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Toxins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098812/novel-aflatoxin-degrading-enzyme-from-bacillus-shackletonii-l7
#1
Liang Xu, Mohamed Farah Eisa Ahmed, Lancine Sangare, Yueju Zhao, Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj, Fuguo Xing, Yan Wang, Hongping Yang, Yang Liu
Food and feed contamination by aflatoxin (AF)B₁ has adverse economic and health consequences. AFB₁ degradation by microorganisms or microbial enzymes provides a promising preventive measure. To this end, the present study tested 43 bacterial isolates collected from maize, rice, and soil samples for AFB₁-reducing activity. The higher activity was detected in isolate L7, which was identified as Bacillus shackletonii. L7 reduced AFB₁, AFB₂, and AFM₁ levels by 92.1%, 84.1%, and 90.4%, respectively, after 72 h at 37 °C...
January 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098783/the-influence-of-the-toxin-antitoxin-mazef-on-growth-and-survival-of-listeria-monocytogenes-under-stress
#2
Thomas D Curtis, Ippei Takeuchi, Lone Gram, Gitte M Knudsen
A major factor in the resilience of Listeria monocytogenes is the alternative sigma factor B (σ(B)). Type II Toxin/Antitoxin (TA) systems are also known to have a role in the bacterial stress response upon activation via the ClpP or Lon proteases. Directly upstream of the σ(B) operon in L. monocytogenes is the TA system mazEF, which can cleave mRNA at UACMU sites. In this study, we showed that the mazEF TA locus does not affect the level of persister formation during treatment with antibiotics in lethal doses, but exerts different effects according to the sub-inhibitory stress added...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098782/auranofin-inhibits-the-enzyme-activity-of-pasteurella-multocida-toxin-pmt-in-human-cells-and-protects-cells-from-intoxication
#3
Stefan Carle, Thorsten Brink, Joachim H C Orth, Klaus Aktories, Holger Barth
The AB-type protein toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) contains a functionally important disulfide bond within its catalytic domain, which must be cleaved in the host cell cytosol to render the catalytic domain of PMT into its active conformation. Here, we found that the reductive potential of the cytosol of target cells, and more specifically, the activity of the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is crucial for this process. This was demonstrated by the strong inhibitory effect of the pharmacological TrxR inhibitor auranofin, which inhibited the intoxication of target cells with PMT, as determined by analyzing the PMT-catalyzed deamidation of GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) in the cytosol of cells...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098781/distinct-neurotoxicity-profile-of-listeriolysin-o-from-listeria-monocytogenes
#4
Jana Maurer, Sabrina Hupp, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Foertsch, Timothy J Mitchell, Trinad Chakraborty, Asparouh I Iliev
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family-pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098779/unravelling-the-diversity-of-the-cyclopiazonic-acid-family-of-mycotoxins-in-aspergillus-flavus-by-uhplc-triple-tof-hrms
#5
Valdet Uka, Geromy G Moore, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Dashnor Nebija, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin burden is consistently minimized by our focus on the more potent carcinogenic aflatoxins also produced by this fungus. Here, we report the screening and identification of several CPA-type alkaloids not previously found in A...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085058/acknowledgement-to-reviewers-of-toxins-in-2016
#6
EDITORIAL
Toxins Editorial Office
The editors of Toxins would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for  assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...].
January 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085056/rnlb-antitoxin-of-the-escherichia-coli-rnla-rnlb-toxin-antitoxin-module-requires-rnase-hi-for-inhibition-of-rnla-toxin-activity
#7
Kenta Naka, Dan Qi, Tetsuro Yonesaki, Yuichi Otsuka
The Escherichia coli RnlA-RnlB toxin-antitoxin system is related to the anti-phage mechanism. Under normal growth conditions, an RnlA toxin with endoribonuclease activity is inhibited by binding of its cognate RnlB antitoxin. After bacteriophage T4 infection, RnlA is activated by the disappearance of RnlB, resulting in the rapid degradation of T4 mRNAs and consequently no T4 propagation when T4 dmd encoding a phage antitoxin against RnlA is defective. Intriguingly, E. coli RNase HI, which plays a key role in DNA replication, is required for the activation of RnlA and stimulates the RNA cleavage activity of RnlA...
January 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075412/the-antagonistic-effect-of-mycotoxins-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-on-metabolic-profiling-in-serum-and-liver-of-mice
#8
Jian Ji, Pei Zhu, Fangchao Cui, Fuwei Pi, Yinzhi Zhang, Yun Li, Jiasheng Wang, Xiulan Sun
Metabolic profiling in liver and serum of mice was studied for the combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), through gas chromatography mass spectrum. The spectrum of serum and liver sample of mice, treated with individual 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, and the combined DON + ZEN with final concentration 2 mg/kg DON and 20 mg/kg ZEN for 21 days, were deconvoluted, aligned and identified with MS DIAL. The data matrix was processed with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for selection of metabolites with variable importance for the projection (VIP) > 1, t-test p value < 0...
January 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075404/advanced-oxidation-protein-products-modified-albumin-induces-differentiation-of-raw264-7-macrophages-into-dendritic-like-cells-which-is-modulated-by-cell-surface-thiols
#9
Silvano Garibaldi, Chiara Barisione, Barbara Marengo, Pietro Ameri, Claudio Brunelli, Manrico Balbi, Giorgio Ghigliotti
Local accumulation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) induces pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic processes in kidneys and is an independent predictor of renal fibrosis and of rapid decline of eGFR in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to kidney damage, circulating AOPP may be regarded as mediators of systemic oxidative stress and, in this capacity, they might play a role in the progression of atherosclerotic damage of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves activation of innate and adaptive immunity...
January 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075397/the-sulfur-metabolite-lanthionine-evidence-for-a-role-as-a-novel-uremic-toxin
#10
REVIEW
Alessandra F Perna, Miriam Zacchia, Francesco Trepiccione, Diego Ingrosso
Lanthionine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid, composed of two alanine residues that are crosslinked on their β-carbon atoms by a thioether linkage. It is biosynthesized from the condensation of two cysteine molecules, while the related compound homolanthionine is formed from the condensation of two homocysteine molecules. The reactions can be carried out by either cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) or cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) independently, in the alternate reactions of the transsulfuration pathway devoted to hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis...
January 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067862/impact-of-indoxyl-sulfate-on-progenitor-cell-related-neovascularization-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-and-post-angioplasty-thrombosis-of-dialysis-vascular-access
#11
REVIEW
Chih-Cheng Wu, Szu-Chun Hung, Ko-Lin Kuo, Der-Cherng Tarng
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of vascular disease, which is associated with considerable health care costs. Vascular disease in CKD differs clinically and pathobiologically from that in patients with normal renal function. Besides the traditional risk factors, retention of uremic toxins contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in patients with CKD. Indoxyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic toxin and is inefficiently removed by conventional dialysis. Accumulating evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate is a vascular toxin involved in atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, vascular calcification and vascular repair...
January 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067858/analysis-of-microrna-expression-profiling-involved-in-mc-lr-induced-cytotoxicity-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#12
Junguo Ma, Yuanyuan Li, Lan Yao, Xiaoyu Li
In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) in toxicology have attracted great attention. However, the underlying mechanism of miRNAs in the cytotoxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is lacking. The objective of this study is to analyze miRNA profiling in HepG2 cells after 24 h of MC-LR-exposure to affirm whether and how miRNAs were involved in the cytotoxicity of MC-LR. The results showed that totally 21 and 37 miRNAs were found to be significantly altered in the MC-LR treated cells at concentrations of 10 and 50 μM, respectively, when compared to the control cells...
January 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067855/detection-of-naja-atra-cardiotoxin-using-adenosine-based-molecular-beacon
#13
Yi-Jun Shi, Ying-Jung Chen, Wan-Ping Hu, Long-Sen Chang
This study presents an adenosine (A)-based molecular beacon (MB) for selective detection of Naja atra cardiotoxin (CTX) that functions by utilizing the competitive binding between CTX and the poly(A) stem of MB to coralyne. The 5'- and 3'-end of MB were labeled with a reporter fluorophore and a non-fluorescent quencher, respectively. Coralyne induced formation of the stem-loop MB structure through A₂-coralyne-A₂ coordination, causing fluorescence signal turn-off due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the fluorophore and quencher...
January 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067810/bioactivity-of-natural-and-engineered-antimicrobial-peptides-from-venom-of-the-scorpions-urodacus-yaschenkoi-and-u-manicatus
#14
Karen Luna-Ramirez, Miray Tonk, Mohammad Rahnamaeian, Andreas Vilcinskas
The spread of multidrug-resistant human pathogens has drawn attention towards antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are major players in the innate immune systems of many organisms, including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants and microbes. Scorpion venom is an abundant source of novel and potent AMPs. Here, we investigated natural and engineered AMPs from the scorpions Urodacus yaschenkoi and U. manicatus to determine their antimicrobial spectra as well as their hemolytic/cytotoxic activity. None of the AMPs were active against fungi, but many of them were active at low concentrations (0...
January 6, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067806/high-uric-acid-ameliorates-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-and-is-associated-with-lower-mortality-among-hemodialysis-patients
#15
Wei-Liang Hsu, Szu-Yuan Li, Jia-Sin Liu, Po-Hsun Huang, Shing-Jong Lin, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Yao-Ping Lin, Der-Cherng Tarng
High uric acid (UA) can act as a pro-oxidant in normal physiological conditions; however, emerging evidence is still debatable with regard to the association between high UA and poor outcomes among chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. In the present study, 27,229 stable prevalent HD patients were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the quartiles of baseline UA concentration, and 5737 died during a median follow-up of 38 months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a UA level of <6...
January 6, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067781/gestational-zearalenone-exposure-causes-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-in-pregnant-rats-and-female-offspring
#16
Xin Gao, Lvhui Sun, Niya Zhang, Chong Li, Jiacai Zhang, Zhuohui Xiao, Desheng Qi
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0-21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring...
January 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067768/the-status-of-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-review-of-emerging-trends-and-post-harvest-mitigation-strategies-towards-food-control
#17
REVIEW
Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic...
January 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054977/forthcoming-challenges-in-mycotoxins-toxicology-research-for-safer-food-a-need-for-multi-omics-approach
#18
REVIEW
Luca Dellafiora, Chiara Dall'Asta
The presence of mycotoxins in food represents a severe threat for public health and welfare, and poses relevant research challenges in the food toxicology field. Nowadays, food toxicologists have to provide answers to food-related toxicological issues, but at the same time they should provide the appropriate knowledge in background to effectively support the evidence-based decision-making in food safety. Therefore, keeping in mind that regulatory actions should be based on sound scientific findings, the present opinion addresses the main challenges in providing reliable data for supporting the risk assessment of foodborne mycotoxins...
January 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045427/degradation-of-aflatoxins-by-means-of-laccases-from-trametes-versicolor-an-in-silico-insight
#19
Luca Dellafiora, Gianni Galaverna, Massimo Reverberi, Chiara Dall'Asta
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials...
January 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045426/deoxynivalenol-don-contamination-of-feed-and-grinding-fineness-are-there-interactive-implications-on-stomach-integrity-and-health-of-piglets
#20
Sven Dänicke, Andreas Beineke, Andreas Berk, Susanne Kersten
The common feed contaminant deoxynivalenol (DON) was reported to influence the morphology of the pars nonglandularis (PN) of porcine stomach. Moreover, finely ground feed is known to trigger the development of ulcers and other pathologies of PN while coarsely ground feed protects from such lesions. The interactions between grinding fineness and DON contamination of feed were not examined so far. Therefore, both finely and coarsely ground feeds were tested either in the absence or presence of a DON contaminated wheat on growth performance and health of rearing piglets, including stomach integrity...
January 1, 2017: Toxins
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