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Tanmoy Chakraborty, Renáta Tóth, Attila Gácser
Eicosanoids are bioactive lipid mediators generated in almost all mammalian cells from the oxidation of arachidonic acid and other related twenty-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Eicosanoids regulate various physiological functions, including cellular homoeostasis and modulation of inflammatory responses in mammals. The mode of action of these lipid mediators depend on their binding to different G-protein coupled receptors. The three main enzymatic pathways associated with their production are the COX pathway, LOX pathway and cytochrome P450 pathway...
December 17, 2018: Virulence
Adithap Hansakon, Putthiphak Mutthakalin, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj, Methee Chayakulkeeree, Pornpimon Angkasekwinai
Cryptococcus-macrophage interaction is crucial in the development of cryptococcocal diseases. C. neoformans and C. gattii are major pathogenic species that occupy different niches and cause different clinical manifestations. However, the differences of macrophage interaction among these species in affecting different disease outcomes and immune responses have not been clearly addressed. Here, we examined the macrophage uptake rates, intracellular loads and intracellular proliferation rates of C. neoformans and C...
December 6, 2018: Virulence
Edvin J Thanikkal, Dharmender K Gahlot, Junfa Liu, Marcus Fredriksson Sundbom, Jyoti M Gurung, Kristina Ruuth, Monika K Francis, Ikenna R Obi, Karl M Thompson, Shiyun Chen, Petra Dersch, Matthew S Francis
The Gram-negative enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis possesses a number of regulatory systems that detect cell envelope damage caused by noxious extracytoplasmic stresses. The CpxA sensor kinase and CpxR response regulator two-component regulatory system is one such pathway. Active Cpx signalling upregulates various factors designed to repair and restore cell envelope integrity. Concomitantly, this pathway also down-regulates key determinants of virulence. In Yersinia, cpxA deletion accumulates high levels of phosphorylated CpxR (CpxR~P)...
December 5, 2018: Virulence
Betiana Nebaí Salassa, Patricia Silvia Romano
Autophagy is a well-conserved process of self-digestion of intracellular components. T. cruzi is a protozoan parasite with a complex life-cycle that involves insect vectors and mammalian hosts. Like other eukaryotic organisms, T. cruzi possesses an autophagic pathway that is activated during metacyclogenesis, the process that generates the infective forms of parasites. In addition, it has been demonstrated that mammalian autophagy has a role during host cell invasion by T. cruzi, and that T. cruzi can modulate this process to its own benefit...
November 29, 2018: Virulence
Sarp Bamyaci, Roland Nordfelth, Åke Forsberg
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are tightly regulated key virulence mechanisms shared by many Gram-negative pathogens. YopN, one of the substrates, is also crucial in regulation of expression, secretion and activation of the T3SS of pathogenic Yersinia species. Interestingly, YopN itself is also targeted into host cells but so far no activity or direct role for YopN inside host cells has been described. Recently, we were able show that the central region of YopN is required for efficient translocation of YopH and YopE into host cells...
November 29, 2018: Virulence
Yasir Mohamud, Honglin Luo
Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common human pathogens worldwide. Recent international outbreaks in North America and South East Asia have emphasized the need for more effective anti-viral therapies. As obligate parasites, EVs rely on the host cellular machinery for effective viral propagation. Accumulating evidence has indicated that EVs subvert and disrupt the cellular autophagy pathway to facilitate productive infection, and consequently leading to host pathogenesis. Given that defective autophagy is a common factor in various human diseases, including neurodegeneration, cardiomyopathy, and metabolic disorders, a clear understanding of the relationship between EV infection and autophagy is warranted...
November 26, 2018: Virulence
Ziqing Yan, Ruyi Wang, Letian Zhang, Binger Shen, Ningning Wang, Qiuhua Xu, Wei He, Wanting He, Gairu Li, Shuo Su
The codon usage pattern can reveal the adaptive changes that allow virus survival and fitness adaptation to their particular host, as well as the external environment. Although still considered a novel influenza virus, there is an increasing number of influenza D viruses (IDV) reported. Considering the vital role of the hemagglutinin-esterase fusion (HEF) gene in in receptor binding, receptor degradation, and membrane fusion, we investigated the codon usage pattern of the IDV HEF gene to better understand its adaptive changes during evolution...
November 26, 2018: Virulence
Xue-Ming Zhu, Lin Li, Min Wu, Shuang Liang, Huan-Bin Shi, Xiao-Hong Liu, Fu-Cheng Lin
The interaction between pathogens and their host plants is a ubiquitous process. Some plant fungal pathogens can form a specific infection structure, such as an appressorium, which is formed by the accumulation of a large amount of glycerin and thereby the creation of an extremely high intracellular turgor pressure, which allows the penetration peg of the appressorium to puncture the leaf cuticle of the host. Previous studies have shown that autophagy energizes the accumulation of pressure by appressoria, which induces its pathogenesis...
November 26, 2018: Virulence
Marion Steger, Marta Bermejo-Jambrina, Teodor Yordanov, Johannes Wagener, Axel A Brakhage, Verena Pittl, Lukas A Huber, Hubertus Haas, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Wilfried Posch, Doris Wilflingseder
Complement system and dendritic cells (DCs) form - beside neutrophils and macrophages - the first line of defense to combat fungal infections. Therefore, we here studied interactions of these first immune elements with Aspergillus fumigatus lacking ß-1,3-glucans (fks1tetOn rep under repressed conditions) to mechanistically explain the mode of action of echinocandins in more detail. Echinocandins are cell wall active agents blocking β-glucan synthase, making the A. fumigatus fks1tetOn mutant a good model to study immune-modulatory actions of these drugs...
October 29, 2018: Virulence
Dajana F Lendak, Dunja M Mihajlović, Aleksandra S Novakov-Mikić, Jasmina M Boban, Milan Ubavić, Snežana V Brkić
Although the role of B cells in sepsis immunoregulation has become an interesting topic, there is lack of data on the role of B cell function regulators in prediction of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) and soluble Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein (sTACI), the main B cell function regulators, in prediction of MODS development within the first 48 h after admission to intensive care unit, among septic patients...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jingyi Liu, Showgy Ma'ayeh, Dimitra Peirasmaki, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Lars Hellman, Staffan G Svärd
Giardiasis is a common diarrheal disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. Cysteine proteases (CPs) are acknowledged as virulence factors in Giardia but their specific role in the molecular pathogenesis of disease is not known. Herein, we aimed to characterize the three main secreted CPs (CP14019, CP16160 and CP16779), which were identified by mass spectrometry in the medium during interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro. First, the CPs were epitope-tagged and localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vesicle-like structures...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Fu-Sheng Deng, Ching-Hsuan Lin
An epigenetic transition between white cells and opaque cells influences several properties of Candida albicans biology, including cellular morphology, biofilm formation, virulence, and sexual mating. In particular, these two cell types exhibit marked differences in their ability to undergo sex. A previous study identified the transcriptional regulator of pheromone response in both the white and opaque states as Cph1 because deletion of this gene abolished both pheromone-induced cell adhesion in white cells and sexual mating in opaque cells...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Nabil Killiny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
M Carda-Diéguez, F X Silva-Hernández, T P Hubbard, M C Chao, M K Waldor, C Amaro
Vibrio vulnificus can be a highly invasive pathogen capable of spreading from an infection site to the bloodstream, causing sepsis and death. To survive and proliferate in blood, the pathogen requires mechanisms to overcome the innate immune defenses and metabolic limitations of this host niche. We created a high-density transposon mutant library in YJ016, a strain representative of the most virulent V. vulnificus lineage (or phylogroup) and used transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) screens to identify loci that enable the pathogen to survive and proliferate in human serum...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Yingzhou Xie, Lijun Tian, Gang Li, Hongping Qu, Jingyong Sun, Wei Liang, Xiaobin Li, Xiaoli Wang, Zixin Deng, Jialin Liu, Hong-Yu Ou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Samuele Sabbatini, Claudia Monari, Nathalie Ballet, Paolo Mosci, Amélie Cayzeele Decherf, Fanny Pélerin, Stefano Perito, Paolo Scarpelli, Anna Vecchiarelli
In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic shows an inhibitory effect on Gardnerella vaginalis infection. This effect is likely due to several actions: direct interference with adherence to vaginal tissues, inhibition of sialidase activity, reduction of vaginal epithelial exfoliation. Gardnerella vaginalis does not induce vaginal inflammation and no inflammatory cytokines were, indeed, produced, by the mouse vagina, neither by Gardnerella vaginalis and by the probiotic...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Ambika M V Murthy, Minh-Duy Phan, Kate M Peters, Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, Rodney A Welch, Glen C Ulett, Mark A Schembri, Matthew J Sweet
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) causes the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are a major global public health concern. UPEC uses numerous mechanisms to subvert the innate immune system, including targeting macrophage functions. We recently showed that some UPEC strains rapidly kill human macrophages via an NLRP3-independent pathway, and also trigger NLRP3-dependent IL-1β processing. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis in the reference strain CFT073 to identify UPEC genes that mediate human macrophage cell death...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jiali Lv, Mashkoor Mohsin, Sheng Lei, Swaminath Srinivas, Raja Talish Wiqar, Jingxia Lin, Youjun Feng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jolanta Lukasiewicz, Czeslaw Lugowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
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