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Grzegorz Fila, Anna Kawiak, Mariusz Grinholc
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most common pathogens responsible for both acute and chronic infections of high incidence and severity. Additionally, P. aeruginosa resistance to conventional antimicrobials has increased rapidly over the past decade. Therefore, it is crucial to explore new therapeutic options, particularly options that specifically target the pathogenic mechanisms of this microbe. The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to cause disease is dependent upon the production of agents termed 'virulence factors', and approaches to mitigate these agents have gained increasing attention as new antibacterial strategies...
October 20, 2016: Virulence
James A St John
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Virulence
Zehui Yu, Yi Geng, Kaiyu Wang, Defang Chen, Xiaoli Huang, Yangping Ou, Guangneng Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Virulence
Gina Leisching, Ray-Dean Pietersen, Carel van Heerden, Paul van Helden, Ian Wiid, Bienyameen Baker
The distinguishing factors that characterize the host response to infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are largely confounding. We present an infection study with two genetically closely related M.tb strains that have vastly different pathogenic characteristics. The early host response to infection with these detergent-free cultured strains was analysed through RNAseq in an attempt to provide information on the subtleties which may ultimately contribute to the virulent phenotype. Murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) were infected with either a hyper- (R5527) or hypovirulent (R1507) Beijing M...
October 20, 2016: Virulence
Jay-Hyun Jo, Elizabeth A Kennedy, Heidi H Kong
Skin constantly encounters external elements, including microbes. Culture-based studies have identified fungi present on human skin and have linked some species with certain skin diseases. Moreover, modern medical treatments, especially immunosuppressants, have increased the population at risk for cutaneous and invasive fungal infections, emphasizing the need to understand skin fungal communities in health and disease. A major hurdle for studying fungal flora at a community level has been the heterogeneous culture conditions required by skin fungi...
October 18, 2016: Virulence
Heather E Hallen-Adams, Mallory J Suhr
Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented foods but cannot grow at human body temperature), while still others have dietary or environmental sources (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation agent and sometime probiotic; Aspergillus species, ubiquitous molds) yet are likely to impact gut ecology...
October 13, 2016: Virulence
Jorge Pinheiro, Olga Reis, Ana Vieira, Ines M Moura, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Filipe Carvalho, M Graciela Pucciarelli, Francisco García-Del Portillo, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes
Bacterial pathogenicity deeply depends on the ability to secrete virulence factors that bind specific targets on host cells and manipulate host responses. The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a human foodborne pathogen that remains a serious public health concern. To transport proteins across its cell envelope, this facultative intracellular pathogen engages a set of specialized secretion systems. Here we show that L. monocytogenes EGDe uses a specialized secretion system, named ESX-1, to secrete EsxA, a homologue of the virulence determinants ESAT-6 and EsxA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Virulence
Kwan Soo Ko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Virulence
Jorge L Aguilar, Avanish K Varshney, Ximo Pechuan, Kaushik Dutta, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Bettina C Fries
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading infectious cause of life-threatening disease in humans, yet there is currently no vaccine to combat this bacterium. The pathogenesis of S. aureus is mediated by a diverse array of protein toxins including a large family of secreted pyrogenic superantigens. Neutralization of superantigens, including SEB and TSST-1, has proven to be protective in several animal models of toxic shock and sepsis. We demonstrate, for the first time, that a far more prevalent staphylococcal superantigen, SEK, can also induce lethal shock in mice...
October 7, 2016: Virulence
Meredith Greene, Amy C Justice, Kenneth E Covinsky
: As the number of older adults living with HIV continues to increase, understanding how to incorporate geriatric assessments within HIV care will be critical. Assessment of geriatric syndromes and physical function can be useful tools for HIV clinicians and researchers to help identify the most vulnerable older adults and to better understand the aging process in PLWH. This review focuses on the assessment of falls, frailty and physical function, first in the general population of older adults and includes a specific focus on use of these assessments in older adults living with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Virulence
Niharika Singh, Amrita Patil, Asmita Prabhune, Mamta Raghav, Gunjan Goel
The present study investigates the role of quorum sensing (QS) molecules expressed by C. sakazakii in biofilm formation and extracellular polysaccharide expression. The QS signaling was detected using Chromobacterium violaceum 026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4) based bioassay. Long chain N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) with C6- C18 chain length were identified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. A higher Specific Biofilm Formation (SBF) index (p < 0...
October 7, 2016: Virulence
Nichole Broderick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Virulence
Yang Zhou, Xingxing Dong, Zhiwei Li, Geng Zou, Li Lin, Xiaohong Wang, Huanchun Chen, Robin B Gasser, Jinquan Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Virulence
Laura Tipton, Elodie Ghedin, Alison Morris
The fungi that reside in the human lungs represent an understudied, but medically relevant comm-unity. From the few studies published on the lung mycobiome, we find that there are fungi in both the healthy and diseased respiratory tract, that these fungi vary widely between individuals, and that there is a trend toward lower fungal diversity among individuals with disease. This review discusses the few studies of the lung mycobiome and details the challenges that accompany lung mycobiome studies. These challenges include sample collection and processing, sequence amplification and processing, and a history of multiple names for species...
September 29, 2016: Virulence
Nadia Al-Bader, Donald C Sheppard
Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening infection caused by the opportunistic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for the treatment of hematological malignancy are at particularly high risk of developing this fatal infection. The susceptibility of HSCT patients to infection with A. fumigatus is a consequence of a complex interplay of both fungal and host factors. Here we review our understanding of the host-pathogen interactions underlying the susceptibility of the immunocompromised host to infection with A...
September 29, 2016: Virulence
Ben D Tall, Hannah R Chase, Gopal R Gopinath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Virulence
Cosmin Chintoan-Uta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Virulence
Gabriel Hendricks, Eleftherios Mylonakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Virulence
L Latéy Bradford, Jacques Ravel
Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the complexity of fungal communities within the vagina. The vaginal mycobiome has become an emerging field of study as genomics tools are increasingly employed and we begin to appreciate the role these fungal communities play in human health and disease. Though vastly outnumbered by its bacterial counterparts, fungi are important constituents of the vaginal ecosystem in many healthy women...
September 22, 2016: Virulence
Patrícia A de Castro, Jéssica Chiaratto, Enyara Rezende Morais, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Thomas K Mitchell, Neil A Brown, Gustavo H Goldman
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the most important species causing pulmonary fungal infections. The signaling by calcium is very important for A. fumigatus pathogenicity and it is regulated by the transcription factor CrzA. We have previously used used ChIP-seq (Chromatin Immunoprecipitation DNA sequencing) aiming to identify gene targets regulated by CrzA. We have identified among several genes regulated by calcium stress, the putative flavin transporter, flcA. This transporter belongs to a small protein family composed of FlcA, B, and C...
September 21, 2016: Virulence
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