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Mike Kelso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Virulence
Kenji Fukuda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Virulence
Andrew M Borman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Virulence
Shalhevet Azriel, Alina Goren, Inna Shomer, Gili Aviv, Galia Rahav, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are human-restricted pathogens and the leading causative agents of enteric fever. The Typhi colonization factor (Tcf) is a chaperone-usher fimbria, thought to play a role in the host-specificity of typhoidal serovars. Here we show that the tcf cluster (tcfABCD tinR tioA) is present in at least 25 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars and demonstrate its native expression in clinically-important serovars including Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Choleraesuis, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Virchow and Infantis...
September 18, 2017: Virulence
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Michael J Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Virulence
Joseph S Rom, Danielle N Atwood, Karen E Beenken, Daniel G Meeker, Allister J Loughran, Horace J Spencer, Tamara L Lantz, Mark S Smeltzer
Staphylococcus aureus causes acute and chronic forms of infection, the latter often associated with formation of a biofilm. It has previously been demonstrated that mutation of atl, codY, rot, sarA, and sigB limits biofilm formation in the USA300 strain LAC while mutation of agr, fur, and mgrA has the opposite effect. Here we used a murine sepsis model to assess the impact of these same loci in acute infection. Mutation of agr, atl, and fur had no impact on virulence, while mutation of mgrA and rot increased virulence...
September 14, 2017: Virulence
T van Montfort, D Speijer, B Berkhout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Virulence
Rachel E Butler, Nitya Krishnan, Waldo Garcia-Jimenez, Robert Francis, Abbe Martyn, Tom Mendum, Shaza Felemban, Nicolas Locker, Javier Salguero-Bodes, Brian Robertson, Graham R Stewart
An important feature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis is the ability to control cell death in infected host cells, including inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of necrosis. Recently an alternative form of programmed cell death, necroptosis, has been described where necrotic cell death is induced by apoptotic stimuli under conditions where apoptotic execution is inhibited. We show for the first time that M. tuberculosis and TNFα synergise to induce necroptosis in murine fibroblasts via RIPK1-dependent mechanisms and characterized by phosphorylation of Ser345 of the MLKL necroptosis death effector...
September 11, 2017: Virulence
Raphael Parusel, Alex Steimle, Anna Lange, Andrea Schäfer, Jan K Maerz, Annika Bender, Julia-Stefanie Frick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Virulence
Lining Shi, Quanhui Liang, Jiao Feng, Zhe Zhan, Yachao Zhao, Wenhui Yang, Huiying Yang, Yong Chen, Mei Huang, Yigang Tong, Xiaojun Li, Zhe Yin, Jinglin Wang, Dongsheng Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Virulence
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Ann Chahroudi, Joshua H Ruff, Christopher T Longenecker, Vin Tangpricha, Grace A McComsey
Viral suppression with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) dramatically improves survival in HIV-infected individuals. Yet, this population has more age-related co-morbidities, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD), and these co-morbidities occur at an earlier age than in the general population (1) . Similar to their adult counterparts, data show that HIV-infected youth are also at an increased risk of development of these HIV-related co-morbidities later in life, despite few clinical manifestations in younger age (2) ...
September 11, 2017: Virulence
Georgios N Belibasakis, Michael A Curtis, George Hajishengallis, Egija Zaura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2017: Virulence
Qianqian Mou, Polly H M Leung
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is widely distributed throughout natural and artificial water systems and can replicate in macrophages and amoebae. Amoebae are the natural hosts of L. pneumophila, whereas macrophages are incidentally infected. The life cycle of L. pneumophila comprises a replicative phase within the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) and a transmissive phase during which bacterial cells become motile and are released via killing of the host. Although the host death mechanisms induced by L...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
Marie-Thérèse Ruf, Christina Steffen, Miriam Bolz, Peter Schmid, Gerd Pluschke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Virulence
Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Min-Suk Song, Se Mi Kim, Young-Il Kim, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Ok Sarah Shin, Chul-Joong Kim, Young Ki Choi
Recently identified highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses (clade are relatively low to moderately pathogenic in mammalian hosts compared to HPAI H5N1 viruses. In this study, we generated reassortant viruses comprised of A/MD/Korea/W452/2014(H5N8) with substitution of individual genes from A/EM/Korea/W149/2006(H5N1) to understand the contribution of each viral gene to virulence in mammals. Substituting the PB2 gene segment or the NA gene segment of the H5N8 virus by that from the H5N1 virus resulted in significantly enhanced pathogenicity compared with the parental H5N8 virus in mice...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
Sara Verpoest, Valerie Redant, Ann Brigitte Cay, Herman Favoreel, Nick De Regge
Morbidity and mortality associated with pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection are dependent on the age of the pig and the virulence of the strain. PRV strains circulating in wild boar are considered to be low virulent, but no mechanistic explanation for their reduced virulence is available. Here infection of 2- and 15-week-old domestic pigs with the PRV wild boar strain BEL24043 did not induce clinical symptoms in 15-week-old pigs, but resulted in important neurological and respiratory disease in 2-week-old piglets...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
Gerard Sheehan, Kevin Kavanagh
Galleria mellonella larvae were administered an inoculum of Candida albicans and the response to infection over 24 hours was monitored. The yeast cell density in infected larvae declined initially but replication commenced six hours post-infection. The hemocyte density decreased from 5.2 × 106/ml to 2.5 × 106/ml at 2 hours but increased to 4.2 × 106 at 6 hours and decreased subsequently. Administration of β - glucan to larvae also caused a fluctuation in hemocyte density (5.1 ± 0.22 × 106/ml (0 hour) to 6...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
Chad Dufaud, Johanna Rivera, Soma Rohatgi, Liise-Anne Pirofski
IgM and B-1 cell deficient mice exhibit early C. neoformans dissemination from lungs to brain, but a definitive role for B cells in conferring resistance to C. neoformans dissemination has not been established. To address this question, we developed an intranasal (i.n.) C. neoformans infection model in B and T cell deficient Rag1(-/-) mice and found they also exhibit earlier fungal dissemination and higher brain CFU than wild-type C57Bl/6 (wild-type) mice. To probe the effect of B cells on fungal dissemination, Rag1(-/-) mice were given splenic (intravenously) or peritoneal (intraperitoneally) B cells from wild-type mice and infected i...
August 24, 2017: Virulence
Stacy C Goldthorpe, Michael J Conway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: Virulence
Emmanuel Roilides, Maria Simitsopoulou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Virulence
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