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Clóvis Moreira, Marcos R A Ferreira, Carlos E P da Cunha, Rafael A Donassolo, Paula F Finger, Gustavo M S G Moreira, Denis Y Otaka, Loise A de Sousa, José D Barbosa, Ângela N Moreira, Felipe M Salvarani, Fabricio R Conceição
Botulism is a potentially fatal intoxication caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced mainly by Clostridium botulinum . Vaccination against BoNT serotypes C and D is the main procedure to control cattle botulism. Current vaccines contain formaldehyde-inactivated native BoNTs, which have a time-consuming production process and pose safety risks. The development of non-toxic recombinant vaccines has helped to overcome these limitations. This study aims to evaluate the humoral immune response generated by cattle immunized with non-purified recombinant fragments of BoNTs C and D...
September 20, 2018: Toxins
Matthew R Lewin, José María Gutiérrez, Stephen P Samuel, María Herrera, Wendy Bryan-Quirós, Bruno Lomonte, Philip E Bickler, Tommaso C Bulfone, David J Williams
There is an unmet need for economical snakebite therapies with long shelf lives that are effective even with delays in treatment. The orally bioavailable, heat-stable, secretory phospholipase A₂ (sPLA₂) inhibitor, LY333013, demonstrates antidotal characteristics for severe snakebite envenoming in both field and hospital use. A murine model of lethal envenoming by a Papuan taipan ( Oxyuranus scutellatus ) demonstrates that LY333013, even with delayed oral administration, improves the chances of survival...
September 20, 2018: Toxins
Maurizio Brigotti, Valentina Arfilli, Domenica Carnicelli, Francesca Ricci, Pier Luigi Tazzari, Gianluigi Ardissino, Gaia Scavia, Stefano Morabito, Xiaohua He
Shiga toxin 2a (Stx2a) is the main virulence factor produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains (Stx-producing E. coli , STEC) responsible for hemorrhagic colitis and the life-threatening sequela hemolytic uremic syndrome in children. The toxin released in the intestine by STEC targets the globotriaosylceramide receptor (Gb3Cer) present on the endothelial cells of the brain and the kidney after a transient blood phase during which Stx2a interacts with blood components, such as neutrophils, which, conversely, recognize Stx through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
September 18, 2018: Toxins
Wai Ting Chan, Mirian Domenech, Inmaculada Moreno-Córdoba, Verónica Navarro-Martínez, Concha Nieto, Miriam Moscoso, Ernesto García, Manuel Espinosa
Type II (proteic) toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea. They are generally organized as operons integrated by two genes, the first encoding the antitoxin that binds to its cognate toxin to generate a harmless protein⁻protein complex. Under stress conditions, the unstable antitoxin is degraded by host proteases, releasing the toxin to achieve its toxic effect. In the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae we have characterized four TAs: pezAT , relBE , yefM-yoeB , and phD-doc , although the latter is missing in strain R6...
September 18, 2018: Toxins
Arundhathi Venkatasubramaniam, Tulasikumari Kanipakala, Nader Ganjbaksh, Rana Mehr, Ipsita Mukherjee, Subramaniam Krishnan, Taeok Bae, M Javad Aman, Rajan P Adhikari
Cytolytic pore-forming toxins including alpha hemolysin (Hla) and bicomponent leukotoxins play an important role in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus . These toxins kill the polymorphonuclear phagocytes (PMNs), disrupt epithelial and endothelial barriers, and lyse erythrocytes to provide iron for bacterial growth. The expression of these toxins is regulated by the two-component sensing systems Sae and Agr. Here, we report that a point mutation (L18P) in SaeS, the histidine kinase sensor of the Sae system, renders the S...
September 18, 2018: Toxins
Torfinn Moldal, Aksel Bernhoft, Grethe Rosenlund, Magne Kaldhusdal, Erling Olaf Koppang
Impaired growth, immunity, and intestinal barrier in mammals, poultry, and carp have been attributed to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The increased use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feed implies a risk for contamination with mycotoxins. The effects of dietary DON were explored in 12-month-old Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) (start weight of 58 g) that were offered a standard feed with non-detectable levels of mycotoxins (control group) or 5.5 mg DON/kg feed (DON group). Each group comprised two tanks with 25 fish per tank...
September 14, 2018: Toxins
Inès Dom, Ronel Biré, Vincent Hort, Gwenaëlle Lavison-Bompard, Marina Nicolas, Thierry Guérin
When considering the geographical expansion of marine toxins, the emergence of new toxins and the associated risk for human health, there is urgent need for versatile and efficient analytical methods that are able to detect a range, as wide as possible, of known or emerging toxins. Current detection methods for marine toxins rely on a priori defined target lists of toxins and are generally inappropriate for the detection and identification of emerging compounds. The authors describe the implementation of a recent approach for the non-targeted analysis of marine toxins in shellfish with a focus on a comprehensive workflow for the acquisition and treatment of the data generated after liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis...
September 14, 2018: Toxins
Christine Rasetti-Escargueil, Emmanuel Lemichez, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent known toxins, and are therefore classified as extremely harmful biological weapons. However, BoNTs are therapeutic drugs that are widely used and have an increasing number of applications. BoNTs show a high diversity and are divided into multiple types and subtypes. Better understanding of the activity at the molecular and clinical levels of the natural BoNT variants as well as the development of BoNT-based chimeric molecules opens the door to novel medical applications such as silencing the sensory neurons at targeted areas and dermal restoration...
September 13, 2018: Toxins
Alex Chapeaurouge, Andreza Silva, Paulo Carvalho, Ryan J R McCleary, Cassandra Marie Modahl, Jonas Perales, R Manjunatha Kini, Stephen P Mackessy
The use of -omics technologies allows for the characterization of snake venom composition at a fast rate and at high levels of detail. In the present study, we investigated the protein content of Red-headed Krait ( Bungarus flaviceps ) venom. This analysis revealed a high diversity of snake venom protein families, as evidenced by high-throughput mass spectrometric analysis. We found all six venom protein families previously reported in a transcriptome study of the venom gland of B. flaviceps , including phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s), Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitors (KSPIs), three-finger toxins (3FTxs), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), snaclecs, and natriuretic peptides...
September 13, 2018: Toxins
Balazs Szabo, Beata Toth, Eva Toth Toldine, Monika Varga, Nandor Kovacs, Janos Varga, Sandor Kocsube, Andrea Palagyi, Ferenc Bagi, Dragana Budakov, Vera Stojšin, Sanja Lazić, Marija Bodroža-Solarov, Radmilo Čolović, Goran Bekavac, Božana Purar, Djordje Jocković, Akos Mesterházy
Commercial maize hybrids are exposed to different degrees of ear infection by toxigenic fungal species and toxin contamination. Their resistance to different fungi and toxin relationships are largely unknown. Without this knowledge, screening and breeding are not possible for these pathogens. Seven- to tenfold differences were found in resistance to Fusarium spp., and there was a five-fold difference in ear coverage (%) in response to A. flavus . Three hybrids of the twenty entries had lower infection severity compared with the general means for toxigenic species...
September 13, 2018: Toxins
Xiao-Ping Li, Jennifer N Kahn, Nilgun E Tumer
Ricin A chain (RTA) depurinates the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) by interacting with the C-termini of the ribosomal P stalk. The ribosome interaction site and the active site are located on opposite faces of RTA. The interaction with P proteins allows RTA to depurinate the SRL on the ribosome at physiological pH with an extremely high activity by orienting the active site towards the SRL. Therefore, if an inhibitor disrupts RTA⁻ribosome interaction by binding to the ribosome binding site of RTA, it should inhibit the depurination activity...
September 13, 2018: Toxins
Miao Yu, Zhi-Yuan Wei, Zhou-Heng Xu, Jia-Qi Pan, Jian-Huan Chen
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a kind of natural pollutant belonging to the trichothecenes family. The aim of this study is to use diverse assays to evaluate oxidative damage as well as translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and to investigate their mechanisms in DON-induced toxicities on a placenta and embryo. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three groups with different doses of DON: 0, 1.0, 2.5 mg/(kg·day). In gestation day (GD) 12.5 d and 18.5 d, DON induced an elevated resorption rate of the embryos as well as structural and functional damage of the placenta...
September 13, 2018: Toxins
Zhao Jin, James Gillespie, John Barr, Jochum J Wiersma, Mark E Sorrells, Steve Zwinger, Thomas Gross, Jaime Cumming, Gary C Bergstrom, Robert Brueggeman, Richard D Horsley, Paul B Schwarz
This project was initiated with the goal of investigating the malt quality of winter rye cultivars and hybrids grown in the United States in 2014 and 2015, but high levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) were subsequently found in many of the malt samples. DON levels in 75% of the investigated rye samples (n = 117) were actually below 1.0 mg/kg, as quantified by a gas chromatography combined with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). However, 83% of the samples had DON in excess of 1.0 mg/kg following malting, and the average DON level in malted rye was 10...
September 11, 2018: Toxins
Alexander Hawlitschka, Carsten Holzmann, Andreas Wree, Veronica Antipova
Injection of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) into the striatum of hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rats reduced apomorphine-induced rotation behavior significantly, for at least 3 months. Thereafter, rotation behavior increased again. We injected hemi-PD rats with 1 ng BoNT-A twice, the second injection following 6 months after the first one and tested the rats for apomorphine-induced rotations and spontaneous motor behaviors, i.e., corridor task and stepping test. To test the hypothesis that BoNT-A reduced striatal hypercholinism in hemi-PD rats, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil was injected prior to separate apomorphine-induced rotation tests...
September 11, 2018: Toxins
Wen-Chih Liu, Yasuhiko Tomino, Kuo-Cheng Lu
Uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol, or p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), are markedly accumulated in the organs of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. These toxins can induce inflammatory reactions and enhance oxidative stress, prompting glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, to aggravate the decline of renal function. Consequently, uremic toxins play an important role in the worsening of renal and cardiovascular functions. Furthermore, they destroy the quantity and quality of bone. Oral sorbent AST-120 reduces serum levels of uremic toxins in CKD patients by adsorbing the precursors of IS and PCS generated by amino acid metabolism in the intestine...
September 11, 2018: Toxins
Shahid Ali Rajput, Lvhui Sun, Niya Zhang, Mahmoud Mohamed Khalil, Xin Gao, Zhao Ling, Luoyi Zhu, Farhan Anwar Khan, Jiacai Zhang, Desheng Qi
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [...].
September 10, 2018: Toxins
Camila Dias-Lopes, Ana Luiza Paiva, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Franck Molina, Liza Felicori
Diagnostic tests for arachnid accidents remain unavailable for patients and clinicians. Together with snakes, these accidents are still a global medical concern, and are recognized as neglected tropical issues. Due to arachnid toxins' fast mechanism of action, quick detection and quantification of venom is required to accelerate treatment decisions, rationalize therapy, and reduce costs and patient risks. This review aims to understand the current limitations for arachnid venom identification and quantification in biological samples...
September 10, 2018: Toxins
Fei Yang, Jian Guo, Feiyu Huang, Isaac Yaw Massey, Ruixue Huang, Yunhui Li, Cong Wen, Ping Ding, Weiming Zeng, Geyu Liang
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic and frequently detected monocyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria, which poses a great threat to the natural ecosystem and public health. It is very important to seek environment-friendly and cost-efficient methods to remove MC-LR in water. In this study, the MC-degrading capacities of a novel indigenous bacterial community designated as YFMCD4 and the influence of environmental factors including various temperatures, MC concentrations and pH on the MC-degrading activities were investigated utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
September 8, 2018: Toxins
Hong Li, Hong Tang, Aleksandra W Debowski, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Mohammed Benghezal
Recent structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Helicobacter pylori G27 wild-type and O -antigen ligase mutant resulted in the redefinition of the core-oligosaccharide and O -antigen domains. The short core-oligosaccharide (Glc⁻Gal⁻Hep-III⁻Hep-II⁻Hep-I⁻KDO) and its attached trisaccharide (Trio, GlcNAc⁻Fuc⁻Hep) appear to be highly conserved structures among H. pylori strains. The G27 LPS contains a linear glucan⁻heptan linker between the core-Trio and distal Lewis antigens...
September 8, 2018: Toxins
Marisa Silva, Verónica Rey, Aldo Barreiro, Manfred Kaufmann, Ana Isabel Neto, Meryem Hassouani, Brahim Sabour, Ana Botana, Luis M Botana, Vitor Vasconcelos
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent alkaloids of microalgal and cyanobacterial origin, with worldwide distribution. Over the last 20 years, the number of poisoning incidents has declined as a result of the implementation of legislation and monitoring programs based on bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 98 samples from 23 different species belonging to benthic and subtidal organisms, such as echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves, and gastropods. The sampling locations were Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago), and the northwestern coast of Morocco...
September 6, 2018: Toxins
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