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Clinical Epidemiology

Jonas F Ludvigsson, Ronald van Vollenhoven
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
J T Helgstrand, N Klemann, M A Røder, B G Toft, K Brasso, B Vainer, P Iversen
BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We present the methodology and early results from a new national Danish prostate database containing clinical data from all males who had evaluation of prostate tissue from 1995 to 2011. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SNOMED codes were retrieved from the Danish Pathology Register...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Lene Hammer-Helmich, Allan Linneberg, Simon Francis Thomsen, Line Tang, Charlotte Glümer
BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, for example, eczema, asthma, and hay fever, are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Knowledge on health service use among children with atopic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the total use and costs of health services for children with and without eczema, asthma, and hay fever in a Danish general population. METHODS: We conducted a health survey with four complete birth cohorts from the City of Copenhagen...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Lars Haukali Omland, Rebecca Legarth, Magnus Glindvad Ahlström, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Niels Obel
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that targeted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing programs are cost-effective in populations with an HIV prevalence >0.1%. Several indicator diseases are known to be associated with increased risk of HIV infection, but estimates of HIV frequency in persons with relevant indicator diseases are nonexistent. METHODS: In a nationwide population-based cohort study encompassing all Danish residents aged 20-60 years during 1994-2013, we estimated the 5-year risk of an HIV diagnosis (FYRHD) after a first-time diagnosis of 147 prespecified potential indicator diseases...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Ole Köhler, Henriette Thisted Horsdal, Lone Baandrup, Ole Mors, Christiane Gasse
BACKGROUND: Assessment of psychosocial functioning in people with schizophrenia is important. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF-F) scale represents a widely applied, easy, and quick tool, but its validity and reliability have been debated. The aim was to investigate whether GAF-F scores are associated with other indicators of functioning, severity, and hospitalization. METHODS: A Danish population-based cohort study of adults (≥18 years) with a recorded GAF-F score at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis during 2004-2011 was performed...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Aisha K Lofters, Sara Jt Guilcher, Lauren Webster, Richard H Glazier, Susan B Jaglal, Ahmed M Bayoumi
PURPOSE: Despite more frequent use of health services by people living with disability, the quality of preventive care received may be suboptimal. In this retrospective cohort study, we used administrative data to examine the relationship between cholesterol testing and levels of disability and morbidity among women and men in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We linked multiple provincial-level databases in this study. In stratified analyses for women and men, we used multivariable logistic regression to examine differences in cholesterol testing, and we tested for an interaction effect between disability and morbidity...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Ragna Elise Støre Govatsmark, Sylvi Sneeggen, Hanne Karlsaune, Stig Arild Slørdahl, Kaare Harald Bønaa
BACKGROUND: Disease-specific registers may be used for measuring and improving healthcare and patient outcomes, and for disease surveillance and research, provided they contain valid and reliable data. The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of all variables in a national myocardial infarction register. METHODS: We randomly selected 280 patients who had been enrolled from 14 hospitals to the Norwegian Myocardial Infarction Register during the year 2013...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Henrik Toft Sørensen
Many resources are invested in research training, but very little literature exists on predictors for a successful PhD and postdoctoral training outcome. A PhD program has two overall objectives: to extend knowledge about a hopefully important health topic and to provide extensive training to improve the PhD student's skills through learning research methods and collaboration. A substantial number of PhD students may run into some kind of problem in the course of their PhD program. In this article, some determinants all starting with an "I" and indicative of a good PhD outcome are reported...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Maiken Ina Siegismund Kjaersgaard, Peter Vedsted, Erik Thorlund Parner, Bodil Hammer Bech, Mogens Vestergaard, Kaare Rud Flarup, Morten Fenger-Grøn
BACKGROUND: The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. OBJECTIVES: To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Annika Linde, Amelie Plymoth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Lukas Löfling, Gabriella Bröms, Shahram Bahmanyar, Helle Kieler
BACKGROUND: Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
John Acquavella, Vera Ehrenstein, Morten Schiødt, Uffe Heide-Jørgensen, Anders Kjellman, Svein Hansen, Cecilia Larsson Wexell, Bente Brokstad Herlofson, Sven Erik Noerholt, Haijun Ma, Katarina Öhrling, Rohini K Hernandez, Henrik Toft Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a recognized complication of potent antiresorptive therapies, especially at the doses indicated to prevent skeletal complications for cancer patients with bone metastases. This paper describes the rationale and methods for a prospective, post-authorization safety study of cancer patients treated with antiresorptive therapies. METHODS: As part of a comprehensive pharmacovigilance plan, developed with regulators' input, the study will estimate incidence of ONJ and of serious infections among adult cancer patients with bone metastases treated with denosumab (120 mg subcutaneously) or zoledronic acid (4 mg intravenously, adjusted for renal function)...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Alex Thabane, Brittany B Dennis, Olga Gajic-Veljanoski, James Paul, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: Stepped wedge design (SWD) is a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design that sequentially rolls out intervention to all clusters at varying time points. Being a relatively new design method, reporting quality has yet to be explored, and this review will seek to fill this gap in knowledge. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are: 1) to assess the quality of SWD trial reports based on the CONSORT guidelines or CONSORT extension to cluster RCTs; 2) to assess the completeness of reporting of SWD trial abstracts using the CONSORT extension for abstracts; 3) to assess the reporting of sample size details in SWD trial reports or protocols; 4) to assess the completeness of reporting of SWD trial protocols according to SPIRIT guidelines; 5) to assess the consistency between the trial registration information and final SWD trial reports; and 6) to assess the consistency of what is reported in the abstracts and main text of the SWD trial reports...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Dennis Lund Hansen, Ulrik Malthe Overgaard, Lars Pedersen, Henrik Frederiksen
PURPOSE: The nationwide public health registers in Denmark provide a unique opportunity for evaluation of disease-associated morbidity if the positive predictive values (PPVs) of the primary diagnosis are known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive values of hemolytic anemias registered in the Danish National Patient Register. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with a first-ever diagnosis of hemolytic anemia from either specialist outpatient clinic contact or inpatient admission at Odense University Hospital from January 1994 through December 2011 were considered for inclusion...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Janelle N Stokely, Sandra Niendorf, Stefan Taube, Marina Hoehne, Vincent B Young, Mary Am Rogers, Christiane E Wobus
OBJECTIVE: Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Anna Horváth, Nóra Páll, Katalin Molnár, Tamás Kováts, György Surján, Tamás Vicsek, Péter Pollner
OBJECTIVE: Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear). This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort. METHODS: We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Ivy Altomare, Karynsa Cetin, Sally Wetten, Jeffrey S Wasser
BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare disorder characterized by low platelet counts and an increased tendency to bleed. The goal of ITP therapy is to treat or prevent bleeding. Actual rates of bleeding are unknown. Clinical trial data may not reflect real-world bleeding rates because of the inclusion of highly refractory patients and more frequent use of rescue therapy. METHODS: We used administrative medical claims data in the US to examine the occurrence of bleeding-related episodes (BREs) - a composite end point including bleeding and/or rescue therapy use - in adults diagnosed with primary ITP (2008-2012)...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Mathias Ried-Larsen, Reimar W Thomsen, Klara Berencsi, Cecilie F Brinkløv, Charlotte Brøns, Laura S Valentiner, Kristian Karstoft, Henning Langberg, Allan A Vaag, Bente K Pedersen, Jens S Nielsen
Promoting physical activity is a first-line choice of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is a need for more effective tools and technologies to facilitate structured lifestyle interventions and to ensure a better compliance, sustainability, and health benefits of exercise training in patients with T2D. The InterWalk initiative and its innovative application (app) for smartphones described in this study were developed by the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in T2D aiming at implementing, testing, and validating interval walking in patients with T2D in Denmark...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Anne Gulbech Ording, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton, Vera Ehrenstein, Timothy L Lash, John Acquavella, Mikael Rørth, Henrik Toft Sørensen
Clinical trials are considered the gold standard for examining drug efficacy and for approval of new drugs. Medical databases and population surveillance registries are valuable resources for post-approval observational research, which are increasingly used in studies of benefits and risk of new cancer drugs. Here, we address the challenges in translating endpoints from oncology trials to observational studies. Registry-based cohort studies can investigate real-world safety issues - including previously unrecognized concerns - by examining rare endpoints or multiple endpoints at once...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Vegard Malmo, Arnulf Langhammer, Kaare H Bønaa, Jan P Loennechen, Hanne Ellekjaer
BACKGROUND: Self-reported atrial fibrillation (AF) and diagnoses from hospital registers are often used to identify persons with AF. The objective of this study was to validate self-reported AF and hospital discharge diagnoses of AF among participants in a population-based study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 50,805 persons who participated in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3), 16,247 participants from three municipalities were included. Individuals who reported cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or hypertension in the main questionnaire received a cardiovascular-specific questionnaire...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
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