also the internalization of drug in the process of endocytosis to atherosclerotic vessel of heterogeneous tissue composition comprising of healthy tissue, as well as regions of fibrous cap, fibro-fatty, calcified and necrotic core lesions...
June 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497966/coating-and-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-air-spray-coated-drug-coated-balloons
#16
Emily A Turner, Marzieh K Atigh, Megan M Erwin, Uwe Christians, Saami K Yazdani
Drug coated balloons (DCB) are becoming the standard-care treatment for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). DCB use excipients to transfer and retain anti-proliferative drugs, such as paclitaxel. Excipients thus play a vital role in the design and function of DCB, however methods to coat balloons with excipients and anti-proliferative drugs remain unknown. The goal of this study was to thus develop an approach to coat and evaluate DCB for various excipients. An air sprayer method was developed to deposit paclitaxel and various excipients onto non-coated commercially available angioplasty balloons...
June 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497965/pressure-and-flow-rate-changes-during-contrast-injections-in-cerebral-angiography-correlation-to-reflux-length
#17
Brandon Kovarovic, Henry H Woo, David Fiorella, Baruch B Lieber, Chander Sadasivan
Cerebral angiography involves the antegrade injection of contrast media through a catheter into the vasculature to visualize the region of interest under X-ray imaging. Depending on the injection and blood flow parameters, the bolus of contrast can propagate in the upstream direction and proximal to the catheter tip, at which point contrast is said to have refluxed. In this in vitro study, we investigate the relationship of fundamental hemodynamic variables to this phenomenon. Contrast injections were carried out under steady and pulsatile flow using various vessel diameters, catheter sizes, working fluid flow rates, and injection rates...
June 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484539/mechanical-properties-and-composition-of-the-basal-leaflet-annulus-region-of-the-tricuspid-valve
#18
Avik Basu, Carla Lacerda, Zhaoming He
The Tricuspid valve (TV) annulus is a transition structure from the leaflets to the myocardium, with 3 different annulus segments corresponding to the TV leaflets, which includes both basal leaflets and bordering myocardium. The objective of this study was to understand TV annulus mechanical properties and correlate it to the biological composition. The uniaxial testing of the annulus segments from ten porcine TVs was performed to measure Young's modulus (E) and extensibility (εT ). Western blotting and histology were executed...
June 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464511/computational-investigation-of-a-self-powered-fontan-circulation
#19
Marcus W Ni, Ray O Prather, Giovanna Rodriguez, Rachel Quinn, Eduardo Divo, Mark Fogel, Alain J Kassab, William M DeCampli
Children born with anatomic or functional "single ventricle" must progress through two or more major operations to sustain life. This management sequence culminates in the total cavopulmonary connection, or "Fontan" operation. A consequence of the "Fontan circulation", however, is elevated central venous pressure and inadequate ventricular preload, which contribute to continued morbidity. We propose a solution to these problems by increasing pulmonary blood flow using an "injection jet" (IJS) in which the source of blood flow and energy is the ventricle itself...
June 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359262/numerical-investigation-of-the-effect-of-additional-pulmonary-blood-flow-on-patient-specific-bilateral-bidirectional-glenn-hemodynamics
#20
Biao Si, Bin Qiao, Guang Yang, Meng Zhu, Fengyu Zhao, Tongjian Wang, Na Li, Xiaopeng Ji, Guanghong Ding
The effect of additional pulmonary blood flow (APBF) on the hemodynamics of bilateral bidirectional Glenn (BBDG) connection was marginally discussed in previous studies. This study assessed this effect using patient-specific numerical simulation. A 15-year-old female patient who underwent BBDG was enrolled in this study. Patient-specific anatomy, flow waveforms, and pressure tracings were obtained using computed tomography, Doppler ultrasound technology, and catheterization, respectively. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed to assess flow field and derived hemodynamic metrics of the BBDG connection with various APBF...
June 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
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