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Francisco Romero Pastrana, John M Thompson, Marjolein Heuker, Hedzer Hoekstra, Carly A Dillen, Roger V Ortines, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Julie E Pickett, Matthijs D Linssen, Nicholas M Bernthal, Kevin P Francis, Girbe Buist, Marleen van Oosten, Gooitzen M van Dam, Daniel L J Thorek, Lloyd S Miller, Jan Maarten van Dijl
Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major threat in healthcare, requiring adequate early-stage diagnosis and treatment. This calls for novel diagnostic tools that allow noninvasive in vivo detection of staphylococci. Here we performed a preclinical study to investigate a novel fully-human monoclonal antibody 1D9 that specifically targets the immunodominant staphylococcal antigen A (IsaA). We show that 1D9 binds invariantly to S. aureus cells and may further target other staphylococcal species. Importantly, using a human post-mortem implant model and an in vivo murine skin infection model, preclinical feasibility was demonstrated for 1D9 labeled with the near-infrared fluorophore IRDye800CW to be applied for direct optical imaging of in vivo S...
November 23, 2017: Virulence
Krishnendu Mukherjee, Andreas Vilcinskas
Parasitic fungi are the only pathogens that can infect insect hosts directly through their proteinaceous exoskeleton. Penetration of the cuticle requires the release of fungal enzymes, including proteinases, which act as virulence factors. Insects can sense fungal infections and activate innate immune responses, including the synthesis of antifungal peptides and proteinase inhibitors that neutralize the incoming proteinases. This well-studied host response is epigenetically regulated by histone acetylation/deacetylation...
November 23, 2017: Virulence
Manasi Balachandran, David A Bemis, Stephen A Kania
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen in dogs and the most frequent cause of canine pyoderma. Protein A, a potent virulence factor in S. aureus is encoded by the spa gene. S. pseudintermedius possesses genes seemingly analogous to spa, but the expression and the characteristics of their products have not been directly determined. The purpose of this study was to test isolates from major clonal groups for the presence of spa gene orthologs, quantitate their expression levels, and to characterize protein A in S...
November 20, 2017: Virulence
Sophia Johler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Virulence
Judith A Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Virulence
Nirmal Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Virulence
Susmita Das, Shilpa Ray, Daniel Ryan, Bikash Sahu, Mrutyunjay Suar
Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis), one of the causative agents for non-typhoidal gastrointestinal diseases in humans is an intracellular bacterium and mechanism for its invasion into host cells is critical to cause infection. The virulence of the pathogen is explained by the expression of genes located on its pathogenicity islands, mostly encoded under SPI-1 and SPI-2. However, S. Typhimurium SL1344, despite sharing ∼98% of its genome with S. Enteritidis P125109, lacks few regions of differences (ROD) that are hypothesized to impart virulence potential to S...
November 13, 2017: Virulence
Adeline L Jorjão, Luciane D Oliveira, Liliana Scorzoni, Lívia Mara A Figueiredo-Godoi, Marcia Cristina A Prata, Antonio Olavo C Jorge, Juliana C Junqueira
Galleria mellonella is a well-accepted insect model for the study of pathogen-host interactions and antimicrobial compounds. The main advantages of this model include the low cost of maintenance, the fast life cycle, the possibility of using a large number of caterpillars and the innate immune system, which is evolutionarily conserved relative to mammals. Because of these advantages, different research groups have been working to implement the rearing of G. mellonella in laboratory conditions. This protocol describes our experience in the rearing of G...
November 13, 2017: Virulence
Michael J Davis, Michail S Lionakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Virulence
Harald Rouha, Susanne Weber, Philipp Janesch, Barbara Maierhofer, Karin Gross, Ivana Dolezilkova, Irina Mirkina, Zehra C Visram, Stefan Malafa, Lukas Stulik, Adriana Badarau, Eszter Nagy
Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized to be driven by powerful toxins. Staphylococcus aureus employs up to six pore-forming toxins to subvert the human host defense and to promote bacterial invasion: alpha-hemolysin that disrupts epithelial and endothelial barriers and five leukocidins that lyse phagocytes involved in bacterial clearance. Previously, we described two human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), ASN-1 that neutralizes alpha-hemolysin and four leukocidins (LukSF-PV, LukED, HlgAB, HlgCB), and ASN-2 that inactivates the 5(th) leukocidin, LukGH...
November 3, 2017: Virulence
Elena Capel, Jean-Philippe Barnier, Aldert L Zomer, Christine Bole-Feysot, Thomas Nussbaumer, Anne Jamet, Hervé Lécuyer, Daniel Euphrasie, Zoé Virion, Eric Frapy, Philippe Pélissier, Olivier Join-Lambert, Thomas Rattei, Sandrine Bourdoulous, Xavier Nassif, Mathieu Coureuil
Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis and that of a rapidly progressing fatal septic shock known as purpura fulminans. Meningococcemia is characterized by bacterial adhesion to human endothelial cells of the microvessels. Host specificity has hampered studies on the role of blood vessels colonization in N. meningitidis associated pathogenesis. In this work, using a humanized model of SCID mice allowing the study of bacterial adhesion to human cells in an in vivo context we demonstrate that meningococcal colonization of human blood vessels is a prerequisite to the establishment of sepsis and lethality...
November 3, 2017: Virulence
Julia Isenring, Juliane Köhler, Masanobu Nakata, Marcus Frank, Christoph Jans, Pierre Renault, Camille Danne, Shaynoor Dramsi, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Sonja Oehmcke-Hecht
Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, formerly classified as S. bovis biotype I, is an increasing cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis in the elderly. The physiopathology of infective endocarditis is poorly understood and involves immune and coagulation systems. In this study, we found that S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus activates the human contact system, which in turn has two consequences: cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) resulting in release of the potent pro-inflammatory peptide bradykinin, and initiation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation...
October 26, 2017: Virulence
Liliana O Silva, Lígia S Nobre, Dalila Mil-Homens, Arsénio Fialho, Lígia M Saraiva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Virulence
Alireza Tahamtan, Yazdan Samieipoor, Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri, Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh, Anahita Izadi, Ali Rashidi-Nezhad, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Mohammad Farahmand, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhatri-Azad, Vahid Salimi
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a significant role in pathophysiological processes and impacts disease severity. Here we investigate the possible role of a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) functional variant in determining disease severity and the potential pharmacological therapeutic effects of CB2 activation in viral respiratory infection. The common missense variant (CAA/CGG; Q63R) of the gene-encoding CB2 receptor (CNR2) was evaluated in 90 inpatient and 90 outpatient children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI)...
October 9, 2017: Virulence
Renate König
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Virulence
Diliana Pérez-Reytor, Katherine García
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Virulence
Cecilia Li, Sophie Lev, Desmarini Desmarini, Keren Kaufman-Francis, Adolfo Saiardi, Ana P G Silva, Joel P Mackay, Philip E Thompson, Tania C Sorrell, Julianne T Djordjevic
We previously identified a series of inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPKs), Arg1, Ipk1, Kcs1 and Asp1, in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Using gene deletion analysis, we characterized Arg1, Ipk1 and Kcs1 and showed that they act sequentially to convert IP3 to PP-IP5 (IP7), a key metabolite promoting stress tolerance, metabolic adaptation and fungal dissemination to the brain. We have now directly characterized the enzymatic activity of Arg1, demonstrating that it is a dual specificity (IP3/IP4) kinase producing IP5...
October 4, 2017: Virulence
M D Tate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2017: Virulence
Yun Zhao, Sean Hanniffy, Vilma Arce-Gorvel, Raquel Conde-Alvarez, SangKon Oh, Ignacio Moriyón, Sylvie Mémet, Jean-Pierre Gorvel
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major virulence factor of Brucella, a facultative intracellular pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium. Brucella LPS exhibits a low toxicity and its atypical structure was postulated to delay the host immune response, favouring the establishment of chronic disease. Here we carried out an in-depth in vitro and in vivo characterisation of the immunomodulatory effects of Brucella LPS on different dendritic cell (DC) subpopulations. By using LPSs from bacteria that share some of Brucella LPS structural features, we demonstrated that the core component of B...
October 2, 2017: Virulence
Chun-Yu Lin, Chun-Ching Chiu, Ju Cheng, Chia-Yun Lin, Ya-Fang Shi, Chun-Chou Tsai, Bor-Show Tzang, Tsai-Ching Hsu
Mounting evidence suggests a connection between human parvovirus B19 (B19) and autoimmune diseases, and especially an association between the B19-VP1 unique region (VP1u) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, little is known about the antigenicity of B19-VP1u in the induction of APS-like syndrome. To elucidate the antigenicity of B19-VP1u in the induction of APS, N-terminal truncated B19-VP1u (tVP1u) proteins were prepared to immunize Balb/c mice to generate antibodies against B19-tVP1u proteins. The secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activities and binding specificity of mice anti-B19-tVP1u antibodies with cardiolipin (CL) and beta-2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) were evaluated by performing immunoblot, ELISA and absorption experiments...
September 29, 2017: Virulence
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