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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726719/sima-cells-for-a-serotype-specific-and-sensitive-cell-based-neutralization-test-for-botulinum-toxin-a-and-e
#1
Nicola Bak, Shalini Rajagopal, Paul Stickings, Dorothea Sesardic
Botulinum toxins (BoNTs), of which there are seven serotypes, are among the most potent neurotoxins, with serotypes A, B and E causing human botulism. Antitoxins form the first line of treatment for botulism, and functional, highly sensitive in vitro methods for toxin neutralization are needed to replace the current in vivo methods used for determination of antitoxin potency. In this preliminary proof of concept study, we report the development of a neutralization test using the neuroblastoma SiMa cell line...
July 20, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718822/a-bacterial-toxin-with-analgesic-properties-hyperpolarization-of-drg-neurons-by-mycolactone
#2
Ok-Ryul Song, Han-Byul Kim, Samuel Jouny, Isabelle Ricard, Alexandre Vandeputte, Nathalie Deboosere, Estelle Marion, Christophe J Queval, Pierre Lesport, Emmanuel Bourinet, Daniel Henrion, Seog Bae Oh, Guillaume Lebon, Guillaume Sandoz, Edouard Yeramian, Laurent Marsollier, Priscille Brodin
Mycolactone, a polyketide molecule produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer. This lipid toxin is endowed with pleiotropic effects, presents cytotoxic effects at high doses, and notably plays a pivotal role in host response upon colonization by the bacillus. Most remarkably, mycolactone displays intriguing analgesic capabilities: the toxin suppresses or alleviates the pain of the skin lesions it inflicts. We demonstrated that the analgesic capability of mycolactone was not attributable to nerve damage, but instead resulted from the triggering of a cellular pathway targeting AT₂ receptors (angiotensin II type 2 receptors; AT₂R), and leading to potassium-dependent hyperpolarization...
July 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718805/emerging-fusarium-and-alternaria-mycotoxins-occurrence-toxicity-and-toxicokinetics
#3
REVIEW
Sophie Fraeyman, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, Gunther Antonissen
Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur...
July 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718802/ouabain-protects-human-renal-cells-against-the-cytotoxic-effects-of-shiga-toxin-type-2-and-subtilase-cytotoxin
#4
María M Amaral, Magalí C Girard, Romina S Álvarez, Adrienne W Paton, James C Paton, Horacio A Repetto, Flavia Sacerdoti, Cristina A Ibarra
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the most common causes of acute renal failure in children. The majority of cases are associated with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In Argentina, HUS is endemic and presents the highest incidence rate in the world. STEC strains expressing Stx type 2 (Stx2) are responsible for the most severe cases of this pathology. Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is another STEC virulence factor that may contribute to HUS pathogenesis. To date, neither a licensed vaccine nor effective therapy for HUS is available for humans...
July 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714887/characterization-of-enterotoxigenic-bacillus-cereus-sensu-lato-and-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-and-associated-enterotoxin-production-dynamics-in-milk-or-meat-based-broth
#5
Laura Walker-York-Moore, Sean C Moore, Edward M Fox
Bacillus cereus sensu lato species, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, are important pathogenic bacteria which can cause foodborne illness through the production of enterotoxins. This study characterised enterotoxin genes of these species and examined growth and enterotoxin production dynamics of isolates when grown in milk or meat-based broth. All B. cereus s. l. isolates harboured nheA, hblA and entFM toxin genes, with lower prevalence of bceT and hlyII. When grown at 16 °C, toxin production by individual B...
July 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714885/differences-in-genetic-background-contribute-to-pseudomonas-exotoxin-a-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#6
Chien-Chao Chiu, Yu-Chih Wang, Wen-Ching Huang, Yi-Hsun Chen, Shao-Wen Hung, Yen-Te Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Yi-Chih Chang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PEA) causes severe hepatotoxicity in experimental animals and is useful in investigations of immune-mediated liver injury. However, strain differences in the sensitivity to PEA-induced hepatotoxicity in rats remains be elucidated. In this study, we determined the severity of PEA-induced hepatotoxicity in six genetically different rat strains. Male LE (Long Evans), Wistar, F344, WKY, BN/SsN and LEW rats were administered a single intravenous injection of PEA (20 μg/kg). Significantly elevated serum ALT and AST levels, massive necrosis and hemorrhage, and numerous TUNEL-positive hepatocytes were observed in BN/SsN rats...
July 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714869/the-occurrence-of-zearalenone-in-south-korean-feedstuffs-between-2009-and-2016
#7
Hansub Chang, Woori Kim, Ju-Hee Park, Dongho Kim, Choong-Ryeol Kim, Soohyun Chung, Chan Lee
Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium plant pathogen species have harmful effects on humans and livestock by natural contamination in food and feed. Zearalenone, one of the well-known Fusarium mycotoxins, causes hyperestrogenism and toxicosis resulting in reproductive dysfunction in animals. This study investigated the occurrence of zearalenone in feedstuffs (compound feeds, feed ingredients) between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea to obtain information on zearalenone contamination in feeds for management. A total of 653 animal feed samples (494 compound feeds, 159 feed ingredients) produced domestically were sampled five times from 2009 to 2016 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016) from feed factories in South Korea...
July 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708102/ability-of-soil-isolated-actinobacterial-strains-to-prevent-bind-and-biodegrade-ochratoxin-a
#8
Rachelle El Khoury, Florence Mathieu, Ali Atoui, Hiba Kawtharani, Anthony El Khoury, Charbel Afif, Richard G Maroun, André El Khoury
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins, and contaminates several agricultural products, particularly cereals, grapes, maize, barley, spices and coffee. The aim of this project was to reduce the levels of OTA by supplementing the artificially contaminated solutions with seven strains of actinobacteria (AT10, AT8, SN7, MS1, ML5, G10 and PT1) in order to evaluate their capacity for binding and metabolizing the OTA, as well as their ability to reduce the expression of the genes responsible for its production in A...
July 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704974/genotypic-regulation-of-aflatoxin-accumulation-but-not-aspergillus-fungal-growth-upon-post-harvest-infection-of-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-seeds
#9
Walid Ahmed Korani, Ye Chu, Corley Holbrook, Josh Clevenger, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) analyses...
July 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704973/the-mode-of-action-of-cyclo-l-ala-l-pro-in-inhibiting-aflatoxin-production-of-aspergillus-flavus
#10
Kurin Iimura, Tomohiro Furukawa, Toshiyoshi Yamamoto, Lumi Negishi, Michio Suzuki, Shohei Sakuda
Cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro) inhibits aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic fungi without affecting fungal growth. The mode of action of cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro) in inhibiting aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. A glutathione S-transferase (GST) of the fungus, designated AfGST, was identified as a binding protein of cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro) in an experiment performed using cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro)-immobilized Sepharose beads. Cyclo(l-Ala-l-Pro) specifically bound to recombinant AfGST and inhibited its GST activity...
July 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696373/rehabilitation-plus-onabotulinumtoxina-improves-motor-function-over-onabotulinumtoxina-alone-in-post-stroke-upper-limb-spasticity-a-single-blind-randomized-trial
#11
Deidre Devier, JoAnn Harnar, Leandro Lopez, Allison Brashear, Glenn Graham
BACKGROUND: OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) can temporarily decrease spasticity following stroke, but whether there is an associated improvement in upper limb function is less clear. This study measured the benefit of adding weekly rehabilitation to a background of BoNT-A treatments for chronic upper limb spasticity following stroke. METHODS: This was a multi-center clinical trial. Thirty-one patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity were treated with BoNT-A. They were then randomly assigned to 24 weeks of weekly upper limb rehabilitation or no rehabilitation...
July 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698485/dynamic-fumonisin-b%C3%A2-production-by-aspergillus-niger-intented-used-in-food-industry-in-china
#12
Xiaomin Han, Hongru Jiang, Jin Xu, Jing Zhang, Fengqin Li
There are a total of 30 strains including 27 strains of Aspergillus niger intended used in Chinese food industry, two strains used as control and one strain isolated from corn for fumonisin (FB) production on 3 media. It was found that FB₂ production by A. niger was function-dependent and highly related to culture media, as well as incubation time. All strains studied were unable to produce FB₁ and FB₃. Almost all strains were found to produce FB₂ on corn, rice and wheat bran. Based on their intended use in the food industry, the higher level of FB₂ producers were strains used for saccharifying enzyme (n = 13) production, followed by organic acid (n = 6), tannase (n = 7) and β-galactosidase (n = 1) production, with the FB₂ mean level of 3553-10,270 μg/kg, 1059-12,036 μg/kg, 3-7 μg/kg and 2-4 μg/kg on corn, 5455-9241 μg/kg, 559-2190 μg/kg, 4-9 μg/kg and 6-10 μg/kg on rice, 5959-7709 μg/kg, 9491-17,339 μg/kg, 8-14 μg/kg and 120-222 μg/kg on wheat bran, respectively...
July 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686221/evaluation-of-cyanea-capillata-sting-management-protocols-using-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro-envenomation-models
#13
Thomas K Doyle, Jasmine L Headlam, Christie L Wilcox, Eoin MacLoughlin, Angel A Yanagihara
Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) stings cause severe pain and can lead to dangerous systemic effects, including Irukandji-like syndrome. As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific support. In this study, we sought to evaluate potential first aid care protocols using previously described envenomation models that allow for direct measurements of venom activity. We found that seawater rinsing, the most commonly recommended method of tentacle removal for this species, induced significant increases in venom delivery, while rinsing with vinegar or Sting No More(®) Spray did not...
July 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684723/screening-and-validation-of-highly-efficient-insecticidal-conotoxins-from-a-transcriptome-based-dataset-of-chinese-tubular-cone-snail
#14
Bingmiao Gao, Chao Peng, Bo Lin, Qin Chen, Junqing Zhang, Qiong Shi
Most previous studies have focused on analgesic and anti-cancer activities for the conotoxins identified from piscivorous and molluscivorous cone snails, but little attention has been devoted to insecticidal activity of conotoxins from the dominant vermivorous species. As a representative vermivorous cone snail, the Chinese tubular cone snail (Conus betulinus) is the dominant Conus species inhabiting the South China Sea. We sequenced related venom transcriptomes from C. betulinus using both the next-generation sequencing and traditional Sanger sequencing technologies, and a comprehensive library of 215 conotoxin transcripts was constructed...
July 6, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678186/whole-transcriptomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-for-toxin-biosynthesis-in-a-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-catenella-achk-t
#15
Yong Zhang, Shu-Fei Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a group of neurotoxic alkaloids, are the most potent biotoxins for aquatic ecosystems and human health. Marine dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria are two producers of PSTs. The biosynthesis mechanism of PSTs has been well elucidated in cyanobacteria; however, it remains ambiguous in dinoflagellates. Here, we compared the transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T) at different toxin biosynthesis stages within the cell cycle using RNA-seq...
July 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678150/metabolism-of-the-marine-phycotoxin-ptx-2-and-its-effects-on-hepatic-xenobiotic-metabolism-activation-of-nuclear-receptors-and-modulation-of-the-phase-i-cytochrome-p450
#16
Jimmy Alarcan, Estelle Dubreil, Antoine Huguet, Dominique Hurtaud-Pessel, Stefanie Hessel-Pras, Alfonso Lampen, Valérie Fessard, Ludovic Le Hegarat
PTX-2 is a marine biotoxin frequently found in shellfish that can lead to food intoxication in humans. Information regarding PTX-2 metabolism is scarce, and little is known of its effect on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) or its molecular pathways. The aim of this study was consequently to examine PTX-2 Phase I metabolism using rat and human liver S9 fractions, and also to assess the capability of PTX-2: (i) to modulate the gene expression of a panel of Phase I (CYP450) and II (UGT, SULT, NAT, and GST) enzymes, as well as the Phase III or 0 (ABC and SLCO) transporters in the human hepatic HepaRG cell line using qPCR; (ii) to induce specific CYP450 in HepaRG cells measured by immunolabeling detection and the measurement of the cells' activities; and (iii) to activate nuclear receptors and induce CYP promoter activities in HEK-T and HepG2 transfected cell lines using transactivation and reporter gene assay, respectively...
July 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677629/mechanisms-for-differential-protein-production-in-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#17
Heather S Deter, Roderick V Jensen, William H Mather, Nicholas C Butzin
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are key regulators of bacterial persistence, a multidrug-tolerant state found in bacterial species that is a major contributing factor to the growing human health crisis of antibiotic resistance. Type II TA systems consist of two proteins, a toxin and an antitoxin; the toxin is neutralized when they form a complex. The ratio of antitoxin to toxin is significantly greater than 1.0 in the susceptible population (non-persister state), but this ratio is expected to become smaller during persistence...
July 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671585/probing-the-characterization-of-the-interaction-of-aflatoxins-b1-and-g1-with-calf-thymus-dna-in-vitro
#18
Liang Ma, Jiaman Wang, Yuhao Zhang
The binding characterization of aflatoxins with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) under physiological conditions was investigated. Multispectroscopic techniques, ctDNA melting, viscosity measurements, and molecular docking techniques were employed to elucidate the binding mechanism of the aflatoxins with DNA. The fluorescence results indicated that both aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) bound to the ctDNA, forming complexes through hydrogen bonding. The binding constants of AFB1 and AFG1 with ctDNA reached up to 10³ L·mol(-1) and 10⁴ L·mol(-1), respectively, and AFG1 exhibited a higher binding propensity than that of AFB1...
July 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671569/influence-of-environmental-factors-on-the-production-of-penitrems-a-f-by-penicillium-crustosum
#19
Svetlana A Kalinina, Annika Jagels, Benedikt Cramer, Rolf Geisen, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Filamentous fungi produce a multitude of secondary metabolites, some of them known as mycotoxins, which are toxic to vertebrates and other animal groups in low concentrations. Among them, penitrems, which belong to the group of indole-diterpene mycotoxins, are synthesized by Penicillium and Aspergillus genera and exhibit potent tremorgenic effects. This is the first complex study of the penitrems A-F production under the influence of different abiotic factors, e.g., media, incubation time, temperature, pH, light, water activity, and carbon and nitrogen source as well as oxidative and salt stress...
July 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665335/prenylflavonoid-isoxanthohumol-sensitizes-mcf-7-adr-cells-to-doxorubicin-cytotoxicity-via-acting-as-a-substrate-of-abcb1
#20
Ming Liu, Weiyi Zhang, Wei Zhang, Xin Zhou, Ming Li, Jinlai Miao
Isoxanthohumol is a unique prenylflavonoid with the highest content in beer. Isoxanthohumol has multiple bioactivities and has recently received considerable attention in the scientific community. Nonetheless; its effect on drug resistant cancer cells has rarely been studied. In this paper; we investigated the synergistic effect of isoxanthohumol and doxorubicin on doxorubicin resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. Our results showed that isoxanthohumol sensitized the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin on MCF-7/ADR cells via increased proliferation inhibition and apoptosis stimulation...
June 30, 2017: Toxins
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