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Toxins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144441/g-protein-coupled-receptors-targeted-by-analgesic-venom-peptides
#1
REVIEW
James T Daniel, Richard J Clark
Chronic pain is a complex and debilitating condition associated with a large personal and socioeconomic burden. Current pharmacological approaches to treating chronic pain such as opioids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants exhibit limited efficacy in many patients and are associated with dose-limiting side effects that hinder their clinical use. Therefore, improved strategies for the pharmacological treatment of pathological pain are urgently needed. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitously expressed on the surface of cells and act to transduce extracellular signals and regulate physiological processes...
November 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140290/ameliorative-effects-of-grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-on-growth-performance-immune-function-antioxidant-capacity-biochemical-constituents-liver-histopathology-and-aflatoxin-residues-in-broilers-exposed-to-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2
#2
Shahid Ali Rajput, Lvhui Sun, Niya Zhang, Mahmoud Mohamed Khalil, Xin Gao, Zhao Ling, Luoyi Zhu, Farhan Anwar Khan, Jiacai Zhang, Desheng Qi
Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1...
November 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140286/evidence-to-use-botulinum-toxin-injections-in-tension-type-headache-management-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Mieszko Wieckiewicz, Natalia Grychowska, Marek Zietek, Gniewko Wieckiewicz, Joanna Smardz
Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of chronic recurring head pain. It can occur twice as often in women as in men. It is the most common type of headache. Its lifetime prevalence is 30% to 78% in the general population. TTH treatment should be multilevel. It often consists of taking pain medication, muscle relaxants, antidepressants, using biofeedback therapy, acupuncture, and attending behavioral therapy. Several clinical trials also suggest that botulinum toxin (BTX) may be an effective treatment option for such patients...
November 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135925/membrane-active-properties-of-an-amphitropic-peptide-from-the-cyaa-toxin-translocation-region
#4
Alexis Voegele, Orso Subrini, Nicolas Sapay, Daniel Ladant, Alexandre Chenal
The adenylate cyclase toxin CyaA is involved in the early stages of infection by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA intoxicates target cells by a direct translocation of its catalytic domain (AC) across the plasma membrane and produces supraphysiological levels of cAMP, leading to cell death. The molecular process of AC translocation remains largely unknown, however. We have previously shown that deletion of residues 375-485 of CyaA selectively abrogates AC translocation into eukaryotic cells...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135913/management-of-ciguatoxin-risk-in-eastern-australia
#5
Hazel Farrell, Shauna A Murray, Anthony Zammit, Alan W Edwards
Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW) on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135911/the-apoptogenic-toxin-aip56-is-secreted-by-the-type-ii-secretion-system-of-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-piscicida
#6
Ana do Vale, Cassilda Pereira, Carlos R Osorio, Nuno M S Dos Santos
AIP56 (apoptosis-inducing protein of 56 kDa) is a key virulence factor of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp), the causative agent of a septicaemia affecting warm water marine fish species. Phdp-associated pathology is triggered by AIP56, a short trip AB toxin with a metalloprotease A domain that cleaves the p65 subunit of NF-κB, an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that regulates the expression of inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes and plays a central role in host responses to infection...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137202/differential-gene-expression-analysis-of-bovine-macrophages-after-exposure-to-the-penicillium-mycotoxins-citrinin-and-or-ochratoxin-a
#7
Kristen M Brennan, Se-Young Oh, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Daniel E Graugnard, Niel A Karrow
Mycotoxins produced by fungal species commonly contaminate livestock feedstuffs, jeopardizing their health and diminishing production. Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by Penicillium spp. and commonly co-occur. Both CIT and OTA can modulate immune response by inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, altering cell metabolism, and triggering programmed cell death. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sublethal exposure (i.e., the concentration that inhibited cell proliferation by 25% (IC25)) to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA on the bovine macrophage transcriptome...
November 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137123/proteomic-characterization-of-the-venom-of-five-bombus-thoracobombus-species
#8
Nezahat Pınar Barkan, Mustafa Bilal Bayazit, Duygu Ozel Demiralp
Venomous animals use venom, a complex biofluid composed of unique mixtures of proteins and peptides, to act on vital systems of the prey or predator. In bees, venom is solely used for defense against predators. However, the venom composition of bumble bees (Bombus sp.) is largely unknown. The Thoracobombus subgenus of Bombus sp. is a diverse subgenus represented by 14 members across Turkey. In this study, we sought out to proteomically characterize the venom of five Thoracobombus species by using bottom-up proteomic techniques...
November 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125566/botulinum-toxin-in-management-of-limb-tremor
#9
REVIEW
Elina Zakin, David Simpson
Essential tremor is characterized by persistent, usually bilateral and symmetric, postural or kinetic activation of agonist and antagonist muscles involving either the distal or proximal upper extremity. Quality of life is often affected and one's ability to perform daily tasks becomes impaired. Oral therapies, including propranolol and primidone, can be effective in the management of essential tremor, although adverse effects can limit their use and about 50% of individuals lack response to oral pharmacotherapy...
November 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120408/exolysin-shapes-the-virulence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clonal-outliers
#10
REVIEW
Emeline Reboud, Pauline Basso, Antoine P Maillard, Philippe Huber, Ina Attrée
Bacterial toxins are important weapons of toxicogenic pathogens. Depending on their origin, structure and targets, they show diverse mechanisms of action and effects on eukaryotic cells. Exolysin is a secreted 170 kDa pore-forming toxin employed by clonal outliers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa providing to some strains a hyper-virulent behaviour. This group of strains lacks the major virulence factor used by classical strains, the Type III secretion system. Here, we review the structural features of the toxin, the mechanism of its secretion and the effects of the pore formation on eukaryotic cells...
November 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117141/awareness-and-prevalence-of-mycotoxin-contamination-in-selected-nigerian-fermented-foods
#11
Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Patrick Njobeh, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka, Sheila Okoth, Marthe De Boevre, Sarah De Saeger
Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri), locust bean (iru) and African oil bean seed (ugba) from Southwest Nigeria were quantified for 23 mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), and sterigmatocystin (STE) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The practices, perceived understanding and health risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination amongst fermented food sellers was also established. Data obtained revealed that 82% of the samples had mycotoxins occurring singly or in combination...
November 8, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112156/effects-of-lonomia-obliqua-venom-on-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-contribution-of-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species
#12
João Alfredo Moraes, Genilson Rodrigues, Vany Nascimento-Silva, Mariana Renovato-Martins, Markus Berger, Jorge Almeida Guimarães, Christina Barja-Fidalgo
Envenomation caused by human contact with the caterpillar Lonomia is characterized by deleterious effects on coagulation and patency of blood vessels. The cellular effects induced by Lonomia obliqua venom highlights its capacity to activate endothelial cells, leading to a proinflammatory phenotype. Having more knowledge about the mechanisms involved in envenomation may contribute to better treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effects of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristle extract (LOCBE) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
November 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112155/efficacy-of-bee-venom-acupuncture-for-chronic-low-back-pain-a-randomized-double-blinded-sham-controlled-trial
#13
Byung-Kwan Seo, Kyungsun Han, Ojin Kwon, Dae-Jean Jo, Jun-Hwan Lee
Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain (CLBP) through the pharmacological effects of bee venom and the simultaneous stimulation of acupoints. However, evidence of its efficacy and safety in humans remains unclear. Using a double-blind, randomized study, 54 patients with non-specific CLBP were assigned to the BVA and sham groups. All participants underwent six sessions of real or sham BVA for 3 weeks, in addition to administration of 180 mg of loxonin per day. The primary outcome, that is, "bothersomeness" derived from back pain, was assessed using the visual analog scale...
November 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113082/tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-pathway-mediates-t-2-toxin-induced-decrease-of-type-ii-collagen-in-cultured-rat-chondrocytes
#14
Yang Li, Ning Zou, Jing Wang, Ke-Wei Wang, Fu-Yuan Li, Fu-Xun Chen, Bing-Yu Sun, Dian-Jun Sun
T-2 toxin can cause damage to the articular cartilage, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. By employing the culture of rat chondrocytes, we investigated the effect of the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway on the damage to chondrocytes induced by T-2 toxin. It was found that T-2 toxin could reduce cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells when compared with the control group. After the addition of the T-2 toxin, the production of type II collagen was reduced at mRNA and protein levels, while the levels of TGF-β1, Smad3, ALK5, and MMP13 were upregulated...
November 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099767/the-first-cry2ac-type-protein-toxic-to-helicoverpa-armigera-cloning-and-overexpression-of-cry2ac7-gene-from-sbs-bt1-strain-of-bacillus-thuringiensis
#15
Faiza Saleem, Abdul Rauf Shakoori
The Cry (crystal) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are known to have toxicity against a variety of insects and have been exploited to control insect pests through transgenic plants and biopesticides. B. thuringiensis SBS BT-1 carrying the cry2 genes was isolated from soil samples in Pakistan. The 2-kb full length cry2Ac gene was cloned, sequenced, and submitted to the EMBL DNA database (Accession No. AM292031). For expression analysis, Escherichia coli DH5α was transformed with the fragment sub-cloned in pET22b expression vector using NdeI and HindIII restriction sites, and later confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis...
November 3, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099066/chemodenervation-of-the-larynx
#16
REVIEW
Rachel Kaye, Andrew Blitzer
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has existed for thousands of years; however, it was not medically utilized until investigations into its therapeutic use began in sincerity during the late 1970s and 1980s. This, coupled with the reclassification of spasmodic dysphonia as a focal dystonia, led to the use of chemodenervation for this disorder, which has since become a refined technique. Indeed, due to its safety and efficacy, BoNT has been investigated in multiple neurolaryngology disorders, including spasmodic dysphonia, vocal tremor, and muscle tension dysphonia...
November 2, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104251/influence-of-glycine-and-arginine-on-cylindrospermopsin-production-and-aoa-gene-expression-in-aphanizomenon-ovalisporum
#17
Ángel Barón-Sola, Francisca Fernández Del Campo, Soledad Sanz-Alférez
Arginine (Arg) and glycine (Gly) seem to be the only substrates accepted by the amidinotransferase that catalyze the first step of the synthesis pathway of the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN), leading to guanidinoacetate (GAA). Here, the effect of these amino acids on the production of CYN in cultures of the cylindrospermopsin-producing strain, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum UAM-MAO, has been studied. Arg clearly increased CYN content, the increment appearing triphasic along the culture. On the contrary, Gly caused a decrease of CYN, observable from the first day on...
November 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104247/molecular-dynamics-simulation-reveals-specific-interaction-sites-between-scorpion-toxins-and-kv1-2-channel-implications-for-design-of-highly-selective-drugs
#18
Shouli Yuan, Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
The Kv1.2 channel plays an important role in the maintenance of resting membrane potential and the regulation of the cellular excitability of neurons, whose silencing or mutations can elicit neuropathic pain or neurological diseases (e.g., epilepsy and ataxia). Scorpion venom contains a variety of peptide toxins targeting the pore region of this channel. Despite a large amount of structural and functional data currently available, their detailed interaction modes are poorly understood. In this work, we choose four Kv1...
November 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088102/suppressive-effects-of-bee-venom-acupuncture-on-paclitaxel-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-mediation-by-spinal-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-adrenergic-receptor
#19
Jiho Choi, Changhoon Jeon, Ji Hwan Lee, Jo Ung Jang, Fu Shi Quan, Kyungjin Lee, Woojin Kim, Sun Kwang Kim
Paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug for solid tumors, induces peripheral painful neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been reported to have potent analgesic effects, which are known to be mediated by activation of spinal α-adrenergic receptor. Here, we investigated the effect of BVA on mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal neuronal hyperexcitation induced by paclitaxel. The role of spinal α-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the analgesic effect of BVA was also observed. Administration of paclitaxel (total 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on four alternate days (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) induced significant mechanical hyperalgesic signs, measured using a von Frey filament...
October 31, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088078/aspergillus-korhogoensis-a-novel-aflatoxin-producing-species-from-the-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#20
Amaranta Carvajal-Campos, Ama Lethicia Manizan, Souria Tadrist, David Koffi Akaki, Rose Koffi-Nevry, Geromy G Moore, Stephen O Fapohunda, Sylviane Bailly, Didier Montet, Isabelle P Oswald, Sophie Lorber, Catherine Brabet, Olivier Puel
Several strains of a new aflatoxigenic species of Aspergillus, A. korhogoensis, were isolated in the course of a screening study involving species from section Flavi found contaminating peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) and peanut paste in the Côte d'Ivoire. Based on examination of four isolates, this new species is described using a polyphasic approach. A concatenated alignment comprised of nine genes (ITS, benA, cmdA, mcm7, amdS, rpb1, preB, ppgA, and preA) was subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and resulted in all four strains being inferred as a distinct clade...
October 31, 2017: Toxins
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