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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448767/transcriptional-control-of-yeast-ribosome-biogenesis-a-multifaceted-role-for-general-regulatory-factors
#1
Maria Cristina Bosio, Beatrice Fermi, Giorgio Dieci
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a group of more than 200 co-regulated genes (Ribi genes) is involved in ribosome biogenesis. This regulon has recently been shown to rely on a small set of transcriptional regulators (mainly Abf1, but also Reb1, Tbf1 and Rap1) previously referred to as General Regulatory Factors (GRFs) because of their widespread binding and action at many promoters and other specialized genomic regions. Intriguingly, Abf1 binding to Ribi genes is differentially modulated in response to distinct nutrition signaling pathways...
April 27, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379052/regulation-of-transcription-factors-by-sumoylation
#2
Emanuel Rosonina, Akhi Akhter, Yimo Dou, John Babu, Veroni S Sri Theivakadadcham
Transcription factors (TFs) are among the most frequently detected targets of sumoylation, and effects of the modification have been studied for about 200 individual TFs to date. TF sumoylation is most often associated with reduced target gene expression, which can be mediated by enhanced interactions with corepressors or by interference with protein modifications that promote transcription. However, recent studies show that sumoylation also regulates gene expression by controlling the levels of TFs that are associated with chromatin...
April 5, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332923/different-types-of-pausing-modes-during-transcription-initiation
#3
Eitan Lerner, Antonino Ingargiola, Jookyung J Lee, Sergei Borukhov, Xavier Michalet, Shimon Weiss
In many cases, initiation is rate limiting to transcription. This due in part to the multiple cycles of abortive transcription that delay promoter escape and the transition from initiation to elongation. Pausing of transcription in initiation can further delay promoter escape. The previously hypothesized pausing in initiation was confirmed by two recent studies from Duchi et al. (1) and from Lerner, Chung et al. (2) In both studies, pausing is attributed to a lack of forward translocation of the nascent transcript during initiation...
March 23, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301293/signatures-of-dna-target-selectivity-by-ets-transcription-factors
#4
Gregory M K Poon, Hye Mi Kim
The ETS family of transcription factors is a functionally heterogeneous group of gene regulators that share a structurally conserved, eponymous DNA-binding domain. DNA target specificity derives from combinatorial interactions with other proteins as well as intrinsic heterogeneity among ETS domains. Emerging evidence suggests molecular hydration as a fundamental feature that defines the intrinsic heterogeneity in DNA target selection and susceptibility to epigenetic DNA modification. This perspective invokes novel hypotheses in the regulation of ETS proteins in physiologic osmotic stress, their pioneering potential in heterochromatin, and the effects of passive and pharmacologic DNA demethylation on ETS regulation...
March 16, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453430/h2b-monoubiquitination-t-ub-or-not-t-ub-for-inducible-enhancers
#5
Gregory Segala, Didier Picard
Recently, we reported the unexpected finding that the monoubiquitination of histone H2B (H2Bub1) regulates inducible enhancers. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to reconcile the apparently discrepant roles of H2Bub1 in transcription initiation and elongation, and we discuss how H2Bub1 could regulate cellular processes linked to non-coding transcription.
March 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151046/a-3d-puzzle-approach-to-building-protein-dna-structures
#6
Deborah M Hinton
Despite recent advances in structural analysis, it is still challenging to obtain a high-resolution structure for a complex of RNA polymerase, transcriptional factors, and DNA. However, using biochemical constraints, 3D printed models of available structures, and computer modeling, one can build biologically relevant models of such supramolecular complexes.
March 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129043/directing-traffic-on-dna-how-transcription-factors-relieve-or-induce-transcriptional-interference
#7
Nan Hao, Adam C Palmer, Ian B Dodd, Keith E Shearwin
Transcriptional interference (TI) is increasingly recognized as a widespread mechanism of gene control, particularly given the pervasive nature of transcription, both sense and antisense, across all kingdoms of life. Here, we discuss how transcription factor binding kinetics strongly influence the ability of a transcription factor to relieve or induce TI.
March 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102760/phf13-a-new-player-involved-in-rna-polymerase-ii-transcriptional-regulation-and-co-transcriptional-splicing
#8
Alisa Fuchs, Marcos Torroba, Sarah Kinkley
We recently identified PHF13 as an H3K4me2/3 chromatin reader and transcriptional co-regulator. We found that PHF13 interacts with RNAPIIS5P and PRC2 stabilizing their association with active and bivalent promoters. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis identified ∼50 spliceosomal proteins in PHF13s interactome. Here, we will discuss the potential role of PHF13 in RNAPII pausing and co-transcriptional splicing.
March 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072558/a-link-between-transcription-fidelity-and-pausing-in-vivo
#9
Pamela Gamba, Katherine James, Nikolay Zenkin
Pausing by RNA polymerase is a major mechanism that regulates transcription elongation but can cause conflicts with fellow RNA polymerases and other cellular machineries. Here, we summarize our recent finding that misincorporation could be a major source of transcription pausing in vivo, and discuss the role of misincorporation-induced pausing.
March 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067587/the-seven-faces-of-sirt7
#10
Maximilian F Blank, Ingrid Grummt
SIRT7, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases, is a key mediator of many cellular activities. SIRT7 expression is linked to cell proliferation and oncogenic activity, connecting SIRT7-dependent regulation of ribosome biogenesis with checkpoints controlling cell cycle progression, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance, aging and tumorigenesis. Despite this important functional link, the enzymatic activity, the molecular targets and physiological functions of SIRT7 are poorly defined...
March 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005463/cdk-regulation-of-transcription-by-rnap-ii-not-over-til-it-s-over
#11
Robert P Fisher
Transcription by RNA polymerase (RNAP) II is regulated at multiple steps by phosphorylation, catalyzed mainly by members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family. The CDKs involved in transcription have overlapping substrate specificities, but play largely non-redundant roles in coordinating gene expression. Novel functions and targets of CDKs have recently emerged at the end of the transcription cycle, when the primary transcript is cleaved, and in most cases polyadenylated, and transcription is terminated by the action of the "torpedo" exonuclease Xrn2, which is a CDK substrate...
March 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005460/the-role-of-alternative-splicing-in-cancer
#12
Babita Singh, Eduardo Eyras
The functional capacity of cells is defined by the transcriptome. Many recent studies have identified variations in the transcriptome of tumors due to alternative splicing changes, as well as mutations in splicing factors and regulatory signals in most tumor types. Some of these alterations have been linked to tumor progression, metastasis, therapy resistance, and other oncogenic processes. Here, we describe the different mechanisms that drive splicing changes in tumors and their impact in cancer. Motivated by the current evidence, we propose a model whereby a subset of the splicing patterns contributes to the definition of specific tumor phenotypes, and may hold potential for the development of novel clinical biomarkers and therapeutic approaches...
March 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841720/measures-of-rna-metabolism-rates-toward-a-definition-at-the-level-of-single-bonds
#13
Leonhard Wachutka, Julien Gagneur
We give an overview of experimental and computational methods to estimate RNA metabolism rates genome-wide. We then advocate a local definition of RNA metabolism rate at the level of individual phosphodiester bonds. Rates of formation and disappearance of individual bonds are unambiguously defined, in contrast to rates of complete transcripts. We show that over previous approaches, the recently developed transient transcriptome sequencing (TT-seq) protocol allows for estimation of metabolism rates of individual bonds with least positional bias...
March 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340332/super-elongation-complex-promotes-early-hiv-transcription-and-its-function-is-modulated-by-p-tefb
#14
Alona Kuzmina, Simona Krasnopolsky, Ran Taube
Early work on the control of transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) laid the foundation for our current knowledge of how RNA Polymerase II is released from promoter-proximal pausing sites and transcription elongation is enhanced. The viral Tat activator recruits Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) and Super Elongation Complex (SEC) that jointly drive transcription elongation. While substantial progress in understanding the role of SEC in HIV gene transcription elongation has been obtained, defining of the mechanisms that govern SEC functions is still limited, and the role of SEC in controlling HIV transcription in the absence of Tat is less clear...
February 17, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301308/regenerating-muscle-with-arginine-methylation
#15
Roméo S Blanc, Stéphane Richard
Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) is a family of nine proteins catalyzing the methylation of arginine residues. They were recently shown to be essential for proper regeneration of skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms triggering the methylation event, as well as how the methylated substrates regulate muscle stem cell function and fate decision remain to be determined. This point-of-view will discuss the recent findings on the specific role of PRMT1, CARM1/PRMT4, PRMT5, and PRMT7 in muscle stem cell fate guidance, and shed light on the future challenges which could help defining the therapeutic potential of PRMT inhibitors against muscular disorders and aging...
February 17, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301294/fubp-kh-domain-proteins-in-transcription-back-to-the-future
#16
Leonie M Quinn
Drosophila genetic studies demonstrate that cell and tissue growth regulation is a primary developmental function of P-element somatic inhibitor (Psi), the sole ortholog of FUBP family RNA/DNA-binding proteins. Psi achieves growth control through interaction with Mediator, observations that should put to rest controversy surrounding Pol II transcriptional functions for these KH domain proteins.
February 16, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301306/two-possible-modes-of-pioneering-associated-with-combinations-of-h2a-z-and-p300-cbp-at-nucleosome-occupied-enhancers
#17
Pierre Cauchy, Frederic Koch, Jean-Christophe Andrau
Pioneer transcription factors are defined by their ability to bind nucleosome-occupied regions. Here, we discuss the properties of nucleosomes bound by pioneers at enhancer regions. We describe how select pioneers bind nucleosome-occupied or -depleted enhancer sites. Importantly, by revisiting and expanding existing data sets, we show differential H2A.Z and p300/CBP association at bound enhancers, highlighting two possible pioneering modes.
February 13, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340330/same-same-but-different-the-evolution-of-tbp-in-archaea-and-their-eukaryotic-offspring
#18
Fabian Blombach, Dina Grohmann
Transcription factors TBP and TF(II)B assemble with RNA polymerase at the promoter DNA forming the initiation complex. Despite a high degree of conservation, the molecular binding mechanisms of archaeal and eukaryotic TBP and TF(II)B differ significantly. Based on recent biophysical data, we speculate how the mechanisms co-evolved with transcription regulation and TBP multiplicity.
February 8, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301289/genome-wide-characterization-of-mediator-recruitment-function-and-regulation
#19
Sebastian Grünberg, Gabriel E Zentner
Mediator is a conserved and essential coactivator complex broadly required for RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription. Recent genome-wide studies of Mediator binding in budding yeast have revealed new insights into the functions of this critical complex and raised new questions about its role in the regulation of gene expression.
February 8, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301288/transcription-elongation
#20
Arkady Mustaev, Jeffrey Roberts, Max Gottesman
This review is focused on recent progress in understanding how Escherichia coli RNAP polymerase translocates along the DNA template and the factors that affect this movement. We discuss the fundamental aspects of RNAP translocation, template signals that influence forward or backward movement, and host or phage factors that modulate translocation.
February 8, 2017: Transcription
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