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Melissa J Karau, Mulualem E Tilahun, Ashton Krogman, Barbara A Osborne, Richard A Goldsby, Chella S David, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel, Govindarajan Rajagopalan
Drugs such as linezolid that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis may be beneficial in treating infections caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus. As protein synthesis inhibitors have no effect on preformed toxins, neutralization of pathogenic exotoxins with anti-toxin antibodies may be beneficial in conjunction with antibacterial therapy. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of human-mouse chimeric high-affinity neutralizing anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antibodies in the treatment of experimental pneumonia caused by SEB-producing S...
December 7, 2016: Virulence
Andrea E González, Margarita K Lay, Evelyn L Jara, Janyra A Espinoza, Roberto S Gómez, Jorge Soto, Claudia A Rivera, Katia Abarca, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that hRSV and hMPV, can induce aberrant T cell responses, which leads to exacerbated lung inflammation and poor T and B cell memory immunity...
December 2, 2016: Virulence
A Pérez, M Merino, S Rumbo-Feal, L Álvarez-Fraga, J A Vallejo, A Beceiro, E J Ohneck, J Mateos, P Fernández-Puente, L A Actis, M Poza, G Bou
Acinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-acquired pathogen that shows an extraordinary capacity to stay in the hospital environment. Adherence of the bacteria to eukaryotic cells or to abiotic surfaces is the first step for establishing an infection. The A. baumannii strain AbH12O-A2 showed an exceptional ability to adhere to A549 epithelial cells. The AbFhaB/FhaC two-partner secretion (TPS) system involved in adhesion was discovered after the screening of the recently determined A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain genome (CP009534...
November 18, 2016: Virulence
George W Koutsouras, Raddy L Ramos, Luis R Martinez
Most fungi are capable of disseminating into the central nervous system (CNS) commonly being observed in immunocompromised hosts. Microglia plays a critical role in responding to these infections regulating inflammatory processes proficient at controlling CNS colonization by these eukaryotic microorganisms. Nonetheless, it is this inflammatory state that paradoxically yields cerebral mycotic meningoencephalitis and abscess formation. As peripheral macrophages and fungi have been investigated aiding our understanding of peripheral disease, ascertaining the key interactions between fungi and microglia may uncover greater abilities to treat invasive fungal infections of the brain...
November 18, 2016: Virulence
Maria Chiara Decaroli, Vincenzo Rochira
Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging...
November 10, 2016: Virulence
Jeanette E Bröms, Lena Meyer, Anders Sjöstedt
The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Its life cycle is characterized by an ability to survive within phagocytic cells through phagosomal escape and replication in the cytosol, ultimately causing inflammasome activation and host cell death. Required for these processes is the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI), which encodes a Type VI secretion system (T6SS) that is active during intracellular infection. In this study, we analyzed the role of the FPI-component IglE, a lipoprotein which we previously have shown to be secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner...
November 10, 2016: Virulence
Rie Jønsson, Carsten Struve, Håvard Jenssen, Karen A Krogfelt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Virulence
Samuel M Gonçalves, Katrien Lagrou, Cláudio Duarte-Oliveira, Johan A Maertens, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus are responsible for several superficial and invasive infections and allergic syndromes. The risk of infection and its clinical outcome vary significantly even among patients with similar predisposing clinical factors and pathogen exposure. There is increasing evidence that the individual microbiome supervises the outcome of the host-fungus interaction by influencing mechanisms of immune regulation, inflammation, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Microbiome-mediated mechanisms of resistance allow therefore the control of fungal colonization, preventing the onset of overt disease, particularly in patients with underlying immune dysfunction...
November 7, 2016: Virulence
Praveen R Juvvadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Virulence
Ya-Lin Chang, Shang-Jie Yu, Joseph Heitman, Melanie Wellington, Ying-Lien Chen
Invasive fungal infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, and such infections are a substantial burden to healthcare systems around the world. However, the clinically available armamentarium for invasive fungal diseases is limited to 3 main classes (i.e., polyenes, triazoles, and echinocandins), and each has defined limitations related to spectrum of activity, development of resistance, and toxicity. Further, current antifungal therapies are hampered by limited clinical efficacy, high rates of toxicity, and significant variability in pharmacokinetic properties...
November 7, 2016: Virulence
Ka-Wing Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Virulence
Arundhati Maitra, Tengku Karmila Kamil, Monisha Shaik, Cynthia Amaning Danquah, Alina Chrzastek, Sanjib Bhakta
To say that tuberculosis (TB) has regained a strong foothold in the global human health and wellbeing scenario would be an understatement. Ranking alongside HIV/AIDS as the top reason for mortality due to a single infectious disease, the impact of TB extends far into socio-economic context worldwide. As global efforts led by experts and political bodies converge to mitigate the predicted outcome of growing antimicrobial resistance, the academic community of students, practitioners and researchers have mobilised to develop integrated, inter-disciplinary programmes to bring the plans of the former to fruition...
November 4, 2016: Virulence
Sandra S Richter, Dror Marchaim
The global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has been fostered by the lack of preemptive screening of patients in healthcare facilities that could prevent patient-to-patient transmission. Outbreaks of CRE infections have led some institutions to implement rigorous screening programs, although controlled comparative data are frequently lacking. Resource limitations and uncertainty regarding the optimal approach has kept many facilities from enacting more active routine surveillance policies that could reduce the prevalence of CRE...
November 4, 2016: Virulence
Anuradha Janakiraman, Cammie F Lesser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Virulence
M Javad Aman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Virulence
Firas Elmastour, Hela Jaïdane, Mehdi Benkahla, Leila Aguech-Oueslati, Famara Sane, Aymen Halouani, Ilka Engelmann, Antoine Bertin, Moncef Mokni, Jawhar Gharbi, Mahjoub Aouni, Enagnon K Alidjinou, Didier Hober
In previous studies it was shown that inoculation of Swiss albino mice with CV-B4 E2 resulted in the production of serum IgG capable of enhancing the CV-B4 E2 infection of murine spleen cells cultures. To investigate whether such an enhancing activity of serum can play a role in vivo, we decided to study the CV-B4 E2 infection in mice exposed to successive inoculations of virus. In Swiss albino mice infected with CV-B4 E2 at the age of 21 days, anti-CV-B4 E2 neutralizing and enhancing activities of their serum peaked after 55 d...
October 28, 2016: Virulence
Antoine Guillon, Deborah Brea, Eric Morello, Aihua Tang, Youenn Jouan, Reuben Ramphal, Brice Korkmaz, Magdiel Perez-Cruz, Francois Trottein, Richard J O'Callaghan, Philippe Gosset, Mustapha Si-Tahar
The IL-22 signaling pathway is critical for regulating mucosal defense and limiting bacterial dissemination. IL-22 is unusual among interleukins because it does not directly regulate the function of conventional immune cells, but instead targets cells at outer body barriers, such as respiratory epithelial cells. Consequently, IL-22 signaling participates in the maintenance of the lung mucosal barrier by controlling cell proliferation and tissue repair, and enhancing the production of specific chemokines and anti-microbial peptides...
October 28, 2016: Virulence
Wiep Klaas Smits
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Virulence
Michelle L Korir, Clare Laut, Lisa M Rogers, Jessica A Plemmons, David M Aronoff, Shannon D Manning
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, asymptomatically colonizes up to 30% of women and can persistently colonize even after antibiotic treatment. Previous studies have shown that GBS resides inside macrophages, but the mechanism by which it survives remains unknown. Here, we examined the ability of 4 GBS strains to survive inside macrophages and then focused on 2 strains belonging to sequence type (ST)-17 and ST-12, to examine persistence in the presence of antibiotics...
October 28, 2016: Virulence
Patricia I Diaz, Bo-Young Hong, Amanda K Dupuy, Linda D Strausbaugh
Research on oral fungi has centered on Candida. However, recent internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based studies revealed a vast number of fungal taxa as potential oral residents. We review DNA-based studies of the oral mycobiome and contrast them with cultivation-based surveys, showing that most genera encountered by cultivation have also been detected molecularly. Some taxa such as Malassezia, however, appear in high prevalence and abundance in molecular studies but have not been cultivated. Important technical and bioinformatic challenges to ITS-based oral mycobiome studies are discussed...
October 28, 2016: Virulence
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