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Steger Marion, Bermejo-Jambrina Marta, Yordanov Teodor, Wagener Johannes, Brakhage Axel A, Pittl Verena, Huber Lukas A, Haas Hubertus, Lass-Flörl Cornelia, Posch Wilfried, Wilflingseder Doris
Complement system and dendritic cells (DCs) form - beside neutrophils and macrophages - the first line of defense to combat fungal infections. Therefore, we here studied interactions of these first immune elements with Aspergillus fumigatus lacking ß-1,3-glucans (fks1tetOn rep under repressed conditions) to mechanistically explain the mode of action of echinocandins in more detail. Echinocandins are cell wall active agents blocking β-glucan synthase, making the A. fumigatus fks1tetOn mutant a good model to study immune-modulatory actions of these drugs...
October 29, 2018: Virulence
Alessandra Lo Sciuto, Alessandra M Martorana, Regina Fernández-Piñar, Carmine Mancone, Alessandra Polissi, Francesco Imperi
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an essential structural component of the outer membrane (OM) of most Gram-negative bacteria. In the model organism Escherichia coli, LPS transport to the OM requires seven essential proteins (LptABCDEFG) that form a continuous bridge across the cell envelope. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa the recently-demonstrated essentiality of LptD and LptH, the P. aeruginosa LptA homologue, confirmed the crucial role of the Lpt system and, thus, of LPS in OM biogenesis in this species. Surprisingly, independent high-throughput transposon mutagenesis studies identified viable P...
October 24, 2018: Virulence
Seungwha Paik, Jin Kyung Kim, Chaeuk Chung, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Tuberculosis (TB), which is primarily caused by the major etiologic agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a serious infectious disease worldwide. Recently, much effort has been made to develop novel/improved therapies by modulating host responses to TB (i.e., host-directed therapy). Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that helps maintain homeostasis or the removal of invading pathogens via a lysosomal degradation process. The activation of autophagy by diverse drugs or agents may represent a promising treatment strategy against Mtb infection, even to drug-resistant strains...
October 15, 2018: Virulence
Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi, Raquel Rocha, Médea Padra, Anders Thorell, Chunsheng Jin, Niclas G Karlsson, Mónica Roxo-Rosa, Mónica Oleastro, Sara K Lindén
Helicobacter pylori infection can result in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. H. pylori reside within the gastric mucus layer, mainly composed of mucins carrying an array of glycan structures that can serve as bacterial adhesion epitopes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the binding ability, adhesion modes, and growth of H. pylori strains from pediatric patients with NUD and PUD to gastric mucins. Our results showed an increased adhesion capacity of pediatric PUD H...
October 9, 2018: Virulence
Jie Gao, Wenwen Xin, Jing Huang, Bin Ji, Shan Gao, Liang Chen, Lin Kang, Hao Yang, Xin Shen, Baohua Zhao, Jinglin Wang
Epsilon-toxin (ETX) is produced by types B and D strains of Clostridium perfringens, which cause fatal enterotoxaemia in sheep, goats and cattle. Previous studies showed that only a restricted number of cell lines are sensitive to ETX and ETX-induced hemolysis has not previously been reported. In this study, the hemolytic ability of ETX was examined using erythrocytes from 10 species including murine, rabbit, sheep, monkey and human. We found that ETX caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes (HC50 =0.2 μM) but not erythrocytes from the other test species...
October 2, 2018: Virulence
Dongsheng Fei, Xianglin Meng, Wei Yu, Songlin Yang, Ning Song, Yanhui Cao, Songgen Jin, Lina Dong, Shangha Pan, Mingyan Zhao
Macrophages could adhere to extracellular matrix molecules(ECM) to induce the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and phagocytosis that contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary infection diseases. Fibronectin (FN) is a large glycoprotein capable of interacting with various ECM molecules produced by a variety of cell types and involved in cell attachment and chemotaxis. However, it is unknown whether FN regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and phagocytosis of macrophages in the injured lung tissue...
October 1, 2018: Virulence
Sébastien Besteiro
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protist that infects a wide range of warm-blooded vertebrates. Although this parasite can cause serious complications, infections are often asymptomatic, allowing T. gondii to persist in its host and possibly enhancing the chances of its transmission. T. gondii has thus evolved multiple mechanisms of host manipulation to establish chronic infection. This persistence involves a balance between host immunity and parasite evasion of this immune response...
September 29, 2018: Virulence
Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Autophagy is a conserved self-degradation mechanism that governs a large array of cellular processes in filamentous fungi. Filamentous insect and nematode mycopthogens function in the natural control of host populations and have been widely applied for biological control of insect and nematode pests. Entomopathogenic and nematophagous fungi have conserved "core" autophagy machineries that are analogous to those found in yeast but also feature several proteins involved in specific aspects of the autophagic pathways...
September 27, 2018: Virulence
Dajana F Lendak, Dunja M Mihajlović, Aleksandra S Novakov-Mikić, Jasmina M Boban, Milan Ubavić, Snežana V Brkić
Although the role of B cells in sepsis immunoregulation has become an interesting topic, there is lack of data on the role of B cell function regulators in prediction of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) and soluble Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein (sTACI), the main B cell function regulators, in prediction of MODS development within the first 48 h after admission to intensive care unit, among septic patients...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jingyi Liu, Showgy Ma'ayeh, Dimitra Peirasmaki, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Lars Hellman, Staffan G Svärd
Giardiasis is a common diarrheal disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. Cysteine proteases (CPs) are acknowledged as virulence factors in Giardia but their specific role in the molecular pathogenesis of disease is not known. Herein, we aimed to characterize the three main secreted CPs (CP14019, CP16160 and CP16779), which were identified by mass spectrometry in the medium during interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro. First, the CPs were epitope-tagged and localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vesicle-like structures...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Fu-Sheng Deng, Ching-Hsuan Lin
An epigenetic transition between white cells and opaque cells influences several properties of Candida albicans biology, including cellular morphology, biofilm formation, virulence, and sexual mating. In particular, these two cell types exhibit marked differences in their ability to undergo sex. A previous study identified the transcriptional regulator of pheromone response in both the white and opaque states as Cph1 because deletion of this gene abolished both pheromone-induced cell adhesion in white cells and sexual mating in opaque cells...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Nabil Killiny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
M Carda-Diéguez, F X Silva-Hernández, T P Hubbard, M C Chao, M K Waldor, C Amaro
Vibrio vulnificus can be a highly invasive pathogen capable of spreading from an infection site to the bloodstream, causing sepsis and death. To survive and proliferate in blood, the pathogen requires mechanisms to overcome the innate immune defenses and metabolic limitations of this host niche. We created a high-density transposon mutant library in YJ016, a strain representative of the most virulent V. vulnificus lineage (or phylogroup) and used transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) screens to identify loci that enable the pathogen to survive and proliferate in human serum...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Yingzhou Xie, Lijun Tian, Gang Li, Hongping Qu, Jingyong Sun, Wei Liang, Xiaobin Li, Xiaoli Wang, Zixin Deng, Jialin Liu, Hong-Yu Ou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Samuele Sabbatini, Claudia Monari, Nathalie Ballet, Paolo Mosci, Amélie Cayzeele Decherf, Fanny Pélerin, Stefano Perito, Paolo Scarpelli, Anna Vecchiarelli
In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic shows an inhibitory effect on Gardnerella vaginalis infection. This effect is likely due to several actions: direct interference with adherence to vaginal tissues, inhibition of sialidase activity, reduction of vaginal epithelial exfoliation. Gardnerella vaginalis does not induce vaginal inflammation and no inflammatory cytokines were, indeed, produced, by the mouse vagina, neither by Gardnerella vaginalis and by the probiotic...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Ambika M V Murthy, Minh-Duy Phan, Kate M Peters, Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, Rodney A Welch, Glen C Ulett, Mark A Schembri, Matthew J Sweet
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) causes the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are a major global public health concern. UPEC uses numerous mechanisms to subvert the innate immune system, including targeting macrophage functions. We recently showed that some UPEC strains rapidly kill human macrophages via an NLRP3-independent pathway, and also trigger NLRP3-dependent IL-1β processing. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis in the reference strain CFT073 to identify UPEC genes that mediate human macrophage cell death...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jiali Lv, Mashkoor Mohsin, Sheng Lei, Swaminath Srinivas, Raja Talish Wiqar, Jingxia Lin, Youjun Feng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jolanta Lukasiewicz, Czeslaw Lugowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Médea Padra, Barbara Adamczyk, John Benktander, Bram Flahou, Emma C Skoog, János Tamás Padra, Annemieke Smet, Chunsheng Jin, Richard Ducatelle, Tore Samuelsson, Freddy Haesebrouck, Niclas G Karlsson, Susann Teneberg, Sara K Lindén
Helicobacter suis colonizes the stomach of most pigs and is the most prevalent non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species found in the human stomach. In the human host, H. suis contributes to the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma, whereas in pigs it is associated with gastritis, decreased growth and ulcers. Here, we demonstrate that the level of H. pylori and H. suis binding to human and pig gastric mucins varies between individuals with species dependent specificity...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
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