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Duanyang Zhang, Weicen Liu, Zhonghua Wen, Bing Li, Shuling Liu, Jianmin Li, Wei Chen
Anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis is a lethal infectious disease, especially when inhaled, and the mortality rate approaches 100% without treatment. The anthrax antitoxin monoclonal antibody (MAb) 5E11 is a humanized antibody that targets the anthrax protective antigen (PA). The efficacy of 5E11 needs proper animal models. However, anthrax spores are extremely dangerous, so experiments must be conducted under Biosafety Level 3 conditions. Considering the critical effects of lethal toxin (LT) on hosts during infection, we report the establishment of a LT-challenged rabbit model, which caused 100% mortality with a dose of 2 mg PA + 1 mg LF, while a 4 mg PA + 2 mg LF challenge could limit death to within three days...
July 12, 2018: Toxins
Nguyen Hoang Khue Tu, Nghe Van Dat, Le Van Canh, Doan Thi Thanh Vinh
Screening for compounds that can neutralize the toxicity of tetrodotoxin (TTX) or reduce its negative effects is necessary. Our study tested the TTX detoxification capacity of exopolysaccharide (EPS) extracted from lactic acid bacteria. EPS of Leuconostoc mesenteroides N3 isolated from the Vung Tau sea (Vietnam), Lactobacillus plantarum PN05, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 were used in the study. To more completely evaluate the importance of EPS in detoxification, EPS samples of Leuconostoc mesenteroides N3, Lactobacillus plantarum PN05 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 were also tested...
July 12, 2018: Toxins
Manuel T Velasquez, Patricia Centron, Ian Barrows, Rama Dwivedi, Dominic S Raj
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of high morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Numerous CVD risk factors in CKD patients have been described, but these do not fully explain the high pervasiveness of CVD or increased mortality rates in CKD patients. In CKD the loss of urinary excretory function results in the retention of various substances referred to as "uremic retention solutes". Many of these molecules have been found to exert toxicity on virtually all organ systems of the human body, leading to the clinical syndrome of uremia...
July 11, 2018: Toxins
Marion Jeannoel, Jean-Sebastien Casalegno, Michèle Ottmann, Cédric Badiou, Oana Dumitrescu, Bruno Lina, Gérard Lina
In patients with influenza, morbidity and mortality are strongly influenced by infections with Staphylococcus aureus producing high amounts of certain toxins. Here we tested the impact of influenza virus on the pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic actions of a panel of S. aureus virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), phenol-soluble modulin α1 (PSMα1) and 3 (PSMα3), α-hemolysin (Hla), and cell wall components, i.e., heat-killed S. aureus (HKSA) and protein A. We initially screened for potential synergic interactions using a standardized in vitro model in influenza-infected continuous human monocytic cell lines...
July 11, 2018: Toxins
Chris M Maragos
Cycopiazonic acid (CPA) is a neurotoxin that acts through inhibition of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA). CPA blocks the calcium access channel of the enzyme. The inhibition may involve the binding of CPA with a divalent cation such as Mg2+ . The potential for CPA to act as a chelator also has implications for methods to detect this toxin. Certain of the lanthanide metals undergo a dramatic increase in luminescence upon coordination with small molecules that can transfer excitation energy to the metal...
July 10, 2018: Toxins
Julia Keller, Antje Borzekowski, Hajo Haase, Ralph Menzel, Liliane Rueß, Matthias Koch
To keep pace with the rising number of detected mycotoxins, there is a growing need for fast and reliable toxicity tests to assess potential threats to food safety. Toxicity tests with the bacterial-feeding nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the model organism are well established. In this study the C. elegans wildtype strain N2 (var. Bristol) was used to investigate the toxic effects of the food-relevant mycotoxins citrinin (CIT) and zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEA-14-S) and zearalenone (ZEA) on different life cycle parameters including reproduction, thermal and oxidative stress resistance and lifespan...
July 9, 2018: Toxins
Frederic Pitois, Jutta Fastner, Christelle Pagotto, Magali Dechesne
Cyanobacteria are known to produce a wide array of metabolites, including various classes of toxins. Among these, hepatotoxins (Microcystins), neurotoxins (Anatoxin-A and PSP toxins) or cytotoxins (Cylindrospermopsins) have been subjected to numerous, individual studies during the past twenty years. Reports of toxins co-occurrences, however, remain scarce in the literature. The present work is an inventory of cyanobacteria with a particular focus on Nostocales and their associated toxin classes from 2007 to 2010 in ten lakes used for drinking water production in France...
July 9, 2018: Toxins
Laura Biessy, Kirsty F Smith, Michael J Boundy, Stephen C Webb, Ian Hawes, Susanna A Wood
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent neurotoxins known. It was originally thought to only occur in puffer fish but has now been identified in twelve different classes of freshwater and marine organisms, including bivalves. Despite being one of the world’s most studied biotoxins, its origin remains uncertain. There is contradictory evidence regarding the source of TTX and its pathway through food webs. To date, the distribution of TTX has not been examined in bivalves. In the present study, 48 Paphies australis , a TTX-containing clam species endemic to New Zealand, were collected...
July 6, 2018: Toxins
Guillaume Tetreau
Toxins are a major virulence factor produced by many pathogenic bacteria. In vertebrates, the response of hosts to the bacteria is inseparable from the response to the toxins, allowing a comprehensive understanding of this tripartite host-pathogen-toxin interaction. However, in invertebrates, this interaction has been investigated by two complementary but historically distinct fields of research: toxinology and immunology. In this article, I highlight how such dichotomy between these two fields led to a biased, or even erroneous view of the ecology and evolution of the interaction between insects, toxins, and bacteria...
July 6, 2018: Toxins
Gabriela Ferreira Dias, Natalia Borges Bonan, Thiago Maass Steiner, Sara Soares Tozoni, Silvia Rodrigues, Lia Sumie Nakao, Viktoriya Kuntsevich, Roberto Pecoits Filho, Peter Kotanko, Andréa N Moreno-Amaral
It is hypothesized that the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) plays a role in the pathogenesis of renal anemia. To further explore that hypothesis, we examined the effects of IS on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), and erythrocyte death (eryptosis) in red blood cells (RBC) from healthy controls (CON-RBC) and hemodialyzed patients (HD-RBC), respectively. RBC were incubated either in either TRIS-Glc-BSA buffer or IS at concentrations of 0.01, 0.09, and 0.17 mM, respectively...
July 5, 2018: Toxins
Bozidar Udovicki, Kris Audenaert, Sarah De Saeger, Andreja Rajkovic
With an average annual production of 6.9 M tonnes and 2.5 M tonnes of maize and wheat respectively, Serbia is one of the main grain producers and exporters in Europe. Cereals are also the major staple food in Serbian diet. In view of the high cereal consumption, for human and animal nutrition, the presence of mycotoxins entails a high public health risk of chronic exposure to mycotoxins. This study provides an overview of the incidence of predominant mycotoxins, mainly in cereal and dairy products, in Serbia, in the 2004⁻2016, using data reported in the scientific literature...
July 5, 2018: Toxins
Elena Fonfria, Mark Elliott, Matthew Beard, John A Chaddock, Johannes Krupp
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly successful protein therapeutics. Over 40 naturally occurring BoNTs have been described thus far and, of those, only 2 are commercially available for clinical use. Different members of the BoNT family present different biological properties but share a similar multi-domain structure at the molecular level. In nature, BoNTs are encoded by DNA in producing clostridial bacteria and, as such, are amenable to recombinant production through insertion of the coding DNA into other bacterial species...
July 4, 2018: Toxins
Zhenhua An, Yingying Zhang, Longshen Sun
This research aimed to study the effects of astaxanthin on energy budget and bioaccumulation of microcystin-leucine-arginine (microcystin-LR) in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852). The crayfish (21.13 ± 4.6 g) were cultured under microcystin-LR stress (0.025 mg/L) and were fed with fodders containing astaxanthin (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/g) for 8 weeks in glass tanks (350 mm × 450 mm × 150 mm). Accumulations of microcystin-LR were measured in different organs of P. clarkii . The results suggested that astaxanthin can significantly improve the survival rate and specific growth rate (SGR) of P...
July 4, 2018: Toxins
Juliana Gerez, Letícia Buck, Victor Hugo Marutani, Caroline Maria Calliari, Ana Paula Bracarense
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that affects the intestinal morphology of animals, impairing nutrient intake and growth. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with functional oligosaccharides as chito-oligosaccharides (COS) has shown positive effects on the intestinal health of piglets. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low doses of COS in preventing DON-induced intestinal histological changes, using a swine jejunal explant technique. The intestinal explants were incubated at 37 °C in culture medium for 4 h and exposed to the following treatments: (a) control (only culture medium), (b) DON (10 µM), (c) 25COS (0...
July 4, 2018: Toxins
Benard Mucholwa Simiyu, Steve Omondi Oduor, Thomas Rohrlack, Lewis Sitoki, Rainer Kurmayer
The human health risks posed by exposure to cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystin (MC) through water and fish consumption remain poorly described. During the last two decades, coastal regions of Lake Victoria such as Nyanza Gulf (Kisumu Bay) have shown severe signs of eutrophication with blooms formed by Microcystis producing MC. In this study, the spatial variability in MC concentration in Kisumu Bay was investigated which was mostly caused by Microcystis buoyancy and wind drifting. Small fish (<6 cm) mainly composed of Rastrineobola argentea were examined for MC content by means of biological methods such as ELISA and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA) and partly by chemical-analytical methods such as LC-MS/MS...
July 3, 2018: Toxins
Morten L Govasli, Yuleima Diaz, Ephrem Debebe Zegeye, Christine Darbakk, Arne M Taxt, Pål Puntervoll
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), which secretes the heat-stable toxin (ST) is among the four most important enteropathogens that cause moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children in low- and middle-income countries. ST is an intestinal molecular antagonist causing diarrhea and hence an attractive vaccine target. A non-toxic and safe ST vaccine should include one or more detoxifying mutations, and rigorous characterization of such mutants requires structurally intact peptides. To this end, we established a system for purification of ST and ST mutants by fusing the sequence encoding the mature ST peptide to the disulfide isomerase DsbC...
July 3, 2018: Toxins
Aifeng Li, Meihui Li, Jiangbing Qiu, Jialiang Song, Ying Ji, Yang Hu, Shuqin Wang, Yijia Che
In recent years, detection of trace amounts of dissolved lipophilic phycotoxins in coastal waters has been possible using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers. To explore the contribution of dissolved diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) to the accumulation of toxins by cultivated bivalves, mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis ) were exposed to different concentrations of purified okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) in filtered (0.45 &micro;m) seawater for 96 h. Accumulation and esterification of DST by mussels under different experimental conditions, including with and without the addition of the food microalga Isochrysis galbana , and with the addition of different size-fractions of suspended particulate matter (SPM) (<75 &micro;m, 75⁻150 &micro;m, 150⁻250 &micro;m) were compared...
July 3, 2018: Toxins
Ali Al-Jawdah, Alexei Nabok, Radhyah Jarrah, Alan Holloway, Anna Tsargorodska, Eszter Takacs, Andras Szekacs
The research aim of this work is to develop a simple and highly sensitive optical biosensor for detection of mycotoxins. This sensor is built on a planar waveguide operating on the polarization interferometry principle, i.e., detecting a phase shift between p- and s-components of polarized light developed during the binding of analyte molecules. The operation of the proposed sensor is similar to that of a Mach⁻Zehnder interferometer, while its design is much simpler and it does not require splitting the waveguide into two arms...
July 3, 2018: Toxins
Stephen P Mackessy, Jamie Leroy, Estrella Mociño-Deloya, Kirk Setser, Robert W Bryson, Anthony J Saviola
As trophic adaptations, rattlesnake venoms can vary in composition depending on several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Ontogenetic changes in venom composition have been documented for numerous species, but little is known of the potential age-related changes in many rattlesnake species found in M&eacute;xico. In the current study, venom samples collected from adult and neonate Crotalus polystictus from Estado de M&eacute;xico were subjected to enzymatic and electrophoretic analyses, toxicity assays (LD50 ), and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and a pooled sample of adult venom was analyzed by shotgun proteomics...
July 3, 2018: Toxins
Murendeni Magonono, Paul Johan Oberholster, Shonhai Addmore, Makumire Stanley, Jabulani Ray Gumbo
The presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and cyanotoxins in drinking water sources poses a great threat to human health. The current study employed molecular techniques to determine the occurrence of non-toxic and toxic cyanobacteria species in the Limpopo River basin based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Bottom sediment samples were collected from selected rivers: Limpopo, Crocodile, Mokolo, Mogalakwena, Nzhelele, Lephalale, Sand Rivers (South Africa); Notwane (Botswana); and Shashe River and Mzingwane River (Zimbabwe)...
July 3, 2018: Toxins
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