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Xin Chen, Yan-Heng Zhou, Mei Ye, Yu Wang, Lin Duo, Wei Pang, Chiyu Zhang, Yong-Tang Zheng
Injecting drug users (IDUs) are the major risk group for HIV-1 infection in the China-Myanmar border area. There are a large number of Burmese IDUs living in Yunnan (Yunnan-mIDUs) who might be associated with the cross-border transmission of HIV-1. From 2010 to 2013, 617 Yunnan-mIDUs were recruited from three counties of Yunnan, 19.0% of whom were detected to be HIV-1 positive by serological testing. Partial HIV-1 p17, pol, vif-env, and env genes were amplified from the positive samples and were sequenced. Phylogenetic and HIV-1 subtyping analyses revealed that HIV-1 recombinant forms (RFs), including RF_BC (36...
July 12, 2018: Virulence
Viktoria Rungelrath, Christine Weiße, Nicole Schütze, Uwe Müller, Marita Meurer, Manfred Rohde, Jana Seele, Peter-Valentin Weigand, Michael Kirschfink, Andreas Beineke, Wieland Schrödl, René Bergmann, Christoph Georg Baums
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) causes meningitis, arthritis and endocarditis in piglets. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgM degrading enzyme of S. suis (IdeSsuis ) and to investigate the role of IgM cleavage in evasion of the classical complement pathway and pathogenesis. Targeted mutagenesis of a cysteine in the putative active center of IdeSsuis abrogated IgM cleavage completely. In contrast to wt rIdeSsuis , point mutated rIdeSsuis _C195S did not reduce complement-mediated hemolysis indicating that complement inhibition by rIdeSsuis depends on the IgM proteolytic activity...
July 12, 2018: Virulence
Ahreum Lee, Yong C Kim, Keumjin Baek, Jehan Alam, Yun S Choi, Yaeeun Rheu, Yoo Jin Shin, Sungtae Kim, Hyun-Duck Kim, Yeong W Song, Youngnim Choi
Autoantibodies against alpha-enolase (ENO1) are often detected in various infectious and autoimmune diseases. Anti-ENO1 antibody titers were reported to be associated with the severity of periodontitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Because the enolase of the periodontal pathogen Treponema denticola (TdEno) has the highest homology with ENO1 among the enolases of human-associated bacteria, we hypothesized that anti-ENO1 autoantibodies produced during the immune response to TdEno may contribute to the progression of periodontitis and tested it in human and mouse systems...
July 12, 2018: Virulence
Gairu Li, Huijuan Wang, Shilei Wang, Gang Xing, Cheng Zhang, Wenyan Zhang, Jie Liu, Junyan Zhang, Shuo Su, Jiyong Zhou
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) was found to be associated with reproductive disease in pigs, and since its first identification in the United States, it subsequently spread worldwide, especially in China, where it might pose a potential threat to the porcine industry. However, no exhaustive analysis was performed to understand its evolution in the prospect of codon usage pattern. Here, we performed a deep codon usage analysis of PCV3. PCV3 sequences were classified into two clades: PCV3a and PCV3b, confirmed by principal component analysis...
July 5, 2018: Virulence
Shuying Xu, Marianela Feliu, Allison K Lord, Daniel P Lukason, Paige E Negoro, Nida S Khan, Zeina Dagher, Michael B Feldman, Jennifer L Reedy, Samantha N Steiger, Jenny M Tam, Alexander A Soukas, David B Sykes, Michael K Mansour
Candida spp. are the fourth leading cause of nosocomial blood stream infections in North America. Candida glabrata is the second most frequently isolated species, and rapid development of antifungal resistance has made treatment a challenge. In this study, we investigate the therapeutic potential of metformin, a biguanide with well-established action for diabetes, as an antifungal agent against C. glabrata. Both wild type and antifungal-resistant isolates of C. glabrata were subjected to biguanide and biguanide-antifungal combination treatment...
July 2, 2018: Virulence
Angela Sandri, Alessia Ortombina, Federico Boschi, Eleonora Cremonini, Marzia Boaretti, Claudio Sorio, Paola Melotti, Gabriella Bergamini, Maria M Lleo
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infection is a complex condition where opportunistic pathogens and defective immune system cooperate in developing a constant cycle of infection and inflammation. The major pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, secretes a multitude of virulence factors involved in host immune response and lung tissue damage. In this study, we examined the possible anti-inflammatory effects of molecules inhibiting P. aeruginosa virulence factors. METHODS: Pyocyanin, pyoverdine and proteases were measured in bacterial culture supernatant from different P...
June 25, 2018: Virulence
M Carda-Diéguez, F X Silva-Hernández, T P Hubbard, M C Chao, M K Waldor, C Amaro
Vibrio vulnificus can be a highly invasive pathogen capable of spreading from an infection site to the bloodstream, causing sepsis and death. To survive and proliferate in blood, the pathogen requires mechanisms to overcome the innate immune defenses and metabolic limitations of this host niche. We created a high-density transposon mutant library in YJ016, a strain representative of the most virulent V. vulnificus lineage (or phylogroup) and used transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) screens to identify loci that enable the pathogen to survive and proliferate in human serum...
April 26, 2018: Virulence
Dajana F Lendak, Dunja M Mihajlović, Aleksandra S Novakov-Mikić, Jasmina M Boban, Milan Ubavić, Snežana V Brkić
Although the role of B cells in sepsis immunoregulation has become an interesting topic, there is lack of data on the role of B cell function regulators in prediction of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) and soluble Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein (sTACI), the main B cell function regulators, in prediction of MODS development within the first 48 h after admission to intensive care unit, among septic patients...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jingyi Liu, Showgy Ma'ayeh, Dimitra Peirasmaki, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Lars Hellman, Staffan G Svärd
Giardiasis is a common diarrheal disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. Cysteine proteases (CPs) are acknowledged as virulence factors in Giardia but their specific role in the molecular pathogenesis of disease is not known. Herein, we aimed to characterize the three main secreted CPs (CP14019, CP16160 and CP16779), which were identified by mass spectrometry in the medium during interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro. First, the CPs were epitope-tagged and localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vesicle-like structures...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Fu-Sheng Deng, Ching-Hsuan Lin
An epigenetic transition between white cells and opaque cells influences several properties of Candida albicans biology, including cellular morphology, biofilm formation, virulence, and sexual mating. In particular, these two cell types exhibit marked differences in their ability to undergo sex. A previous study identified the transcriptional regulator of pheromone response in both the white and opaque states as Cph1 because deletion of this gene abolished both pheromone-induced cell adhesion in white cells and sexual mating in opaque cells...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Nabil Killiny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Yingzhou Xie, Lijun Tian, Gang Li, Hongping Qu, Jingyong Sun, Wei Liang, Xiaobin Li, Xiaoli Wang, Zixin Deng, Jialin Liu, Hong-Yu Ou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Samuele Sabbatini, Claudia Monari, Nathalie Ballet, Paolo Mosci, Amélie Cayzeele Decherf, Fanny Pélerin, Stefano Perito, Paolo Scarpelli, Anna Vecchiarelli
In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic shows an inhibitory effect on Gardnerella vaginalis infection. This effect is likely due to several actions: direct interference with adherence to vaginal tissues, inhibition of sialidase activity, reduction of vaginal epithelial exfoliation. Gardnerella vaginalis does not induce vaginal inflammation and no inflammatory cytokines were, indeed, produced, by the mouse vagina, neither by Gardnerella vaginalis and by the probiotic...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Ambika M V Murthy, Minh-Duy Phan, Kate M Peters, Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, Rodney A Welch, Glen C Ulett, Mark A Schembri, Matthew J Sweet
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) causes the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are a major global public health concern. UPEC uses numerous mechanisms to subvert the innate immune system, including targeting macrophage functions. We recently showed that some UPEC strains rapidly kill human macrophages via an NLRP3-independent pathway, and also trigger NLRP3-dependent IL-1β processing. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis in the reference strain CFT073 to identify UPEC genes that mediate human macrophage cell death...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jolanta Lukasiewicz, Czeslaw Lugowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Médea Padra, Barbara Adamczyk, John Benktander, Bram Flahou, Emma C Skoog, János Tamás Padra, Annemieke Smet, Chunsheng Jin, Richard Ducatelle, Tore Samuelsson, Freddy Haesebrouck, Niclas G Karlsson, Susann Teneberg, Sara K Lindén
Helicobacter suis colonizes the stomach of most pigs and is the most prevalent non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species found in the human stomach. In the human host, H. suis contributes to the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma, whereas in pigs it is associated with gastritis, decreased growth and ulcers. Here, we demonstrate that the level of H. pylori and H. suis binding to human and pig gastric mucins varies between individuals with species dependent specificity...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Marta Carretero-Ledesma, Meritxell García-Quintanilla, Reyes Martín-Peña, Marina R Pulido, Jerónimo Pachón, Michael J McConnell
Acinetobacter baumannii can acquire resistance to colistin via complete loss of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis due to mutations in the lpxA, lpxC and lpxD genes. However, although colistin is increasingly being used for the treatment of multidrug resistant infections, very few A. baumannii clinical isolates develop colistin resistance through loss of LPS biosynthesis. This may suggest that LPS loss affects virulence traits that play a role in the transmission and pathogenesis of A. baumannii. In this study we characterize multiple virulence phenotypes of colistin resistant, LPS-deficient derivatives of the ATCC 19606 strain and five multidrug resistant clinical isolates and their colistin resistant, LPS-deficient derivatives...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Julien Sevestre, Seydina M Diene, Myriam Aouiti-Trabelsi, Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Isabelle Tournier, Patrice François, François Caron, Muhamed-Kheir Taha
Carriage and invasion balance in the pathogenesis of Neisseria meningitidis was analyzed during a recent clonal outbreak of meningococcal B in Normandy, France, that offered the opportunity to compare six isolates undistinguable by conventional typing (B:14:P1.7,16:F3-3/ST-32) isolated from invasive disease or pharyngeal asymptomatic carriage. Data from animal model (transgenic mice rendered susceptible to N. meningitidis infection) showed an absence of virulence for two non-capsulated carriage isolates, an intermediate virulence for two capsulated carriage isolates and a marked virulence for two capsulated invasive isolates...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Kyulim Lee, JoAnn S Roberts, Chul Hee Choi, Kalina R Atanasova, Özlem Yilmaz
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an opportunistic pathogen usurps gingival epithelial cells (GECs) as primary intracellular niche for its colonization in the oral mucosa. However, the precise characterization of the intracellular trafficking and fate of P. gingivalis in GECs remains incomplete. Therefore, we employed high-resolution three-dimensional-transmission-electron-microscopy to determine the subcellular location of P. gingivalis in human primary GECs upon invasion. Serial sections of infected-GECs and their tomographic reconstruction depicted ER-rich-double-membrane autophagosomal-vacuoles harboring P...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
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