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Jesse A Jones, Kristopher G Virga, Giuseppe Gumina, Kirk E Hevener
: This review discusses next-generation antibacterial agents developed using rational, or targeted, drug design strategies. The focus of this review is on small-molecule compounds that have been designed to bypass developing bacterial resistance, improve the antibacterial spectrum of activity, and/or to optimize other properties, including physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Agents are discussed that affect known antibacterial targets, such as the bacterial ribosome, nucleic acid binding proteins, and proteins involved in cell-wall biosynthesis; as well as some affecting novel bacterial targets which do not have currently marketed agents...
September 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Carl S Rye, Nicola E A Chessum, Scott Lamont, Kurt G Pike, Paul Faulder, Julie Demeritt, Paul Kemmitt, Julie Tucker, Lorenzo Zani, Matthew D Cheeseman, Rosie Isaac, Louise Goodwin, Joanna Boros, Florence Raynaud, Angela Hayes, Alan T Henley, Emmanuel de Billy, Christopher J Lynch, Swee Y Sharp, Robert Te Poele, Lisa O' Fee, Kevin M Foote, Stephen Green, Paul Workman, Keith Jones
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that plays key roles in cancer, including providing a mechanism for cell survival under proteotoxic stress. Therefore, inhibition of the HSF1-stress pathway represents an exciting new opportunity in cancer treatment. We employed an unbiased phenotypic screen to discover inhibitors of the HSF1-stress pathway. Using this approach we identified an initial hit (1) based on a 4,6-pyrimidine scaffold (2.00 μM). Optimisation of cellular SAR led to an inhibitor with improved potency (25, 15 nM) in the HSF1 phenotypic assay...
August 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Yu Li, Guiquan Xia, Qi Guo, Li Wu, Shizhen Chen, Zhigang Yang, Wei Wang, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Xin Zhou, Zhong-Xing Jiang
Fluorine is a highly attractive element for both medicinal chemistry and imaging technologies. To facilitate protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs)-targeted drug discovery and imaging-guided PTP research with fluorine, several highly potent and (19)F MR sensitive PTP inhibitors were discovered through a structure-based focused library strategy.
August 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Huy X Ngo, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Keith D Green
Fungal infections directly affect millions of people each year. In addition to the invasive fungal infections of humans, the plants and animals that comprise our primary food source are also susceptible to diseases caused by these eukaryotic microbes. The need for antifungals, not only for our medical needs, but also for use in agriculture and livestock causes a high demand for novel antimycotics. Herein, we provide an overview of the most commonly used antifungals in medicine and agriculture. We also present a summary of the recent progress (from 2010-2016) in the discovery/development of new agents against fungal strains of medical/agricultural relevance, as well as information related to their biological activity, their mode(s) of action, and their mechanism(s) of resistance...
July 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Jessica E Wynn, Wenyu Zhang, Denis M Tebit, Laurie R Gray, Marie-Louise Hammarskjold, David Rekosh, Webster L Santos
High throughput screening of a 4096 compound library of boronic acid and acridine containing branched peptides revealed compounds that have dissociation constants in the low nanomolar regime for HIV-1 RRE IIB RNA. We demonstrate that branched peptide boronic acids A5, A6, and A7 inhibit the production of p24, an HIV-1 capsid protein, in a dose-dependent manner.
July 1, 2016: MedChemComm
D Digles, B Zdrazil, J-M Neefs, H Van Vlijmen, C Herhaus, A Caracoti, J Brea, B Roibás, M I Loza, N Queralt-Rosinach, L I Furlong, A Gaulton, L Bartek, S Senger, C Chichester, O Engkvist, C T Evelo, N I Franklin, D Marren, G F Ecker, E Jacoby
Phenotypic screening is in a renaissance phase and is expected by many academic and industry leaders to accelerate the discovery of new drugs for new biology. Given that phenotypic screening is per definition target agnostic, the emphasis of in silico and in vitro follow-up work is on the exploration of possible molecular mechanisms and efficacy targets underlying the biological processes interrogated by the phenotypic screening experiments. Herein, we present six exemplar computational protocols for the interpretation of cellular phenotypic screens based on the integration of compound, target, pathway, and disease data established by the IMI Open PHACTS project...
June 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Claire Colas, Peter Man-Un Ung, Avner Schlessinger
The human Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are important targets for drug development. Structure-based drug discovery for SLC transporters requires the description of their structure, dynamics, and mechanism of interaction with small molecule ligands and ions. The recent determination of atomic structures of human SLC transporters and their homologs, combined with improved computational power and prediction methods have led to an increased applicability of structure-based drug design methods for human SLC members...
June 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Kyle V Butler, Kelsey Bohn, Christine A Hrycyna, Jian Jin
Activating mutations of human K-Ras proteins are among the most common oncogenic mutations, present in approximately 30% of all human cancers. Posttranslational modifications to K-Ras guide it to the plasma membrane and disruption of this localization inhibits the growth of Ras-driven cancers. The human isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (hIcmt) enzyme catalyzes the final α-carboxyl methylesterification of the C-terminal farnesyl cysteine of K-Ras, which is necessary for its proper localization. Thus, hIcmt inhibition is a regarded as a promising cancer therapy...
May 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Reji N Nair, Jitendra K Mishra, Fangzheng Li, Mariola Tortosa, Chunying Yang, Joanne R Doherty, Michael Cameron, John L Cleveland, William R Roush, Thomas D Bannister
Glutamine and tyrosine-based amino acid conjugates of monocarboxylate transporter types 1 and 2 inhibitors (MCT1/2) were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their potency in blocking the proliferation of a human B lymphoma cell line that expresses the transporters Asct2, LAT1 and MCT1. Appropriate placement of an amino acid transporter recognition element was shown to augment anti-tumour efficacy vs. Raji cells. Amino acid conjugation also improves the pharmacodynamic properties of experimental MCT1/2 inhibitors...
May 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Paul N Black, Constance Ahowesso, David Montefusco, Nipun Saini, Concetta C DiRusso
The fatty acid transport proteins (FATP) are classified as members of the Solute Carrier 27 (Slc27) family of proteins based on their ability to function in the transport of exogenous fatty acids. These proteins, when localized to the plasma membrane or at intracellular membrane junctions with the endoplasmic reticulum, function as a gate in the regulated transport of fatty acids and thus represent a therapeutic target to delimit the acquisition of fatty acids that contribute to disease as in the case of fatty acid overload...
April 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Stefan G Kathman, Alexander V Statsyuk
Covalent probes and drugs have found widespread use as research tools and clinical agents. Covalent probes are useful because of their increased intracellular potency and because covalent labeling of cellular proteins can be tracked using click chemistry. Covalent drugs, on the other hand, can overcome drug resistance toward their reversible counterparts. The discovery of covalent probes and drugs usually follows two trajectories: covalent natural products and their analogues are used directly as covalent probes or drugs; or alternatively, a non-covalent probe is equipped with a reactive group and converted into a covalent probe...
April 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Jed F Fisher, Shahriar Mobashery
The practice of medicine was profoundly transformed by the introduction of the antibiotics (compounds isolated from Nature) and the antibacterials (compounds prepared by synthesis) for the control of bacterial infection. As a result of the extraordinary success of these compounds over decades of time, a timeless biological activity for these compounds has been presumed. This presumption is no longer. The inexorable acquisition of resistance mechanisms by bacteria is retransforming medical practice. Credible answers to this dilemma are far better recognized than they are being implemented...
January 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Junjie Fu, Amy Xia, Xin Qi
Drug development targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) represents an emerging theme in the field of medicinal chemistry. Considering the fact that most of the currently identified FGFR agonists are long chain peptides with limited stability, the discovery of novel non-peptide FGFR ligands is still highly demanded. A linear one-bead-one-compound peptoid (oligomers of N-substituted glycine units) library with a theoretical diversity of 10(6) was designed and synthesized. Microarray-based screening led to the identification of four hit sequences 1-4 as FGFR1α ligands, which were further confirmed using both solution-phase and solid-phase binding assays...
2016: MedChemComm
Mahesh Aitha, Sameer Al-Adbul-Wahid, David L Tierney, Michael W Crowder
Metal ions in metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) play a major role in catalysis. In this study we investigated the role of the metal ions in the Zn1 and Zn2 sites of MBL L1 during catalysis. A ZnCo (with Zn(II) in the invariant Zn1 site and Co(II) in the Zn2 site) analog of MBL L1 was prepared by using a biological incorporation method. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic studies were used to confirm that the ZnCo analog was prepared. To study the roles of the Zn(II) and Co(II) ions during catalysis, rapid freeze quench (RFQ)-EXAFS studies were used to probe the reaction of the ZnCo-L1 analog with chromacef when quenched at 10 ms, 50 ms, and 100 ms...
January 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Dora B Madhura, Juiyu Liu, Bernd Meibohm, Richard E Lee
Spectinamides are promising new semisynthetic anti-tubercular agents that are modified with a pyridyl side chain, which blocks native efflux from the tuberculosis cell. This study, describes the stability of an advanced panel of spectinamide analogs, with varying substitutions to the pyridyl side chain, to Phase-II conjugative metabolism by glucuronosyl transferase, sulfotransferase and glutathione-S-transferase enzymes using both human and rat S9 enzyme fractions. All solely 5-substituted pyridyl spectinamides exhibited complete stability towards Phase II conjugative enzymes...
January 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Nishad Thamban Chandrika, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
Since the discovery of the first aminoglycoside (AG), streptomycin, in 1943, these broad-spectrum antibiotics have been extensively used for the treatment of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections. The inherent toxicity (ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity) associated with their long-term use as well as the emergence of resistant bacterial strains have limited their usage. Structural modifications of AGs by AG-modifying enzymes, reduced target affinity caused by ribosomal modification, and decrease in their cellular concentration by efflux pumps have resulted in resistance towards AGs...
2016: MedChemComm
Kevin Chiem, Saumya Jani, Brooke Fuentes, David L Lin, Madeline E Rasche, Marcelo E Tolmasky
The aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib, AAC(6')-Ib, confers resistance to clinically relevant aminoglycosides and is the most widely distributed enzyme among AAC(6')-I-producing Gram-negative pathogens. An alternative to counter the action of this enzyme is the development of inhibitors. Glide is a computational strategy for rapidly docking ligands to protein sites and estimating their binding affinities. We docked a collection of 280,000 compounds from 7 sub-libraries of the Chembridge library as ligands to the aminoglycoside binding site of AAC(6')-Ib...
January 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Sandeep Thanna, Steven J Sucheck
Tuberculosis (TB) is an epidemic disease and the growing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB world wide underlines the need to discover new drugs to treat the disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the etiological agent of most cases of TB. Mtb is difficult to treat, in part, due to the presence of a sturdy hydrophobic barrier that prevents penetration of drugs through the cell wall. Mtb can also survive in a non-replicative state for long periods of time avoiding the action of common antibiotics. Trehalose is an essential metabolite in mycobacteria since it plays key roles in cell wall synthesis, transport of cell wall glycolipids, and energy storage...
2016: MedChemComm
Mark W Majewski, Kyle D Watson, Sanghyun Cho, Patricia A Miller, Scott G Franzblau, Marvin J Miller
Both the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) and antibiotic resistance continue to threaten modern healthcare and new means of combating pathogenic bacterial infections are needed. The syntheses of monobactams possessing hydroxamate and N-methylthio functionality are described, as well as their anti-TB, in vitro β-lactamase inhibitory, and general antimicrobial evaluations. A number of compounds exhibited significant anti-TB and β-lactamase inhibitory activity, with MIC values in the range of 25 to < 0.19 μM against Mycobacteria tuberculosis (M...
January 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Matthew D Stephens, Veroncia B Hubble, Robert K Ernst, Monique L van Hoek, Roberta J Melander, John Cavanagh, Christian Melander
A screen of 20 compounds identified small molecule adjuvants capable of potentiating anitbiotic activty against Francisella philomiragia. Analogue synthesis of an initial hit compound led to the discovery of a potentially new class of small molecule adjuvants containg an indole core. The lead compound was able to lower the MIC of colistin by 32-fold against intrinsically resistant F. philomiragia.
January 1, 2016: MedChemComm
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