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Clinical Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343989/comparison-of-the-performance-of-five-screening-methods-for-sarcopenia
#1
Médéa Locquet, Charlotte Beaudart, Jean-Yves Reginster, Jean Petermans, Olivier Bruyère
Background: Sarcopenia leads to serious adverse health consequences. There is a dearth of screening tools for this condition, and performances of these instruments have rarely been evaluated. Our aim was to compare the performance of five screening tools for identifying elders at risk of sarcopenia against five diagnostic definitions. Subjects and methods: We gathered cross-sectional data of elders from the SarcoPhAge ("Sarco"penia and "Ph"ysical Impairment with Advancing "Age") study...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343988/does-breast-density-measured-through-population-based-screening-independently-increase-breast-cancer-risk-in-asian-females
#2
Boyoung Park, Hye Mi Cho, Eun Hye Lee, Seunghoon Song, Mina Suh, Kui Son Choi, Bong Joo Kang, Kyungran Ko, Ann Yi, Hae Kyoung Jung, Joo Hee Cha, Jae Kwan Jun
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of breast density on breast cancer risk among women screened via a nationwide mammographic screening program. Patients and methods: We conducted a nested case-control study for a randomly selected population of 1,561 breast cancer patients and 6,002 matched controls from the National Cancer Screening Program. Breast density was measured and recorded by two independent radiologists using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343987/performance-of-the-lace-index-to-predict-30-day-hospital-readmissions-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Maryam A Hakim, Frances L Garden, Matthew D Jennings, Claudia C Dobler
Background and objective: Patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a high 30-day hospital readmission rate, which has a large impact on the health care system and patients' quality of life. The use of a prediction model to quantify a patient's risk of readmission may assist in directing interventions to patients who will benefit most. The objective of this study was to calculate the rate of 30-day readmissions and evaluate the accuracy of the LACE index (length of stay, acuity of admission, co-morbidities, and emergency department visits within the last 6 months) for 30-day readmissions in a general hospital population of COPD patients...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339926/using-a-chronic-hepatitis-b-registry-to-support-population-level-liver-cancer-prevention-in-sydney-australia
#4
Monica C Robotin, Ximena Masgoret, Mamta Porwal, David Goldsbury, Chee Khoo, Jacob George
Background: Approximately 1% of Australians have chronic hepatitis B (CHB), which disproportionately affects people born in hepatitis B-endemic countries. Currently, approximately half of the people affected remain undiagnosed and antiviral treatment uptake is suboptimal (~5%). This increases the likelihood of developing end-stage disease complications, particularly hepatocellular cancer (HCC), and largely accounts for the significant increases in HCC incidence and mortality in Australia over the last decades...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296099/can-information-on-functional-and-cognitive-status-improve-short-term-mortality-risk-prediction-among-community-dwelling-older-people-a-cohort-study-using-a-uk-primary-care-database
#5
Janet Sultana, Andrea Fontana, Francesco Giorgianni, Giorgio Basile, Elisabetta Patorno, Alberto Pilotto, Mariam Molokhia, Robert Stewart, Miriam Sturkenboom, Gianluca Trifirò
Background: Functional and cognitive domains have rarely been evaluated for their prognostic value in general practice databases. The aim of this study was to identify functional and cognitive domains in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) and to evaluate their additional value for the prediction of 1-month and 1-year mortality in elderly people. Materials and methods: A cohort study was conducted using a UK nationwide general practitioner database. A total of 1,193,268 patients aged 65 years or older, of whom 15,300 had dementia, were identified from 2000 to 2012...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296098/the-right-combination-treatment-outcomes-among-hiv-positive-patients-initiating-first-line-fixed-dose-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-public-sector-hiv-clinic-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#6
Kamban Hirasen, Denise Evans, Mhairi Maskew, Ian M Sanne, Kate Shearer, Caroline Govathson, Given Malete, Sheryl A Kluberg, Matthew P Fox
Background: Long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is critical for achieving optimal HIV treatment outcomes. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) single-pill regimens, introduced in South Africa in April 2013, has simplified pill taking. We evaluated treatment outcomes among patients initiated on a FDC compared to a similar multi-pill ART regimen in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ART-naïve HIV-positive non-pregnant adult (≥18 years) patients without tuberculosis who initiated first-line ART on tenofovir and emtricitabine or lamivudine with efavirenz at Themba Lethu Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296097/physical-activity-derived-from-questionnaires-and-wrist-worn-accelerometers-comparability-and-the-role-of-demographic-lifestyle-and-health-factors-among-a-population-based-sample-of-older-adults
#7
Chantal M Koolhaas, Frank Ja van Rooij, Magda Cepeda, Henning Tiemeier, Oscar H Franco, Josje D Schoufour
Background: Agreement between questionnaires and accelerometers to measure physical activity (PA) differs between studies and might be related to demographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics, including disability and depressive symptoms. Methods: We included 1,410 individuals aged 51-94 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Participants completed the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore a wrist-worn accelerometer on the nondominant wrist for 1 week thereafter...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276412/association-between-coffee-or-caffeine-consumption-and-fecundity-and-fertility-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Julie Lyngsø, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Bjørn Bay, Hans Jakob Ingerslev, Adam Hulman, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel
Objective: The aim was to investigate whether coffee or caffeine consumption is associated with reproductive endpoints among women with natural fertility (ie, time to pregnancy [TTP] and spontaneous abortion [SAB]) and among women in fertility treatment (ie, clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate). Design: This study was a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis including data from case-control and cohort studies. Methods: An extensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and Embase, with no time and language restrictions...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276411/the-use-of-random-effects-models-to-identify-health-care-center-related-characteristics-modifying-the-effect-of-antipsychotic-drugs
#9
Clementine Nordon, Constance Battin, Helene Verdoux, Josef Maria Haro, Mark Belger, Lucien Abenhaim, Tjeerd Pieter van Staa
Purpose: A case study was conducted, exploring methods to identify drugs effects modifiers, at a health care center level. Patients and methods: Data were drawn from the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcome cohort, including hierarchical information on 6641 patients, recruited from 899 health care centers from across ten European countries. Center-level characteristics included the following: psychiatrist's gender, age, length of practice experience, practice setting and type, countries' Healthcare System Efficiency score, and psychiatrist density in the country...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276410/clinical-course-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-assessment-of-severity-progression-and-outcomes
#10
Jason C Simeone, Jay P Bae, Byron J Hoogwerf, Qian Li, Axel Haupt, Ayad K Ali, Marilyn K Boardman, Beth L Nordstrom
Purpose: To identify the characteristics and initial disease severity of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and assess incidence and risk factors for disease progression in a retrospective study. Methods: Patients ≥18 years of age without alcoholism or other liver diseases (eg, hepatitis B/C) were selected from Geisinger Health System electronic medical record data from 2004 to 2015. Initial disease stage was stratified into uncomplicated NAFLD, advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver transplant using clinical biomarkers, diagnosis, and procedure codes...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263705/incidence-of-diabetes-and-its-mortality-according-to-body-mass-index-in-south-koreans-aged-40-79-years
#11
Hae Hyuk Jung, Ji In Park, Jin Seon Jeong
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess diabetes incidence and all-cause mortality according to baseline body mass index (BMI) and to compare relative risks of mortality associated with incident diabetes across various BMI classes in a cohort of South Korean adults. Patients and methods: Based on data from the National Health Insurance database of Korean individuals aged 40-79 years without preexisting diabetes, we calculated BMI at the baseline health examination...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238228/prenatal-exposure-to-antipsychotic-medication-and-use-of-primary-health-care-system-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-denmark
#12
Anne Mette Lund Würtz, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Dorte Rytter, Merete Juul Sørensen, Jakob Christensen, Mogens Vestergaard, Bodil Hammer Bech
Background: Antipsychotic (AP) medication is increasingly used for many health conditions. Prenatal exposure to AP medication has been associated with several adverse outcomes, but the findings remain inconsistent. Purpose: We aimed to investigate prenatal exposure to AP medication and the use of primary health care system in childhood. Subjects and methods: All live-born singletons in Denmark during 1997-2012 were identified in the nationwide Danish National Patient Register and followed until December 31, 2013 (n = 963,010)...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238227/validation-of-asthma-recording-in-electronic-health-records-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Francis Nissen, Jennifer K Quint, Samantha Wilkinson, Hana Mullerova, Liam Smeeth, Ian J Douglas
Objective: To describe the methods used to validate asthma diagnoses in electronic health records and summarize the results of the validation studies. Background: Electronic health records are increasingly being used for research on asthma to inform health services and health policy. Validation of the recording of asthma diagnoses in electronic health records is essential to use these databases for credible epidemiological asthma research. Methods: We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE databases for studies that validated asthma diagnoses detected in electronic health records up to October 2016...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238226/maternal-diabetes-and-incidence-of-childhood-cancer-a-nationwide-cohort-study-and-exploratory-genetic-analysis
#14
Anna Deleskog, Marcel den Hoed, Giorgio Tettamanti, Sofia Carlsson, Rickard Ljung, Maria Feychting, Hannah L Brooke
Background: The etiology of childhood cancer is not well understood, but may be linked to prenatal and perinatal factors, such as maternal diabetes. However, this association has not been examined in depth. We aimed to determine if maternal diabetes is associated with risk of childhood brain tumor (CBT), leukemia (all types combined and acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL] separately), and lymphoma. Methods: All children born in Sweden between 1973 and 2014 (n=4,239,965) were followed from birth until first cancer diagnosis, age 15 years, or December 31, 2015...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238225/validity-and-completeness-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-diagnoses-in-the-nationwide-danbio-clinical-register-and-the-danish-national-patient-registry
#15
Else Helene Ibfelt, Jan Sørensen, Dorte V Jensen, Lene Dreyer, Berit Schiøttz-Christensen, Pia H Thygesen, Ada Colic, Johnny L Raun, Natalia Manilo, Anne Rødgaard, Uta E Poulsen, Claus Rasmussen, Torben Hansen, Babara Unger, Randi Pelck, Anita Kincses, Henrik Nordin, Tove Lorenzen, Ali Theibich, Inger Marie Jensen Hansen, Jakob Espesen, Jolanta Grydehøj, Mette Holland-Fischer, Anne Gitte Loft, Merete Lund Hetland
Objectives: In Denmark, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are registered in the nationwide clinical DANBIO quality register and the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). The aim was to study the validity of the RA diagnosis and to estimate the completeness of relevant RA cases in each registry. Study design and setting: Patients registered for the first time in 2011 with a diagnosis of RA were identified in DANBIO and DNPR in January 2013. For DNPR, filters were applied to reduce false-positive cases...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200891/conditioning-on-future-exposure-to-define-study-cohorts-can-induce-bias-the-case-of-low-dose-acetylsalicylic-acid-and-risk-of-major-bleeding
#16
Jennifer L Lund, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Szimonetta Komjáthiné Szépligeti, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Lars Pedersen, Vera Ehrenstein, Til Stürmer
Background: A principle of cohort studies is that cohort membership is defined by current rather than future exposure information. Pharmacoepidemiologic studies using existing databases are vulnerable to violation of this principle. We evaluated the impact of using data on future redemption of prescriptions to determine cohort membership, motivated by a published example seeking to emulate a "per-protocol" association between continuous versus never use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and major bleeding (e...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200890/comorbidity-index-in-central-cancer-registries-the-value-of-hospital-discharge-data
#17
Daphne Y Lichtensztajn, Brenda M Giddings, Cyllene R Morris, Arti Parikh-Patel, Kenneth W Kizer
Background: The presence of comorbid medical conditions can significantly affect a cancer patient's treatment options, quality of life, and survival. However, these important data are often lacking from population-based cancer registries. Leveraging routine linkage to hospital discharge data, a comorbidity score was calculated for patients in the California Cancer Registry (CCR) database. Methods: California cancer cases diagnosed between 1991 and 2013 were linked to statewide hospital discharge data...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184446/birth-weight-sex-and-celiac-disease-a-nationwide-twin-study
#18
Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Benjamin Lebwohl, Jonas Halfvarson, Louise Emilsson, Patrik K Magnusson, Jonas F Ludvigsson
Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD), but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures. Materials and methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184445/the-relation-of-cun-bae-index-and-bmi-with-body-fat-cardiovascular-events-and-diabetes-during-a-6-year-follow-up-the-hordaland-health-study
#19
Kathrine J Vinknes, Eha Nurk, Grethe S Tell, Gerhard Sulo, Helga Refsum, Amany K Elshorbagy
Objective: We compared Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE) and body mass index (BMI) as correlates of body fat percent (BF%) and the association with future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian population. Methods: We used data from 6796 individuals (born 1925-27 and 1950-52) from the Hordaland Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Norway. The study was conducted in 1992-1993 and 1997-1999. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with data from 1997/99, including BF% measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184444/development-and-validation-of-a-panel-of-five-proteins-as-blood-biomarkers-for-early-detection-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Hongda Chen, Jing Qian, Simone Werner, Katarina Cuk, Phillip Knebel, Hermann Brenner
Objective: Reliable noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) are highly desirable for efficient population-based screening with high adherence rates. We aimed to discover and validate blood-based protein markers for the early detection of CRC. Patients and methods: A two-stage design with a discovery and a validation set was used. In the discovery phase, plasma levels of 92 protein markers and serum levels of TP53 autoantibody were measured in 226 clinically recruited CRC patients and 118 controls who were free of colorectal neoplasms at screening colonoscopy...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
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