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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786671/mechanisms-of-action-and-cell-death-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-toxins
#1
REVIEW
Mauricio A Navarro, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans...
May 22, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783772/acid-sphingomyelinase-promotes-cellular-internalization-of-clostridium-perfringens-iota-toxin
#2
Masahiro Nagahama, Masaya Takehara, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Kazumi Ishidoh, Keiko Kobayashi
Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is a binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin composed of the enzymatic component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ib binds to a cell surface receptor, forms Ib oligomer in lipid rafts, and associates with Ia. The Ia-Ib complex then internalizes by endocytosis. Here, we showed that acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) facilitates the cellular uptake of iota-toxin. Inhibitions of ASMase and lysosomal exocytosis by respective blockers depressed cell rounding induced by iota-toxin...
May 20, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783676/the-expanding-therapeutic-utility-of-botulinum-neurotoxins
#3
REVIEW
Elena Fonfria, Jacquie Maignel, Stephane Lezmi, Vincent Martin, Andrew Splevins, Saif Shubber, Mikhail Kalinichev, Keith Foster, Philippe Picaut, Johannes Krupp
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a major therapeutic agent that is licensed in neurological indications, such as dystonia and spasticity. The BoNT family, which is produced in nature by clostridial bacteria, comprises several pharmacologically distinct proteins with distinct properties. In this review, we present an overview of the current therapeutic landscape and explore the diversity of BoNT proteins as future therapeutics. In recent years, novel indications have emerged in the fields of pain, migraine, overactive bladder, osteoarthritis, and wound healing...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783636/transcriptomic-analysis-of-pseudoscorpion-venom-reveals-a-unique-cocktail-dominated-by-enzymes-and-protease-inhibitors
#4
Carlos E Santibáñez-López, Andrew Z Ontano, Mark S Harvey, Prashant P Sharma
Transcriptomic and genomic analyses have illuminated the diversity of venoms in three of the four venomous arachnid orders (scorpions, spiders, and ticks). To date, no venom gland transcriptome analysis has been available for pseudoscorpions, the fourth venomous arachnid lineage. To redress this gap, we sequenced an mRNA library generated from the venom glands of the species Synsphyronus apimelus (Garypidae). High-throughput sequencing by the Illumina protocol, followed by de novo assembly, resulted in a total of 238,331 transcripts...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783632/effects-of-dietary-arginine-ornithine-and-zeolite-supplementation-on-uremic-toxins-in-cats
#5
Nadine Paßlack, Jürgen Zentek
To test if arginine and ornithine, both components of the Krebs-Henseleit cycle, or zeolite, a potential ammonium absorber, can modulate the excretion of harmful bacterial metabolites, intestinal microbial protein fermentation was stimulated by feeding a high-protein (60.3%) diet as a single daily meal to 10 adult cats. The diet was supplemented without or with arginine (+50, 75, 100% compared to arginine in the basal diet), ornithine (+100, 150, 200% compared to arginine in the basal diet), or zeolite (0.125, 0...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783628/is-3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate-cmpf-a-clinically-relevant-uremic-toxin-in-haemodialysis-patients
#6
Mathilde Luce, Anais Bouchara, Myriam Pastural, Samuel Granjon, Jean Christophe Szelag, Maurice Laville, Walid Arkouche, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage, Laetitia Koppe
3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate (CMPF) is a metabolite of furan fatty acid and a marker of fish oil intake. CMPF is described as a protein-bound uremic toxin and interacts with free oxygen radicals, which can induce cell damages. However, the clinical consequences of CMPF accumulation in haemodialysis patients remain poorly documented. The aims of this study are to investigate potential association between CMPF levels and (i) biochemical and nutritional parameters; (ii) cardiovascular events and (iii) mortality...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772737/distal-colon-motor-dysfunction-in-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease-putative-role-of-uremic-toxins
#7
Elsa Hoibian, Nans Florens, Laetitia Koppe, Hubert Vidal, Christophe O Soulage
Although gastrointestinal complications are a common feature of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the impact of uremia on bowel motility remains poorly understood. The present study was, therefore, designed to investigate the impact of uremia on gut motility. Kidney failure was induced in mice by chemical nephrectomy using an adenine diet (0.25% w/w ). Gastrointestinal transit time and colon motility were explored in vivo and ex vivo . Colons from control mice were incubated with uremic plasma or uremic toxins (urea, indoxyl-sulfate or p-cresyl-sulfate) at concentrations encountered in patients with end-stage renal disease...
May 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772695/botulinum-toxin-type-a-injection-for-cervical-dystonia-in-adults-with-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy
#8
You Gyoung Yi, Keewon Kim, Youbin Yi, Young-Ah Choi, Ja-Ho Leigh, Moon Suk Bang
We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of injecting botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) into the neck muscles to treat cervical dystonia (CD) in patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP). This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with cross-over design. We prospectively enrolled adults with dyskinetic CP who were over 20 years old and had been clinically diagnosed with CD for more than one year. The primary outcome measure was the change in Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) at four weeks from the baseline TWSTRS...
May 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772660/role-of-uremic-toxins-for-kidney-cardiovascular-and-bone-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Hideki Fujii, Shunsuke Goto, Masafumi Fukagawa
With decreasing kidney function, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mineral bone disorders frequently emerge in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). For these patients, in addition to the traditional risk factors, non-traditional CKD-specific risk factors are also associated with such diseases and conditions. One of these non-traditional risk factors is the accumulation of uremic toxins (UTs). In addition, the accumulation of UTs further deteriorates kidney function. Recently, a huge number of UTs have been identified...
May 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762502/molecular-mechanisms-of-apoptosis-in-heparg-cell-line-induced-by-polyphyllin-vi-via-the-fas-death-pathway-and-mitochondrial-dependent-pathway
#10
Yi Liu, Xiaoxv Dong, Wenping Wang, Longtai You, Xingbin Yin, Chunjing Yang, Na Sai, Xin Leng, Jian Ni
Polyphyllin VI, which is an active saponin, is mainly isolated from traditional medicinal plant Paris polyphylla , which causes liver damage in rats. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential cytotoxicity of polyphyllin VI on the growth of HepaRG cells and to determine the molecular mechanism. The results revealed that polyphyllin VI changed cell morphology and induced apoptosis in HepaRG cells. Flow cytometric assay displayed that polyphyllin VI promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and induced S phase cell cycle arrest by decreasing the expression of cyclin A2 and CDK2, while significantly increasing the expression of p21 protein...
May 15, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762488/high-production-of-lukmf-in-staphylococcus-aureus-field-strains-is-associated-with-clinical-bovine-mastitis
#11
Jurriaan Hoekstra, Victor Rutten, Laura Sommeling, Tine van Werven, Mirlin Spaninks, Birgitta Duim, Lindert Benedictus, Gerrit Koop
Staphylococcus aureus , a major cause of bovine mastitis, produces a wide range of immune-evasion molecules. The bi-component leukocidin LukMF' is a potent killer of bovine neutrophils in vitro. Since the role of LukMF' in development of bovine mastitis has not been studied in natural infections, we aimed to clarify whether presence of the lukM-lukF' genes and production levels of LukMF' are associated with clinical severity of the disease. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from mastitis milk samples (38 clinical and 17 subclinical cases) from 33 different farms...
May 15, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762474/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-boulardii-reduces-the-deoxynivalenol-induced-alteration-of-the-intestinal-transcriptome
#12
Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Philippe Pinton, Jean-François Hupé, Manon Neves, Yannick Lippi, Sylvie Combes, Mathieu Castex, Isabelle P Oswald
Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring food contaminants. By inducing trans-activation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the stability of their mRNA, trichothecene can impair intestinal health. Several yeast products, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae , have the potential for improving the enteric health of piglets, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the administration of yeast counteracts the DON-induced intestinal alterations...
May 15, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757205/label-free-g-quadruplex-aptamer-fluorescence-assay-for-ochratoxin-a-using-a-thioflavin-t-probe
#13
Kefeng Wu, Changbei Ma, Han Zhao, Hailun He, Hanchun Chen
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating feed and foodstuffs. Therefore, a great deal of concern is associated with AFB1 toxicity. In this work, a fast and sensitive fluorescence aptamer biosensor has been proposed for the OTA assay. In the absence of OTA, the OTA aptamer can form a G-quadruplex structure with thioflavin T (ThT) dye, which results in increased fluorescence. After joining OTA, OTA aptamer combines with OTA and the G-quadruplex can be formed. Only faint fluorescence was finally observed when ThT weakly reacts with the quadruplex...
May 12, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751687/designed-strategies-for-fluorescence-based-biosensors-for-the-detection-of-mycotoxins
#14
REVIEW
Atul Sharma, Reem Khan, Gaelle Catanante, Tauqir A Sherazi, Sunil Bhand, Akhtar Hayat, Jean Louis Marty
Small molecule toxins such as mycotoxins with low molecular weight are the most widely studied biological toxins. These biological toxins are responsible for food poisoning and have the potential to be used as biological warfare agents at the toxic dose. Due to the poisonous nature of mycotoxins, effective analysis techniques for quantifying their toxicity are indispensable. In this context, biosensors have been emerged as a powerful tool to monitors toxins at extremely low level. Recently, biosensors based on fluorescence detection have attained special interest with the incorporation of nanomaterials...
May 11, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751668/electrochemical-immunosensor-for-detection-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-based-on-indirect-competitive-elisa
#15
Farah Asilah Azri, Rashidah Sukor, Jinap Selamat, Fatimah Abu Bakar, Nor Azah Yusof, Reza Hajian
Mycotoxins are the secondary toxic metabolites produced naturally by fungi. Analysis of mycotoxins is essential to minimize the consumption of contaminated food and feed. In this present work, an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) was successfully developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Various parameters of ELISA, including antigen⁻antibody concentration, blocking agents, incubation time, temperature and pH of reagents, were first optimized in a 96-well microtiter plate to study the antigen⁻antibody interaction and optimize the optimum parameters of the assay...
May 11, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751611/purification-and-characterization-of-recombinant-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-fa-also-known-as-serotype-h
#16
Gavin Hackett, Kevin Moore, David Burgin, Fraser Hornby, Bryony Gray, Mark Elliott, Imran Mir, Matthew Beard
We have purified and characterized recombinant botulinum neurotoxin serotype FA (BoNT/FA). This protein has also been named as a new serotype (serotype H), but the classification has been controversial. A lack of well-characterized, highly pure material has been a roadblock to study. Here we report purification and characterization of enzymatically active, and of inactive nontoxic, recombinant forms of BoNT/FA as tractable alternatives to purifying this neurotoxin from native Clostridium botulinum . BoNT/FA cleaves the same intracellular target proteins as BoNT/F1 and other F serotype BoNTs; the intracellular targets are vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMP) 1, 2 and 3...
May 11, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748501/proteomic-investigation-to-identify-anticancer-targets-of-nemopilema-nomurai-jellyfish-venom-in-human-hepatocarcinoma-hepg2-cells
#17
Indu Choudhary, Hyunkyoung Lee, Min Jung Pyo, Yunwi Heo, Jinho Chae, Seung Shic Yum, Changkeun Kang, Euikyung Kim
Nemopilema nomurai is a giant jellyfish that blooms in East Asian seas. Recently, N. nomurai venom (NnV) was characterized from a toxicological and pharmacological point of view. A mild dose of NnV inhibits the growth of various kinds of cancer cells, mainly hepatic cancer cells. The present study aims to identify the potential therapeutic targets and mechanism of NnV in the growth inhibition of cancer cells. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated with NnV, and its proteome was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS)...
May 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748494/a-genomic-and-proteomic-approach-to-identify-and-quantify-the-expressed-bacillus-thuringiensis-proteins-in-the-supernatant-and-parasporal-crystal
#18
Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Ana Paula Scaramal Ricietto, Juan Ferré
The combined analysis of genomic and proteomic data allowed us to determine which cry and vip genes are present in a Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) isolate and which ones are being expressed. Nine Bt isolates were selected from Spanish collections of Bt based on their vip1 and vip2 gene content. As a first step, nine isolates were analyzed by PCR to select those Bt isolates that contained genes with the lowest similarity to already described vip1 and vip2 genes (isolates E-SE10.2 and O-V84.2). Two selected isolates were subjected to a combined genomic and proteomic analysis...
May 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748486/transcriptomic-analysis-of-ciguatoxin-induced-changes-in-gene-expression-in-primary-cultures-of-mice-cortical-neurons
#19
Juan Andrés Rubiolo, Carmen Vale, Andrea Boente-Juncal, Masahiro Hirama, Shuji Yamashita, Mercedes Camiña, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Ciguatoxins are polyether marine toxins that act as sodium channel activators. These toxins cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents several symptoms in humans including long-term neurological alterations. Earlier work has shown that both acute and chronic exposure of primary cortical neurons to synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C have profound impacts on neuronal function. Thus, the present work aimed to identify relevant neuronal genes and metabolic pathways that could be altered by ciguatoxin exposure...
May 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748472/correction-occurrence-of-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-and-isomers-in-aquatic-environments-and-aquatic-food-sources-for-humans-toxins-2018-10-83
#20
Emilie Lance, Nathalie Arnich, Thomas Maignien, Ronel Biré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: Toxins
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