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Xian Sun, Lu Zhang, Jun Jiang, Mark Ng, Zhenling Cui, Juntao Mai, Sang Kyun Ahn, Jingqian Liu, Jinyu Zhang, Jun Liu, Yao Li
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) to survive and persist in the host for decades in an asymptomatic state is an important aspect of tuberculosis pathogenesis. Although adaptation to hypoxia is thought to play a prominent role underlying M. tb persistence, how the bacteria achieve this goal is largely unknown. Rv0081, a member of the DosR regulon, is induced at the early stage of hypoxia while Rv3334 is one of the enduring hypoxic response genes. In this study, we uncovered genetic interactions between these two transcription factors...
August 30, 2018: Virulence
Hugo Costa Paes, Stefânia de Oliveira Frazão, Camila Pereira Rosa, Patrícia Albuquerque, Arturo Casadevall, Maria Sueli Soares Felipe, André Moraes Nicola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Virulence
Vera L G Calich, Ronei L Mamoni, Flávio V Loures
This review addresses the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance and controlling pathogen immunity, in the host response against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a primary fungal pathogen. A brief introduction on the general features of Treg cells summarizes their main functions, subpopulations, mechanisms of suppression and plasticity. The main aspects of immunity in the diverse forms of the P. brasiliensis infection are presented, as are the few extant studies on the relevance of Treg cells in the control of severity of the human disease...
August 1, 2018: Virulence
Joseph A McBride, Gregory M Gauthier, Bruce S Klein
This review article focuses on the mechanisms underlying temperature adaptation and virulence of the etiologic agents of blastomycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Blastomyces gilchristii, and Blastomyces percursus. In response to temperature, Blastomyces undergoes a reversible morphologic switch between hyphae and yeast known as the phase transition. The conversion to yeast for Blastomyces and related thermally dimorphic fungi is essential for virulence. In the yeast phase, Blastomyces upregulates the essential virulence factor, BAD1, which promotes attachment to host cells, impairs activation of immune cells, and blunts cytokine release...
August 1, 2018: Virulence
Arturo Casadevall, Carolina Coelho, Radames J B Cordero, Quigly Dragotakes, Eric Jung, Raghav Vij, Maggie P Wear
The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is its dominant virulence factor and plays a key role in the biology of this fungus. In this essay, we focus on the capsule as a cellular structure and note the limitations inherent in the current methodologies available for its study. Given that no single method can provide the structure of the capsule, our notions of what is the cryptococcal capsule must be arrived at by synthesizing information gathered from very different methodological approaches including microscopy, polysaccharide chemistry and physical chemistry of macromolecules...
August 1, 2018: Virulence
Huan Wang, Lu Liu, Qi Cao, Weiting Mao, Yage Zhang, Xinyi Qu, Xuwang Cai, Yujin Lv, Huanchun Chen, Xiaojuan Xu, Xiangru Wang
Bacterial lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an important virulence-associated factor, and its sialylation largely confers its ability to mediate cell adhesion, invasion, inflammation, and immune evasion. Here, we investigated the function of the Haemophilus parasuis α-2,3-sialyltransferase gene, lsgB, which determines the terminal sialylation of LOS, by generating a lsgB deletion mutant as well as a complementation strain. Our data indicate a direct effect of lsgB on LOS sialylation and reveal important roles of lsgB in promoting the pathogenicity of H...
July 23, 2018: Virulence
Dajana F Lendak, Dunja M Mihajlović, Aleksandra S Novakov-Mikić, Jasmina M Boban, Milan Ubavić, Snežana V Brkić
Although the role of B cells in sepsis immunoregulation has become an interesting topic, there is lack of data on the role of B cell function regulators in prediction of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) and soluble Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein (sTACI), the main B cell function regulators, in prediction of MODS development within the first 48 h after admission to intensive care unit, among septic patients...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jingyi Liu, Showgy Ma'ayeh, Dimitra Peirasmaki, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann, Lars Hellman, Staffan G Svärd
Giardiasis is a common diarrheal disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. Cysteine proteases (CPs) are acknowledged as virulence factors in Giardia but their specific role in the molecular pathogenesis of disease is not known. Herein, we aimed to characterize the three main secreted CPs (CP14019, CP16160 and CP16779), which were identified by mass spectrometry in the medium during interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro. First, the CPs were epitope-tagged and localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vesicle-like structures...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Fu-Sheng Deng, Ching-Hsuan Lin
An epigenetic transition between white cells and opaque cells influences several properties of Candida albicans biology, including cellular morphology, biofilm formation, virulence, and sexual mating. In particular, these two cell types exhibit marked differences in their ability to undergo sex. A previous study identified the transcriptional regulator of pheromone response in both the white and opaque states as Cph1 because deletion of this gene abolished both pheromone-induced cell adhesion in white cells and sexual mating in opaque cells...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Nabil Killiny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
M Carda-Diéguez, F X Silva-Hernández, T P Hubbard, M C Chao, M K Waldor, C Amaro
Vibrio vulnificus can be a highly invasive pathogen capable of spreading from an infection site to the bloodstream, causing sepsis and death. To survive and proliferate in blood, the pathogen requires mechanisms to overcome the innate immune defenses and metabolic limitations of this host niche. We created a high-density transposon mutant library in YJ016, a strain representative of the most virulent V. vulnificus lineage (or phylogroup) and used transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) screens to identify loci that enable the pathogen to survive and proliferate in human serum...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Yingzhou Xie, Lijun Tian, Gang Li, Hongping Qu, Jingyong Sun, Wei Liang, Xiaobin Li, Xiaoli Wang, Zixin Deng, Jialin Liu, Hong-Yu Ou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Samuele Sabbatini, Claudia Monari, Nathalie Ballet, Paolo Mosci, Amélie Cayzeele Decherf, Fanny Pélerin, Stefano Perito, Paolo Scarpelli, Anna Vecchiarelli
In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic shows an inhibitory effect on Gardnerella vaginalis infection. This effect is likely due to several actions: direct interference with adherence to vaginal tissues, inhibition of sialidase activity, reduction of vaginal epithelial exfoliation. Gardnerella vaginalis does not induce vaginal inflammation and no inflammatory cytokines were, indeed, produced, by the mouse vagina, neither by Gardnerella vaginalis and by the probiotic...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Ambika M V Murthy, Minh-Duy Phan, Kate M Peters, Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, Rodney A Welch, Glen C Ulett, Mark A Schembri, Matthew J Sweet
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) causes the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are a major global public health concern. UPEC uses numerous mechanisms to subvert the innate immune system, including targeting macrophage functions. We recently showed that some UPEC strains rapidly kill human macrophages via an NLRP3-independent pathway, and also trigger NLRP3-dependent IL-1β processing. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis in the reference strain CFT073 to identify UPEC genes that mediate human macrophage cell death...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jiali Lv, Mashkoor Mohsin, Sheng Lei, Swaminath Srinivas, Raja Talish Wiqar, Jingxia Lin, Youjun Feng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Jolanta Lukasiewicz, Czeslaw Lugowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Médea Padra, Barbara Adamczyk, John Benktander, Bram Flahou, Emma C Skoog, János Tamás Padra, Annemieke Smet, Chunsheng Jin, Richard Ducatelle, Tore Samuelsson, Freddy Haesebrouck, Niclas G Karlsson, Susann Teneberg, Sara K Lindén
Helicobacter suis colonizes the stomach of most pigs and is the most prevalent non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species found in the human stomach. In the human host, H. suis contributes to the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma, whereas in pigs it is associated with gastritis, decreased growth and ulcers. Here, we demonstrate that the level of H. pylori and H. suis binding to human and pig gastric mucins varies between individuals with species dependent specificity...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Marta Carretero-Ledesma, Meritxell García-Quintanilla, Reyes Martín-Peña, Marina R Pulido, Jerónimo Pachón, Michael J McConnell
Acinetobacter baumannii can acquire resistance to colistin via complete loss of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis due to mutations in the lpxA, lpxC and lpxD genes. However, although colistin is increasingly being used for the treatment of multidrug resistant infections, very few A. baumannii clinical isolates develop colistin resistance through loss of LPS biosynthesis. This may suggest that LPS loss affects virulence traits that play a role in the transmission and pathogenesis of A. baumannii. In this study we characterize multiple virulence phenotypes of colistin resistant, LPS-deficient derivatives of the ATCC 19606 strain and five multidrug resistant clinical isolates and their colistin resistant, LPS-deficient derivatives...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
Julien Sevestre, Seydina M Diene, Myriam Aouiti-Trabelsi, Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Isabelle Tournier, Patrice François, François Caron, Muhamed-Kheir Taha
Carriage and invasion balance in the pathogenesis of Neisseria meningitidis was analyzed during a recent clonal outbreak of meningococcal B in Normandy, France, that offered the opportunity to compare six isolates undistinguable by conventional typing (B:14:P1.7,16:F3-3/ST-32) isolated from invasive disease or pharyngeal asymptomatic carriage. Data from animal model (transgenic mice rendered susceptible to N. meningitidis infection) showed an absence of virulence for two non-capsulated carriage isolates, an intermediate virulence for two capsulated carriage isolates and a marked virulence for two capsulated invasive isolates...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
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