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Clinical Epidemiology

Kyungdo Han, Jae-Seung Yun, Yong-Moon Park, Yu-Bae Ahn, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Seon-Ah Cha, Seung-Hyun Ko
Purpose: There is a scarcity of long-term prediction models for severe hypoglycemia (SH) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, a model was developed and validated to predict the risk of SH in adult patients with T2DM. Patients and methods: Baseline and follow-up data from patients with T2DM who received health evaluations from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010 (n=1,676,885) were analyzed as development (n=1,173,820) and validation (n=503,065) cohorts using the National Health Insurance Database (DB) in Korea...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Clément Brault, Anders H Riis, Anil Mor, Pierre Duhaut, Reimar W Thomsen
Objective: It has been suggested that a hyper-effective immune system ("hyper-immunity") is central to the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica (GCA/PMR). We examined if a low risk of infections, as a marker of hyper-immunity, can predict increased subsequent risk of GCA/PMR. Patients and methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study including all patients aged ≥50 years with incident GCA/PMR diagnosed between 1997 and 2012 in Northern Denmark...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Simone de Vries, Michael Schaapveld, Jan Wpf Kardaun, Kim H de Bruin, Augustinus Dg Krol, Pieternella J Lugtenburg, Judy N Jacobse, Berthe Mp Aleman, Flora E van Leeuwen
Objective: Obtaining accurate data about causes of death may be difficult in patients with a complicated disease history, including cancer survivors. This study compared causes of death derived from medical records (CODMR ) with causes of death derived from death certificates (CODDC ) as processed by Statistics Netherlands of patients primarily treated for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or breast cancer (BC). Methods: Two hospital-based cohorts comprising 1,215 HL patients who died in the period 1980-2013 and 714 BC patients who died in the period 2000-2013 were linked with cause-of-death statistics files...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Tasnim F Imran, Daniel Posner, Jacqueline Honerlaw, Jason L Vassy, Rebecca J Song, Yuk-Lam Ho, Steven J Kittner, Katherine P Liao, Tianxi Cai, Christopher J O'Donnell, Luc Djousse, David R Gagnon, J Michael Gaziano, Peter Wf Wilson, Kelly Cho
Background: Large databases provide an efficient way to analyze patient data. A challenge with these databases is the inconsistency of ICD codes and a potential for inaccurate ascertainment of cases. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a reliable protocol to identify cases of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) from a large national database. Methods: Using the national Veterans Affairs electronic health-record system, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and National Death Index data, we developed an algorithm to identify cases of AIS...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Jacob Bodilsen, Michael Dalager-Pedersen, Nicolai Kjærgaard, Diederik van de Beek, Matthijs C Brouwer, Henrik Nielsen
Purpose: To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of ICD-10 diagnosis codes for brain abscess in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Patients and methods: We examined medical records of all patients with a first-time diagnosis code of brain abscess in the DNPR from 2007 to 2016. Patients were categorized with either confirmed or disproved brain abscess using a priori defined criteria. We computed the PPV as the proportion of confirmed diagnoses. Results: We identified 709 patients, of whom the medical records could not be retrieved for 15 patients, leaving 694 for further analyses...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Jonathan Wh Wong, Margaret Ip, Arthur Tang, Vivian Wi Wei, Samuel Ys Wong, Steven Riley, Jonathan M Read, Kin On Kwok
Objective: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging global public health threat. In response to a highlighted strategic priority of the World Health Organization Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, to "strengthen the knowledge and evidence base through surveillance and research", we synthesized published articles to estimate CA-MRSA carriage prevalence in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO CRD:42017067399)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Jes Sloth Mathiesen, Jens Peter Kroustrup, Peter Vestergaard, Kirstine Stochholm, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Sten Schytte, Henrik Baymler Pedersen, Christoffer Holst Hahn, Jens Bentzen, Sören Möller, Mette Gaustadnes, Maria Rossing, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Kim Brixen, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, Christian Godballe
Background: The incidence and prevalence of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) have only been reported once in a nationwide setting. However, it is unclear whether the figures are representative of other populations, as the major component of the syndrome, hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), has been reported as rare in the same country. We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study of MEN2A in Denmark from 1901 to 2014, aiming to describe the incidence and prevalence...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Lei Hou, Xiaorong Chen, Bo Chen, Longjian Liu, Xiaohui Sun, Yuewei Zou, Hongjian Liu, Hui Guo, Jian Zhang, Jixiang Ma
Background: Studies on pharmacological therapy and blood pressure (BP) control in primary health care sites of China are limited. We aimed to investigate drug use and compliance as well as compare BP control between pharmacological therapies for lowering BP in hypertensive population serviced by these sites. Methods: This is a 1-year cohort study using electronic health care records from the National Primary Public Health Services of China. For patients with antihypertensive drugs at the first follow-up, we defined compliance with treatment as a continued treatment with the same specified class of agents at next three follow-ups...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Guoqiao Zheng, Subhayan Chattopadhyay, Asta Försti, Kristina Sundquist, Kari Hemminki
Background: With improving survival in ovarian cancer, second primary cancers (SPCs) and their etiological foundations are becoming an issue. The ways in which family history may influence the occurrence of SPCs and the related mortality are not well known. Methods: Based on the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified 11,300 ovarian cancer patients and followed them for diagnoses of SPCs until the end of 2015. Relative risks (RRs) of SPC in patients who had parents or siblings diagnosed with the same cancer (positive family history) were compared to those in patients without a family history (negative family history)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Chang-Fu Kuo, I-Jun Chou, Matthew J Grainge, Shue-Fen Luo, Lai-Chu See, Kuang-Hui Yu, Weiya Zhang, Michael Doherty, Ana M Valdes
Purpose: To estimate the extent of familial aggregation of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and coaggregation of related chronic diseases and assess the relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors on the risks. Patients and methods: This population-based study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance database to reconstruct family structure and identify people with T1D and other chronic diseases between 1999 and 2015. Relative risks (RRs) for T1D and other chronic diseases and heritability of T1D were estimated...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Sajesh K Veettil, Peerawat Jinatongthai, Surakit Nathisuwan, Nattawat Teerawattanapong, Siew Mooi Ching, Kean Ghee Lim, Surasak Saokaew, Pochamana Phisalprapa, Christopher M Reid, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
Background: Various interventions have been tested as primary prevention of colorectal cancers (CRC), but comprehensive evidence comparing them is absent. We examined the effects of various chemopreventive agents (CPAs) on CRC incidence and mortality. Methods: We did a network meta-analysis based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared at least one CPA (aspirin, antioxidants, folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D, alone or in combination) to placebo or other CPA in persons without history of CRC...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Sara Khalid, Sara Calderon-Larrañaga, Samuel Hawley, M Sanni Ali, Andrew Judge, Nigel Arden, Tjeerd van Staa, Cyrus Cooper, Muhammad Kassim Javaid, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra
Purpose: This paper aims to compare the clinical effectiveness of oral anti-osteoporosis drugs based on the observed risk of fracture while on treatment in primary care actual practice. Materials and methods: We investigated two primary care records databases covering UK National Health Service (Clinical Practice Research Datalink, CPRD) and Catalan healthcare (Information System for Research in Primary Care, SIDIAP) patients during 1995-2014 and 2006-2014, respectivey...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Tue Højslev Avlund, Rune Erichsen, Lene Hjerrild Iversen
Background: Randomized controlled trials have not provided clear evidence for the use of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) for colonic cancer obstruction. Existing observational research mainly originates from highly specialized single-center settings with limited generalizability. The conduct of population-based nationwide studies is possible by using Danish medical databases. However, the quality of the coding of SEMS procedures in these databases is unclear. Methods: From March 1, 2010 through December 31, 2013, we compared the registration of SEMS procedures among obstructive colorectal cancer patients in the Danish National Patient Register (DNPR) and the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) database to the registration in a prospective SEMS database (the reference standard)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Ling-Yue Zhao, Yi-Jun Luo, Jing Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Henrik Smeds, Jeremy Wales, Tiit Mathiesen, Mats Talbäck, Maria Feychting
Purpose: Cochlear implants are widely used for hearing rehabilitation of deaf children with congenital deafness or adults with acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. The sound processor antenna creates a radio frequency-electromagnetic field transmitting the sound signal to the implant, similar to that in a mobile phone. A recent case report suggested a relationship between cochlear implants and malignant glioma, and some epidemiological studies have suggested an increased glioma and acoustic neuroma risk associated with long hours of mobile phone use...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Rutger A Middelburg, M Sesmu Arbous, Judith G Middelburg, Johanna G van der Bom
Evidence-based medicine has become associated with a preference for randomized trials. Randomization is a powerful tool against both known and unknown confounding. However, due to cost-induced constraints in size, randomized trials are seldom able to provide the subgroup analyses needed to gain much insight into effect modification. To apply results to an individual patient, effect modification needs to be considered. Results from randomized trials are therefore often difficult to apply in daily clinical practice...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Line Riis Jølving, Jan Nielsen, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel, Rasmus Gaardskær Nielsen, Bente Mertz Nørgård, Signe Sparre Beck-Nielsen
Objective: Maternal thyroid disease (TD) during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes, but little is known on its long-term outcomes. We aimed to examine if children born to mothers with TD have increased disease risk during childhood and adolescence. Patients and methods: A register-based cohort study was conducted on all live born children in Denmark from 1989 to 2013, including the association between maternal TD during pregnancy and somatic and psychiatric diseases in the children...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Marit M Suttorp, Henrik Frederiksen, Tiny Hoekstra, Olaf M Dekkers, Lars Pedersen, Suzanne C Cannegieter, Friedo W Dekker, Henrik Toft Sørensen
Introduction: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) treatment has been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with solid tumors and with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease. The ESA-related risk in patients with hematological neoplasms remains unclear. We, therefore, aimed to assess the ESA-related risk of VTE, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Rasmus Rivinius, Matthias Helmschrott, Arjang Ruhparwar, Bastian Schmack, Fabrice F Darche, Dierk Thomas, Tom Bruckner, Hugo A Katus, Philipp Ehlermann, Andreas O Doesch
Objectives: COPD is associated with reduced physical activity, an increased risk for pulmonary infections, and impaired survival in nontransplant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of COPD in patients after heart transplantation (HTX). Methods: We performed an observational retrospective single-center study of 259 patients receiving HTX at Heidelberg University Hospital between 2003 and 2012. Patients were stratified by the Tiffeneau index (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity [FEV1/FVC]) <0...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Yasmina Molero, Johan Zetterqvist, Paul Lichtenstein, Catarina Almqvist, Jonas F Ludvigsson
Background: Prior evidence shows that environmental tobacco smoke is a risk factor for respiratory tract infections, wheeze, and asthma. Nicotine replacement therapy has been shown to increase smoking cessation. However, no prior studies have explored if parental use decreases the risk of bronchitis/bronchiolitis and asthma in the offspring. Objective: To examine whether nicotine replacement therapy varenicline, given to parents, was associated with a reduction in bronchitis/bronchiolitis and/or asthma in their children...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
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