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Toxins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918432/recent-advances-and-future-challenges-in-modified-mycotoxin-analysis-why-hrms-has-become-a-key-instrument-in-food-contaminant-research
#1
REVIEW
Laura Righetti, Giuseppe Paglia, Gianni Galaverna, Chiara Dall'Asta
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by pathogenic fungi in crops worldwide. These compounds can undergo modification in plants, leading to the formation of a large number of possible modified forms, whose toxicological relevance and occurrence in food and feed is still largely unexplored. The analysis of modified mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry remains a challenge because of their chemical diversity, the large number of isomeric forms, and the lack of analytical standards. Here, the potential benefits of high-resolution and ion mobility mass spectrometry as a tool for separation and structure confirmation of modified mycotoxins have been investigated/reviewed...
December 2, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918428/correction-chen-s-et-al-identification-of-an-essential-region-for-translocation-of-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b-toxins-2016-8-241
#2
Shuyi Chen, Haiying Wang, Huawei Gu, Chunli Sun, Shan Li, Hanping Feng, Jufang Wang
n/a.
December 2, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916957/snake-genome-sequencing-results-and-future-prospects
#3
REVIEW
Harald M I Kerkkamp, R Manjunatha Kini, Alexey S Pospelov, Freek J Vonk, Christiaan V Henkel, Michael K Richardson
Snake genome sequencing is in its infancy-very much behind the progress made in sequencing the genomes of humans, model organisms and pathogens relevant to biomedical research, and agricultural species. We provide here an overview of some of the snake genome projects in progress, and discuss the biological findings, with special emphasis on toxinology, from the small number of draft snake genomes already published. We discuss the future of snake genomics, pointing out that new sequencing technologies will help overcome the problem of repetitive sequences in assembling snake genomes...
December 1, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916937/the-emergence-and-epidemiology-of-haff-disease-in-china
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Y K Chan
Haff disease is a rare syndrome of unexplained myalgia and rhabdomyolysis occurring within 24 h of consumption of certain types of cooked freshwater fish or crustacean. It is caused by a yet unidentified heat-stable toxin. In the present review of published case studies and official press releases, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of Haff disease in China. Haff disease first occurred in Beijing in 2000 and in Lianzhou and Liannan, Guangdong Province in 2009. Subsequent outbreaks mostly occurred in the Jiangsu Province-Nanjing, Yangzhou, Huai'an, and Yancheng...
December 1, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916890/indoxyl-sulfate-review-of-toxicity-and-therapeutic-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Sheldon C Leong, Tammy L Sirich
Indoxyl sulfate is an extensively studied uremic solute. It is a small molecule that is more than 90% bound to plasma proteins. Indoxyl sulfate is derived from the breakdown of tryptophan by colon microbes. The kidneys achieve high clearances of indoxyl sulfate by tubular secretion, a function not replicated by hemodialysis. Clearance by hemodialysis is limited by protein binding since only the free, unbound solute can diffuse across the membrane. Since the dialytic clearance is much lower than the kidney clearance, indoxyl sulfate accumulates to relatively high plasma levels in hemodialysis patients...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916888/a-topographical-atlas-of-shiga-toxin-2e-receptor-distribution-in-the-tissues-of-weaned-piglets
#6
Daniel Steil, Robert Bonse, Iris Meisen, Gottfried Pohlentz, German Vallejo, Helge Karch, Johannes Müthing
Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the primary virulence factor in the development of pig edema disease shortly after weaning. Stx2e binds to the globo-series glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ1-3Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer), the latter acting as the preferential Stx2e receptor. We determined Stx receptor profiles of 25 different tissues of a male and a female weaned piglet using immunochemical solid phase binding assays combined with mass spectrometry...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916862/contrasting-roles-of-deoxynivalenol-and-nivalenol-in-host-mediated-interactions-between-fusarium-graminearum-and-sitobion-avenae
#7
Jassy Drakulic, Mohd Haziq Kahar, Olubukola Ajigboye, Toby Bruce, Rumiana V Ray
Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916854/fast-screening-of-antibacterial-compounds-from-fusaria
#8
Teis Esben Sondergaard, Marlene Fredborg, Ann-Maria Oppenhagen Christensen, Sofie K Damsgaard, Nikoline F Kramer, Henriette Giese, Jens Laurids Sørensen
Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could be detected for antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, beauvericin, enniatins and fusaric acid after six hours of cultivation. The system was then used in a bio-guided screen of extracts from 14 different Fusarium species, which had been fractionated by HPLC...
November 29, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916846/dehydropyrrolizidine-alkaloid-toxicity-cytotoxicity-and-carcinogenicity
#9
REVIEW
Bryan L Stegelmeier, Steven M Colegate, Ammon W Brown
Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA)-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically...
November 29, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916804/growth-phase-sterigmatocystin-formation-on-lactose-is-mediated-via-low-specific-growth-rates-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#10
Zoltán Németh, Ákos P Molnár, Balázs Fejes, Levente Novák, Levente Karaffa, Nancy P Keller, Erzsébet Fekete
Seed contamination with polyketide mycotoxins such as sterigmatocystin (ST) produced by Aspergilli is a worldwide issue. The ST biosynthetic pathway is well-characterized in A. nidulans, but regulatory aspects related to the carbon source are still enigmatic. This is particularly true for lactose, inasmuch as some ST production mutant strains still synthesize ST on lactose but not on other carbon substrates. Here, kinetic data revealed that on d-glucose, ST forms only after the sugar is depleted from the medium, while on lactose, ST appears when most of the carbon source is still available...
November 28, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886134/priority-actions-and-progress-to-substantially-and-sustainably-reduce-the-mortality-morbidity-and-socioeconomic-burden-of-tropical-snakebite
#11
Robert A Harrison, José María Gutiérrez
The deliberations and conclusions of a Hinxton Retreat convened in September 2015, entitled "Mechanisms to reverse the public health neglect of snakebite victims" are reported. The participants recommended that the following priority actions be included in strategies to reduce the global impact of snake envenoming: (a) collection of accurate global snakebite incidence, mortality and morbidity data to underpin advocacy efforts and help design public health campaigns; (b) promotion of (i) public education prevention campaigns; (ii) transport systems to improve access to hospitals and (iii) establishment of regional antivenom-efficacy testing facilities to ensure antivenoms' effectiveness and safety;...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886129/insights-into-the-hypertensive-effects-of-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom-purification-of-an-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-like-peptidase
#12
Daniela Cajado-Carvalho, Alexandre Kazuo Kuniyoshi, Bruno Duzzi, Leo Kei Iwai, Úrsula Castro de Oliveira, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles Junqueira de Azevedo, Roberto Tadashi Kodama, Fernanda Vieira Portaro
The number of cases of envenomation by scorpions has grown significantly in Brazil since 2007, with the most severe cases being caused by the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. Although envenomed patients mostly suffer neurotoxic manifestations, other symptoms, such as hypertension, cannot be exclusively attributed to neurotoxins. Omics analyses have detected plentiful amounts of metalloproteases in T. serrulatus venom. However, the roles played by these enzymes in envenomation are still unclear. Endeavoring to investigate the functions of scorpion venom proteases, we describe here for the first time an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme-like peptidase (ACE-like) purified from T...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886128/worldwide-mycotoxins-exposure-in-pig-and-poultry-feed-formulations
#13
REVIEW
Philippe Guerre
The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886127/viperid-envenomation-wound-exudate-contributes-to-increased-vascular-permeability-via-a-damps-tlr-4-mediated-pathway
#14
Alexandra Rucavado, Carolina A Nicolau, Teresa Escalante, Junho Kim, Cristina Herrera, José María Gutiérrez, Jay W Fox
Viperid snakebite envenomation is characterized by inflammatory events including increase in vascular permeability. A copious exudate is generated in tissue injected with venom, whose proteomics analysis has provided insights into the mechanisms of venom-induced tissue damage. Hereby it is reported that wound exudate itself has the ability to induce increase in vascular permeability in the skin of mice. Proteomics analysis of exudate revealed the presence of cytokines and chemokines, together with abundant damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) resulting from both proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular lysis...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879646/integrating-scfv-into-xmap-assays-for-the-detection-of-marine-toxins
#15
Lisa C Shriver-Lake, Jinny L Liu, P Audrey Brozozog Lee, Ellen R Goldman, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, George P Anderson
Marine toxins, such as saxitoxin and domoic acid are associated with algae blooms and can bioaccumulate in shell fish which present both health and economic concerns. The ability to detect the presence of toxin is paramount for the administration of the correct supportive care in case of intoxication; environmental monitoring to detect the presence of toxin is also important for prevention of intoxication. Immunoassays are one tool that has successfully been applied to the detection of marine toxins. Herein, we had the variable regions of two saxitoxin binding monoclonal antibodies sequenced and used the information to produce recombinant constructs that consist of linked heavy and light variable domains that make up the binding domains of the antibodies (scFv)...
November 21, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879630/recombinant-alpha-beta-and-epsilon-toxins-of-clostridium-perfringens-production-strategies-and-applications-as-veterinary-vaccines
#16
REVIEW
Marcos Roberto A Ferreira, Gustavo Marçal S G Moreira, Carlos Eduardo P da Cunha, Marcelo Mendonça, Felipe M Salvarani, Ângela N Moreira, Fabricio R Conceição
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease...
November 21, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869761/effect-of-fusarium-derived-metabolites-on-the-barrier-integrity-of-differentiated-intestinal-porcine-epithelial-cells-ipec-j2
#17
Alexandra Springler, Galina-Jacqueline Vrubel, Elisabeth Mayer, Gerd Schatzmayr, Barbara Novak
The human, animal and plant pathogen Fusarium, which contaminates agricultural commodities worldwide, produces numerous secondary metabolites. An example is the thoroughly-investigated deoxynivalenol (DON), which severely impairs gastrointestinal barrier integrity. However, to date, the toxicological profile of other Fusarium-derived metabolites, such as enniatins, beauvericin, moniliformin, apicidin, aurofusarin, rubrofusarin, equisetin and bikaverin, are poorly characterized. Thus we examined their effects-as metabolites alone and as metabolites in combination with DON-on the intestinal barrier function of differentiated intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) over 72 h...
November 19, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869760/spotlight-on-the-underdogs-an-analysis-of-underrepresented-alternaria-mycotoxins-formed-depending-on-varying-substrate-time-and-temperature-conditions
#18
Theresa Zwickel, Sandra M Kahl, Horst Klaffke, Michael Rychlik, Marina E H Müller
Alternaria (A.) is a genus of widespread fungi capable of producing numerous, possibly health-endangering Alternaria toxins (ATs), which are usually not the focus of attention. The formation of ATs depends on the species and complex interactions of various environmental factors and is not fully understood. In this study the influence of temperature (7 °C, 25 °C), substrate (rice, wheat kernels) and incubation time (4, 7, and 14 days) on the production of thirteen ATs and three sulfoconjugated ATs by three different Alternaria isolates from the species groups A...
November 19, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869757/clostridium-perfringens-sialidases-potential-contributors-to-intestinal-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-targets
#19
REVIEW
Jihong Li, Francisco A Uzal, Bruce A McClane
Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of histotoxic and intestinal infections of humans and other animals. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium can produce up to three sialidases named NanH, NanI, and NanJ. The role of sialidases in histotoxic infections, such as gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), remains equivocal. However, recent in vitro studies suggest that NanI may contribute to intestinal virulence by upregulating production of some toxins associated with intestinal infection, increasing the binding and activity of some of those toxins, and enhancing adherence of C...
November 19, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869706/mycotoxin-contamination-in-sugarcane-grass-and-juice-first-report-on-detection-of-multiple-mycotoxins-and-exposure-assessment-for-aflatoxins-b%C3%A2-and-g%C3%A2-in-humans
#20
Mohamed F Abdallah, Rudolf Krska, Michael Sulyok
This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in sugarcane grass and juice intended for human consumption in Upper Egypt. Quantification of the target analytes has been done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total number of 29 and 33 different metabolites were detected in 21 sugarcane grass and 40 juice samples, respectively, with a trend of concentrations being higher in grass than in juice...
November 18, 2016: Toxins
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