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Virulence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075229/altered-mitochondrial-dynamics-as-a-consequence-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-infection
#1
Forrest Keck, Taryn Brooks-Faulconer, Tyler Lark, Pavitra Ravishankar, Charles Bailey, Carolina Salvador-Morales, Aarthi Narayanan
Mitochondria are sentinel organelles that are impacted by various forms of cellular stress, including viral infections. While signaling events associated with mitochondria, including those activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), are widely studied, alterations in mitochondrial distribution and changes in mitochondrial dynamics are also beginning to be associated with cellular insult. Cells of neuronal origin have been demonstrated to display remarkable alterations in several instances, including neurodegenerative disorders...
January 11, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060574/the-hcp-proteins-fused-with-diverse-extended-toxin-domains-represent-a-novel-pattern-of-antibacterial-effectors-in-type-vi-secretion-systems
#2
Jiale Ma, Zihao Pan, Jinhu Huang, Min Sun, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many bacterial species to target eukaryotic host cells or rival bacteria. Using a dynamic injection mechanism, diverse effectors can be delivered by T6SS directly into recipient cells. Here, we report a new family of T6SS effectors encoded by extended Hcps carrying diverse toxin domains. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that these Hcps with C-terminal extension toxins, designated as Hcp-ET, exist widely in the Enterobacteriaceae...
January 6, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060573/francisella-tularensis-type-vi-secretion-system-comes-of-age
#3
Petra Spidlova, Jiri Stulik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060571/m-ficolin-is-present-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-infected-lung-and-modulates-epithelial-cell-immune-responses-elicited-by-fungal-cell-wall-polysaccharides
#4
Kasper Jensen, Kit P Lund, Kimmie B Christensen, Anne T Holm, Lalit Kumar Dubey, Jesper B Moeller, Christine S Jepsen, Anders Schlosser, László Galgóczy, Steffen Thiel, Uffe Holmskov, Grith L Sorensen
Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that typically infects the lungs of immunocompromised patients. Ficolins are secreted pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. In the present study, we investigated the unknown role of human M-ficolin in the recognition of, and response to fungal cell wall polysaccharides. M-ficolin was localized to infiltrating granulocytes and monocytes found in the A. fumigatus infected lung. Recombinant M-ficolin (rM-ficolin) bound specifically to A...
January 6, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059611/molecular-characterization-of-pneumococcal-surface-protein-k-a-potential-pneumococcal-vaccine-antigen
#5
A-Yeung Jang, Ho Seong Seo, Shunmei Lim, Gook-Hyun Chung, Han Wool Kim, Sangyong Lim, Lei Zhao, In-Ho Park, Jae Hyang Lim, Kyung-Hyo Kim
The pneumococcal capsule is indispensable for pathogenesis in systemic infections; however, many pneumococcal diseases, including conjunctivitis, otitis media, and some systemic infections in immunocompromised patients, are caused by nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp). Null capsule clade 1 (NCC1), found in group 2 NESp, expresses pneumococcal surface protein K (PspK) and is becoming prevalent among pneumococcal organisms owing to the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Despite its clinical importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying the prevalence of NCC1 have not been fully elucidated...
January 6, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051916/the-antimicrobial-effect-of-blue-light-what-are-behind
#6
Tianhong Dai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051908/antimicrobial-capacity-of-the-freshwater-planarians-against-s-aureus-is-under-the-control-of-timeless
#7
Landry Laure Tsoumtsa, Cedric Torre, Virginie Trouplin, Benjamin Coiffard, Gregory Gimenez, Jean-Louis Mege, Eric Ghigo
Planarians, which are non-parasitic flatworms, are highly resistant to bacterial infections. To better understand the mechanisms underlying this resistance, we investigated the role of the circadian machinery in the anti-bacterial response of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We identified Smed-Tim from S. mediterranea as a homolog of the mammalian clock gene Tim. We showed via RNA interference that Smed-Tim is required for the anti-microbial activities of Schmidtea mediterranea against Staphylococcus aureus infection during the light/dark cycle...
January 4, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033037/importance-of-strain-lineages-for-group-b-streptococcal-survival
#8
Bryan M Hancock, Kelly S Doran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960650/first-report-of-htlv-1-truncated-p12-protein-in-brazil
#9
Carolina Rosadas, Ana C P Vicente, Louise Zanella, Mauro J Cabral-Castro, José M Peralta, Marzia Puccioni-Sohler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936347/the-infectious-intracellular-lifestyle-of-salmonella-enterica-relies-on-the-adaptation-to-nutritional-conditions-within-the-salmonella-containing-vacuole
#10
Lautaro Diacovich, Lucía Lorenzi, Mauro Tomassetti, Stéphane Méresse, Hugo Gramajo
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes various host-specific diseases. During their life cycle, Salmonellae survive frequent exposures to a variety of environmental stresses, e.g. carbon-source starvation. The virulence of this pathogen relies on its ability to establish a replicative niche, named Salmonella-containing vacuole, inside host cells. However, the microenvironment of the SCV and the bacterial metabolic pathways required during infection are largely undefined...
December 9, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936346/antibodies-to-staphylococcus-aureus-capsular-polysaccharides-5-and-8-perform-similarly-in-vitro-but-are-functionally-distinct-in-vivo
#11
Bo Liu, Saeyoung Park, Christopher D Thompson, Xue Li, Jean C Lee
The capsular polysaccharide (CP) produced by Staphylococcus aureus is a virulence factor that allows the organism to evade uptake and killing by host neutrophils. Polyclonal antibodies to the serotype 5 (CP5) and type 8 (CP8) capsular polysaccharides are opsonic and protect mice against experimental bacteremia provoked by encapsulated staphylococci. Thus, passive immunotherapy using CP antibodies has been considered for the prevention or treatment of invasive antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infections. In this report, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against S...
December 9, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935428/prior-immune-exposure-can-protect-or-can-enhance-pathology-in-the-enteroviruses-what-predicts-the-outcome
#12
Nora M Chapman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925510/passive-therapy-with-humanized-anti-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-antibodies-attenuates-systemic-inflammatory-response-and-protects-from-lethal-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-producing-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Melissa J Karau, Mulualem E Tilahun, Ashton Krogman, Barbara A Osborne, Richard A Goldsby, Chella S David, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel, Govindarajan Rajagopalan
Drugs such as linezolid that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis may be beneficial in treating infections caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus. As protein synthesis inhibitors have no effect on preformed toxins, neutralization of pathogenic exotoxins with anti-toxin antibodies may be beneficial in conjunction with antibacterial therapy. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of human-mouse chimeric high-affinity neutralizing anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antibodies in the treatment of experimental pneumonia caused by SEB-producing S...
December 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911218/aberrant-t-cell-immunity-triggered-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#14
Andrea E González, Margarita K Lay, Evelyn L Jara, Janyra A Espinoza, Roberto S Gómez, Jorge Soto, Claudia A Rivera, Katia Abarca, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that hRSV and hMPV, can induce aberrant T cell responses, which leads to exacerbated lung inflammation and poor T and B cell memory immunity...
December 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858524/the-fhab-fhac-two-partner-secretion-system-is-involved-in-adhesion-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-abh12o-a2-strain
#15
A Pérez, M Merino, S Rumbo-Feal, L Álvarez-Fraga, J A Vallejo, A Beceiro, E J Ohneck, J Mateos, P Fernández-Puente, L A Actis, M Poza, G Bou
Acinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-acquired pathogen that shows an extraordinary capacity to stay in the hospital environment. Adherence of the bacteria to eukaryotic cells or to abiotic surfaces is the first step for establishing an infection. The A. baumannii strain AbH12O-A2 showed an exceptional ability to adhere to A549 epithelial cells. The AbFhaB/FhaC 2-partner secretion (TPS) system involved in adhesion was discovered after the screening of the recently determined A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain genome (CP009534...
November 18, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858519/role-of-microglia-in-fungal-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system
#16
George W Koutsouras, Raddy L Ramos, Luis R Martinez
Most fungi are capable of disseminating into the central nervous system (CNS) commonly being observed in immunocompromised hosts. Microglia plays a critical role in responding to these infections regulating inflammatory processes proficient at controlling CNS colonization by these eukaryotic microorganisms. Nonetheless, it is this inflammatory state that paradoxically yields cerebral mycotic meningoencephalitis and abscess formation. As peripheral macrophages and fungi have been investigated aiding our understanding of peripheral disease, ascertaining the key interactions between fungi and microglia may uncover greater abilities to treat invasive fungal infections of the brain...
November 18, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831823/aging-and-sex-hormones-in-males
#17
Maria Chiara Decaroli, Vincenzo Rochira
Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging...
November 10, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830989/a-mutagenesis-based-approach-identifies-amino-acids-in-the-n-terminal-part-of-francisella-tularensis-igle-that-critically-control-type-vi-system-mediated-secretion
#18
Jeanette E Bröms, Lena Meyer, Anders Sjöstedt
The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Its life cycle is characterized by an ability to survive within phagocytic cells through phagosomal escape and replication in the cytosol, ultimately causing inflammasome activation and host cell death. Required for these processes is the Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI), which encodes a Type VI secretion system (T6SS) that is active during intracellular infection. In this study, we analyzed the role of the FPI-component IglE, a lipoprotein which we previously have shown to be secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner...
November 10, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824518/the-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella-as-a-novel-model-system-to-study-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis
#19
Rie Jønsson, Carsten Struve, Håvard Jenssen, Karen A Krogfelt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820674/the-microbiome-metabolome-crosstalk-in-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-fungal-diseases
#20
Samuel M Gonçalves, Katrien Lagrou, Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Johan A Maertens, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are responsible for several superficial and invasive infections and allergic syndromes. The risk of infection and its clinical outcome vary significantly even among patients with similar predisposing clinical factors and pathogen exposure. There is increasing evidence that the individual microbiome supervises the outcome of the host-fungus interaction by influencing mechanisms of immune regulation, inflammation, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Microbiome-mediated mechanisms of resistance allow therefore the control of fungal colonization, preventing the onset of overt disease, particularly in patients with underlying immune dysfunction...
November 7, 2016: Virulence
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