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Donghoon Kang, Daniel R Kirienko, Phillip Webster, Alfred L Fisher, Natalia V Kirienko
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a re-emerging, opportunistic human pathogen, encodes a variety of virulence determinants. Pyoverdine, a siderophore produced by this bacterium, is essential for pathogenesis in mammalian infections. This observation is generally attributed to its roles in acquiring iron and/or regulating other virulence factors. Here we report that pyoverdine translocates into the host, where it binds and extracts iron from the host prior to its eventual exit. Pyoverdine-mediated iron extraction damages host mitochondria, disrupting their function and triggering mitochondrial turnover via autophagy...
March 13, 2018: Virulence
Zhiqiang Duan, Haixu Xu, Xinqin Ji, Jiafu Zhao, Houqiang Xu, Yan Hu, Shanshan Deng, Shunlin Hu, Xiufan Liu
The matrix (M) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is demonstrated to localize in the nucleus via intrinsic nuclear localization signal (NLS), but cellular proteins involved in the nuclear import of NDV M protein and the role of M's nuclear localization in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV remain unclear. In this study, importin β1 was screened to interact with NDV M protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. This interaction was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays...
March 13, 2018: Virulence
Joseph A McBride, Gregory M Gauthier, Bruce S Klein
This review article focuses on the mechanisms underlying temperature adaptation and virulence of the etiologic agents of blastomycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Blastomyces gilchristii, and Blastomyces percursus. In response to temperature, Blastomyces undergoes a reversible morphologic switch between hyphae and yeast known as the phase transition. The conversion to yeast for Blastomyces and related thermally dimorphic fungi is essential for virulence. In the yeast phase, Blastomyces upregulates the essential virulence factor, BAD1, which promotes attachment to host cells, impairs activation of immune cells, and blunts cytokine release...
March 13, 2018: Virulence
Angie Gelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Virulence
Sc Goldthorpe, Mj Conway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Virulence
John Benktander, Angela Barone, Miralda Madar Johansson, Susann Teneberg
Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric mucosa is a prerequisite for the pathogenesis of H. pylori related diseases. In this study, we investigated the ganglioside composition of human stomach as the target for attachment mediated by H. pylori SabA (sialic acid binding adhesin). Acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from human stomach and separated into subfractions, which were characterized by mass spectrometry and by binding of antibodies, bacteria, and Solanum tuberosum lectin. H. pylori SabA binding gangliosides were characterized as Neu5Acα3-neolactohexaosylceramide and Neu5Acα3-neolactooctaosylceramide, while the other acid human stomach glycosphingolipids characterized (sulfatide and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GM1, Neu5Acα3-neolactotetraosylceramide, GD1a and GD1b) were not recognized by the bacteria...
February 23, 2018: Virulence
Praveen Papareddy, Gopinath Kasetty, Saud Alyafei, Emanuel Smeds, Outi M H Salo-Ahen, Stefan R Hansson, Arne Egesten, Heiko Herwald
Coagulation, complement, and innate immunity are tightly interwoven and form an alliance that can be traced back to early eukaryotic evolution. Here we employed an ecoimmunological approach using Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI)-1-derived peptides from the different classes of vertebrates (i.e. fish, reptile, bird, and mammals) and tested whether they can boost killing of various human bacterial pathogens in plasma. We found signs of species-specific conservation and diversification during evolution in these peptides that significantly impact their antibacterial activity...
February 23, 2018: Virulence
Pavla Stojkova, Petra Spidlova, Juraj Lenco, Helena Rehulkova, Lucie Kratka, Jiri Stulik
The nucleoid-associated HU proteins are small abundant DNA-binding proteins in bacterial cell which play an important role in the initiation of DNA replication, cell division, SOS response, control of gene expression and recombination. HU proteins bind to double stranded DNA non-specifically, but they exhibit high affinity to abnormal DNA structures as four-way junctions, gaps or nicks, which are generated during DNA damage. In many pathogens HU proteins regulate expression of genes involved in metabolism and virulence...
February 23, 2018: Virulence
Peixi Chang, Weitian Li, Guolin Shi, Huan Li, Xiaoqing Yang, Zechen Xia, Yuan Ren, Zhiwei Li, Huanchun Chen, Weicheng Bei
Streptococcus suis is a highly invasive pathogen that can cause sepsis and meningitis in pigs and humans. However, we have limited understanding of the mechanisms S. suis uses to evade innate immunity. To investigate the involvement of the two-component signal transduction system of S. suis in host immune defense, we examined the expression of 15 response regulators of S. suis following stimulation with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We found that several response regulators were significantly up-regulated including vraR...
February 23, 2018: Virulence
Carlos R Osorio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Virulence
Erika Grandolfo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Virulence
Loida López-Fernández, Marta Sanchis, Patricia Navarro-Rodríguez, Francisco E Nicolás, Fátima Silva-Franco, Josep Guarro, Victoriano Garre, María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Javier Capilla
The increasing number of infections by species of Mucorales and their high mortality constitute an important concern for public health. This study aims to decipher the genetic basis of Mucor circinelloides pathogenicity, which displays virulence in a strain dependent manner. Assuming that genetic differences between strains may be linked to different pathotypes, we have conducted a study to explore genes responsible for virulence in M. circinelloides by whole genome sequencing of the avirulent strain NRRL3631 and comparison with the virulent strain CBS277...
February 13, 2018: Virulence
Grace J Yuen, Frederick M Ausubel
The innate immune response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively studied and a variety of Toll-independent immune response pathways have been identified. Surprisingly little, however, is known about how pathogens activate the C. elegans immune response. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are closely related enterococcal species that exhibit significantly different levels of virulence in C. elegans infection models. Previous work has shown that activation of the C. elegans immune response by Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves P...
February 13, 2018: Virulence
Anuj Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Virulence
Arturo Casadevall, Carolina Coelho, Radames J B Cordero, Quigly Dragotakes, Eric Jung, Raghav Vij, Maggie P Wear
The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is its dominant virulence factor and plays a key role in the biology of this fungus. In this essay, we focus on the capsule as a cellular structure and note the limitations inherent in the current methodologies available for its study. Given that no single method can provide the structure of the capsule, our notions of what is the cryptococcal capsule must be arrived at by synthesizing information gathered from very different methodological approaches including microscopy, polysaccharide chemistry and physical chemistry of macromolecules...
February 13, 2018: Virulence
Knut Ohlsen, Tobias Hertlein
In vivo imaging technologies offer a great potential for the diagnosis of difficult-to-treat bacterial infections. A major limitation of conventional imaging modalities is the lack of specificity to distinguish the site of bacterial infection from sterile inflammation. Targeted approaches like antibiotics linked to imaging tracers for detection of various bacterial pathogens or species-specific antibodies combined with anatomical imaging modalities are currently being evaluated to overcome this problem. Considering the recent progress in optical and targeted imaging that may accelerate preclinical development programs, clinical implementation of in vivo imaging modalities to detect bacterial infection foci becomes realistic in the future...
February 8, 2018: Virulence
Dane Parker
In this issue Moscoso et al [1] present exciting data utilizing a D-alanine mutant of Staphylococcus aureus as a live vaccine against lethal infection. Given the absence of a currently approved vaccine and antibiotic resistance within the S. aureus population it provides new hope in the prevention of this common human pathogen.
February 6, 2018: Virulence
Ying Dong, Christian P Speer, Kirsten Glaser
Staphylococcus epidermidis accounts for the majority of cases of neonatal sepsis. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to be associated with neonatal morbidities, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), white matter injury (WMI), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which affect short-term and long-term neonatal outcome. Imbalanced inflammation has been considered to be a major underlying mechanism of each entity. Conventionally regarded as a harmless commensal on human skin, S...
February 6, 2018: Virulence
Konstantinos Papadimitriou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Virulence
Iñigo Lasa, Cristina Solano
Despite the number of examples that correlate interspecies interactions in polymicrobial infections with variations in pathogenicity and antibiotic susceptibility of individual organisms, antibiotic therapies are selected to target the most relevant pathogen, with no consideration of the consequences that the presence of other bacterial species may have in the pathogenicity and response to antimicrobial agents. In this issue of Virulence, Garcia-Perez et al. 10 applied replica plating of used wound dressings to assess the topography of distinct S...
February 6, 2018: Virulence
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