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Virulence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521626/experimental-evolution-of-resistance-against-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-the-insect-model-host-galleria-mellonella-results-in-epigenetic-modifications
#1
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Ekaterina Grizanova, Ekaterina Chertkova, Ruediger Lehmann, Ivan Dubovskiy, Andreas Vilcinskas
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to translate environmental stimuli into heritable transgenerational phenotypic variations that can significantly influence natural selection. An intriguing example is exposure to pathogens, which imposes selection for host resistance. To test this hypothesis, we used larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella as model host to experimentally select for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the most widely used bacterial agent for the biological control of pest insects...
May 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498729/the-distinct-function-of-tep2-and-tep6-in-the-immune-defense-of-drosophila-melanogaster-against-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#2
Upasana Shokal, Hannah Kopydlowski, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Previous and recent investigations on the innate immune response of Drosophila have identified certain mechanisms that promote pathogen elimination. However, the function of Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the fly still remains elusive. Recently we have shown the contribution of TEP4 in the antibacterial immune defense of Drosophila against non-pathogenic E. coli, and the pathogens Photorhabdus luminescens and P. asymbiotica. Here we studied the function of Tep genes in both humoral and cellular immunity upon E...
May 12, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489963/the-aspergillus-fumigatus-farnesyltransferase-%C3%AE-subunit-rama-mediates-growth-virulence-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#3
Tiffany S Norton, Qusai Al Abdallah, Amy M Hill, Rachel V Lovingood, Jarrod R Fortwendel
Post-translational prenylation mechanisms, including farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, mediate both subcellular localization and protein-protein interaction in eukaryotes. The prenyltransferase complex is an αβ heterodimer in which the essential α-subunit is common to both the farnesyltransferase and the geranylgeranyltransferase type-I enzymes. The β-subunit is unique to each enzyme. Farnesyltransferase activity is an important mediator of protein localization and subsequent signaling for multiple proteins, including Ras GTPases...
May 10, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489958/zinc-metalloproteinase-zmpc-suppresses-experimental-pneumococcal-meningitis-by-inhibiting-bacterial-invasion-of-central-nervous-systems
#4
Masaya Yamaguchi, Masanobu Nakata, Ryuichi Sumioka, Yujiro Hirose, Satoshi Wada, Yukihiro Akeda, Tomoko Sumitomo, Shigetada Kawabata
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Here, we investigated whether pneumococcal paralogous zinc metalloproteases contribute to meningitis onset. Findings of codon-based phylogenetic analyses indicated three major clusters in the Zmp family; ZmpA, ZmpC, and ZmpB, with ZmpD as a subgroup. In vitro invasion assays of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) showed that deletion of the zmpC gene in S. pneumoniae strain TIGR4 significantly increased bacterial invasion into hBMECs, whereas deletion of either zmpA or zmpB had no effect...
May 10, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489957/unravelling-pathogenetic-mechanisms-of-epidemic-lineages
#5
Oddvar Oppegaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481721/s-oralis-activates-the-efg1-filamentation-pathway-in-c-albicans-to-promote-cross-kingdom-interactions-and-mucosal-biofilms
#6
Hongbin Xu, Takanori Sobue, Martinna Bertolini, Angela Thompson, Margaret Vickerman, Clarissa J Nobile, Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou
Candida albicans and Streptococcus oralis are ubiquitous oral commensal organisms. Under host-permissive conditions these organisms can form hypervirulent mucosal biofilms. C. albicans biofilm formation is controlled by six master transcriptional regulators: Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1. The objective of this work was to test whether any of these regulators play a role in cross-kingdom interactions between C. albicans and S. oralis in oral mucosal biofilms, and identify downstream target gene(s) that promote these interactions...
May 8, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481716/dna-vaccination-resurfaces-in-the-struggle-against-melioidosis
#7
Sophie A Aschenbroich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475476/signatures-of-cytoplasmic-proteins-in-the-exoproteome-distinguish-community-and-hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-lineages
#8
Solomon A Mekonnen, Laura M Palma Medina, Corinna Glasner, Eleni Tsompanidou, Anne de Jong, Stefano Grasso, Marc Schaffer, Ulrike Mäder, Anders R Larsen, Heidi Gumpert, Henrik Westh, Uwe Völker, Andreas Otto, Dörte Becher, Jan Maarten van Dijl
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the common name for a heterogeneous group of highly drug-resistant staphylococci. Two major MRSA classes are distinguished based on epidemiology, namely community-associated (CA) and hospital-associated (HA) MRSA. Notably, the distinction of CA- and HA-MRSA based on molecular traits remains difficult due to the high genomic plasticity of S. aureus. Here we sought to pinpoint global distinguishing features of CA- and HA-MRSA through a comparative genome and proteome analysis of the notorious MRSA lineage USA300...
May 5, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475412/pi3k-akt-mtor-axis-sustains-rotavirus-infection-via-the-4e-bp1-mediated-autophagy-pathway-and-represents-an-antiviral-target
#9
Yuebang Yin, Wen Dang, Xinying Zhou, Lei Xu, Wenshi Wang, Wanlu Cao, Sunrui Chen, Junhong Su, Xuepeng Cai, Shaobo Xiao, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Rotavirus infection is a major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in infants younger than five years old and in particular cases of immunocompromised patients irrespective to the age of the patients. Although vaccines have been developed, antiviral therapy is an important complement that cannot be substituted. Because of the lack of specific approved treatment, it is urgent to facilitate the cascade of further understanding of the infection biology, identification of druggable targets and the final development of effective antiviral therapies...
May 5, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467147/early-vascular-aging-in-the-hiv-infected-is-arterial-stiffness-assessment-the-ideal-tool
#10
Carla M T Fourie, Aletta E Schutte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467144/muramidase-released-protein-of-streptococcus-suis-new-insight-into-its-impact-on-virulence
#11
Christian Schwerk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459299/enhanced-nasopharyngeal-infection-and-shedding-associated-with-an-epidemic-lineage-of-emm3-group-a-streptococcus
#12
Baharak Afshar, Claire E Turner, Theresa Lamagni, Ken Smith, Ali Al-Shahib, Anthony Underwood, Matthew T G Holden, Androulla Efstratiou, Shiranee Sriskandan
Background A group A Streptococcus (GAS) lineage of genotype emm3, sequence type 15 (ST15) was associated with a six month upsurge in invasive GAS disease in the UK. The epidemic lineage (Lineage C) had lost two typical emm3 prophages, Φ315.1 and Φ315.2 associated with the superantigen ssa, but gained a different prophage (ΦUK-M3.1) associated with a different superantigen, speC and a DNAse spd1. Methods and Results The presence of speC and spd1 in Lineage C ST15 strains enhanced both in vitro mitogenic and DNAse activities over non-Lineage C ST15 strains...
May 1, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448786/microbiological-features-and-clinical-impact-of-the-type-vi-secretion-system-t6ss-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-causing-bacteremia
#13
Jungok Kim, Ji-Young Lee, Haejeong Lee, Ji Young Choi, Dae Hun Kim, Yu Mi Wi, Kyong Ran Peck, Kwan Soo Ko
We investigated the genetic background and microbiological features of T6SS-positive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and clinical impact of the T6SS in patients with A. baumannii bacteremia. One hundred and sixty-two A. baumannii isolates from patients with bacteremia in two tertiary-care hospitals in Korea were included in this study. Approximately one-third (51/162, 31.5%) of the A. baumannii clinical isolates possessed the hcp gene, and the hcp-positive isolates were found in several genotypes in multilocus sequence typing...
April 27, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448785/a-class-ii-myosin-is-required-for-growth-conidiation-cell-wall-integrity-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#14
Min Guo, Leyong Tan, Xiang Nie, Zhengguang Zhang
In eukaryotic organisms, myosin proteins are the major ring components that are involved in cytokinesis. To date, little is known about the biological functions of myosin proteins in Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, insertional mutagenesis conducted in M. oryzae led to identification of Momyo2, a pathogenicity gene predicted to encode a class-II myosin protein homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Myo1. According to qRT-PCR, Momyo2 is highly expressed during early infectious stage. When this gene was disrupted, the resultant mutant isolates were attenuated in virulence on rice and barley...
April 27, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441105/transcriptomic-dissection-of-the-horizontally-acquired-response-regulator-esrb-reveals-its-global-regulatory-roles-in-the-physiological-adaptation-and-activation-of-t3ss-and-the-cognate-effector-repertoire-in-edwardsiella-piscicida-during-infection-towards
#15
Yang Liu, Luyao Zhao, Minjun Yang, Kaiyu Yin, Xiaohui Zhou, Ka Yin Leung, Qin Liu, Yuanxing Zhang, Qiyao Wang
Edwardsiella piscicida is the leading pathogen threatening worldwide aquaculture industries. The two-component system (TCS) EsrA-EsrB is essential for the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, little is known about the regulon and regulatory mechanism of EsrA-EsrB or about the factors that mediate the interaction of TCS with bacterial hosts. Here, our RNA-seq analysis indicated that EsrB strongly induces type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS) expression and that it modulates the expression of both physiology- and virulence-associated genes in E...
April 25, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441093/catching-the-evader-can-monoclonal-antibodies-interfere-with-staphylococcus-aureus-immune-escape
#16
Jean-Philippe Rasigade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441089/one-size-fits-all-antibody-avidity-measurement-against-multiple-antigens-in-maternal-vaccination-studies
#17
Thomas Rice, Beate Kampmann, Beth Holder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436748/disruption-of-tetr-type-regulator-aden-by-mobile-genetic-element-confers-elevated-virulence-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#18
Rajagopalan Saranathan, Sudhakar Pagal, Ajit R Sawant, Archana Tomar, M Madhangi, Suresh Sah, Annapurna Satti, K P Arunkumar, K Prashanth
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen and considered as a major threat due to its extreme drug resistance. In this study, the genome of a hyper-virulent MDR strain PKAB07 of A. baumannii isolated from an Indian patient was sequenced and analysed to understand its mechanisms of virulence, resistance and evolution. Comparative genomics analysis of PKAB07 revealed virulence and resistance related genes scattered throughout the genome, instead of being organized as an island, indicating the highly mosaic nature of the genome...
April 24, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430538/biophysical-comparison-of-diphtheria-and-tetanus-toxins-with-the-formaldehyde-detoxified-toxoids-the-main-components-of-diphtheria-and-tetanus-vaccines
#19
Husam Alsarraf, Emil Dedic, Morten J Bjerrum, Ole Østergaard, Max Per Kristensen, Jesper W Petersen, René Jørgensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422568/cgas-sting-tbk1-irf3-7-induced-interferon-%C3%AE-contributes-to-the-clearing-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-in-mice
#20
Nanthapon Ruangkiattikul, Andreas Nerlich, Ketema Abdissa, Stefan Lienenklaus, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Nina Janze, Kristin Laarmann, Julia Spanier, Ulrich Kalinke, Siegfried Weiss, Ralph Goethe
Type I interferons (IFN-I), such as IFN-α and IFN-β are important messengers in the host response against bacterial infections. Knowledge about the role of IFN-I in infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is limited. Here we show that macrophages infected with pathogens of the Mycobacterium avium complex produced significantly lower amounts of IFN-β than macrophages infected with the opportunistic pathogen M. smegmatis. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we focused on the obligate pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) and the opportunistic M...
April 19, 2017: Virulence
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