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Giada Magro, Stefano Biffani, Giulietta Minozzi, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Mario Luini, Renata Piccinini
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major agent of dairy cow intramammary infections: the different prevalences of mastitis reported might be related to a combination of S. aureus virulence factors beyond host factors. The present study considered 169 isolates from different Italian dairy herds that were classified into four groups based on the prevalence of S. aureus infection at the first testing: low prevalence (LP), medium-low (MLP), medium-high (MHP) and high (HP). We aimed to correlate the presence of virulence genes with the prevalence of intramammary infections in order to develop new strategies for the control of S...
June 21, 2017: Toxins
Nozomi Shiratori, Naoki Kobayashi, Phitsanu Tulayakul, Yoshitsugu Sugiura, Masahiko Takino, Osamu Endo, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi
Commercially available rice grains in Thailand were examined to isolate the monoverticillate Penicillium species responsible for toxic yellowed rice. Penicillium species were obtained from seven out of 10 rice samples tested. Among them, one Penicillium citreonigrum isolate and six Penicillium brocae isolates were morphologically identified. The P. citreonigrum isolate produced the mycotoxin citreoviridin on a yeast extract sucrose broth medium. Mycotoxin surveys showed that citreoviridin was not detected in any samples, but one out of 10 rice samples tested was positive for aflatoxin B₁ at a level of 5...
June 15, 2017: Toxins
Suzanne R Kalb, Jakub Baudys, Theresa J Smith, Leonard A Smith, John R Barr
Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC), alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs) to cause hemagglutination...
June 15, 2017: Toxins
Susanna K P Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromycesmarneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
Daniel A Fukuda, Maria C Caporrino, Katia C Barbaro, Maisa S Della-Casa, Eliana L Faquim-Mauro, Geraldo S Magalhaes
Spider envenomation, from the genus Loxosceles, is frequently reported as a cause of necrotic lesions in humans around the world. Among the many components found in the venom of Loxosceles genus, phospholipases D (PLDs) are the most investigated, since they can cause a massive inflammatory response, dermonecrosis, hemolysis and platelet aggregation, among other effects. Even though the PLDs induce strong platelet aggregation, there are no studies showing how the PLDs interact with platelets to promote this effect...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
Javiera Oyaneder Terrazas, Héctor R Contreras, Carlos García
The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs)...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
Oana Stanciu, Cristina Juan, Doina Miere, Felicia Loghin, Jordi Mañes
In this study, a total of 244 wheat and wheat-based products collected from Romania were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to evaluate the presence of four enniatins (ENs; i.e., ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1) and beauvericin (BEA). For the wheat samples, the influence of agricultural practices was assessed, whereas the results for the wheat-based products were used to calculate the estimated daily intake of emerging mycotoxins through wheat consumption for the Romanian population...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
Miao Yu, Liangkai Chen, Zhao Peng, Di Wang, Yadong Song, Hanying Wang, Ping Yao, Hong Yan, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON) belongs to the type B group of trichothecenes family, which is composed of sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by Fusarium and other fungi in grain. DON may cause various toxicities, such as cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity as well as teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. In the present study, we focus on a hypothesis that DON alters the expressions of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by inducing embryotoxicity in C57BL/6 mouse (5.0, 2.5, 1.0, and 0 mg/kg/day) and BeWo cell lines (0 and 50 nM; 3 h, 12 h and 24 h)...
June 9, 2017: Toxins
Steven D Aird, Nelson Jorge da Silva, Lijun Qiu, Alejandro Villar-Briones, Vera Aparecida Saddi, Mariana Pires de Campos Telles, Miguel L Grau, Alexander S Mikheyev
Venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes of six Micrurus taxa (M. corallinus, M. lemniscatus carvalhoi, M. lemniscatus lemniscatus, M. paraensis, M. spixii spixii, and M. surinamensis) were investigated, providing the most comprehensive, quantitative data on Micrurus venom composition to date, and more than tripling the number of Micrurus venom protein sequences previously available. The six venomes differ dramatically. All are dominated by 2-6 toxin classes that account for 91-99% of the toxin transcripts...
June 8, 2017: Toxins
Yueqin Wang, Jing Yang, Yudong Quan, Zhenying Wang, Wanzhi Cai, Kanglai He
A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR) after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F₁ crosses were similar (LC50s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g), which suggested the resistance was autosomal...
June 7, 2017: Toxins
Guido Bosch, H J van der Fels-Klerx, Theo C de Rijk, Dennis G A B Oonincx
Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens, BSF) and yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0...
June 2, 2017: Toxins
Xiangfeng Zheng, Xiaoli Zhang, Lina Zhao, Maurice T Apaliya, Qiya Yang, Wei Sun, Xiaoyun Zhang, Hongyin Zhang
In this study, seven strains of Fusarium graminearum were isolated from wheat, of which six were identified to produce deoxynivalenol and the production of deoxynivalenol was assessed. F. graminearum strain Fg1 was noted to produce 1.0 μg/g deoxynivalenol during the incubation period in the Czapek yeast broth, while none was detected in F. graminearum strain Fg2. Hence, the differences in proteomes and transcriptomes of Fg1 and Fg2 were compared to analyze the mechanism underlying deoxynivalenol production...
June 1, 2017: Toxins
Valeria Scala, Alessandro Grottoli, Riccardo Aiese Cigliano, Irantzu Anzar, Marzia Beccaccioli, Corrado Fanelli, Chiara Dall'Asta, Paola Battilani, Massimo Reverberi, Walter Sanseverino
Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot disease in maize and its contamination with fumonisins, mycotoxins harmful for humans and livestock. Lipids, and their oxidized forms, may drive the fate of this disease. In a previous study, we have explored the role of oxylipins in this interaction by deleting by standard transformation procedures a linoleate diol synthase-coding gene, lds1, in F. verticillioides. A profound phenotypic diversity in the mutants generated has prompted us to investigate more deeply the whole genome of two lds1-deleted strains...
May 31, 2017: Toxins
Letizia Polito, Daniele Mercatelli, Massimo Bortolotti, Stefania Maiello, Alice Djemil, Maria Giulia Battelli, Andrea Bolognesi
Immunotoxins (ITs) are hybrid proteins combining the binding specificity of antibodies with the cytocidal properties of toxins. They represent a promising approach to lymphoma therapy. The cytotoxicity of two immunotoxins obtained by chemical conjugation of the plant toxin saporin-S6 with the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody rituximab and the anti-CD22 murine antibody OM124 were evaluated on the CD20-/CD22-positive cell line Raji. Both ITs showed strong cytotoxicity for Raji cells, but the anti-CD22 IT was two logs more efficient in killing, probably because of its faster internalization...
May 30, 2017: Toxins
Sylwia Bloch, Alicja Węgrzyn, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk
Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) have been identified in the wide range of bacteria (also pathogenic species) and found to play an important role in the regulation of many processes, including toxin gene expression. The best characterized prokaryotic sRNAs regulate gene expression by base pairing with mRNA targets and fall into two broad classes: cis-encoded sRNAs (also called antisense RNA) and trans-acting sRNAs. Molecules from the second class are frequently considered as the most related to eukaryotic microRNAs...
May 30, 2017: Toxins
Amram Torgeman, Eyal Ozeri, Alon Ben David, Eran Diamant, Osnat Rosen, Arieh Schwartz, Ada Barnea, Arik Makovitzki, Avishai Mimran, Ran Zichel
The only approved treatment for botulism relies on passive immunity which is mostly based on antibody preparations collected from hyper-immune horses. The IgG Fc fragment is commonly removed from these heterologous preparations to reduce the incidence of hyper-sensitivity reactions. New-generation therapies entering the pipeline are based on a combination of humanized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which exhibit improved safety and pharmacokinetics. In the current study, a systematic and quantitative approach was applied to measure the direct contribution of homologous Fc to the potency of monoclonal and polyclonal antitoxin preparations in mice...
May 29, 2017: Toxins
Giulia Zancolli, Libia Sanz, Juan J Calvete, Wolfgang Wüster
Venom research has attracted an increasing interest in disparate fields, from drug development and pharmacology, to evolutionary biology and ecology, and rational antivenom production. Advances in "-omics" technologies have allowed the characterization of an increasing number of animal venoms, but the methodology currently available is suboptimal for large-scale comparisons of venom profiles. Here, we describe a fast, reproducible and semi-automated protocol for investigating snake venom variability, especially at the intraspecific level, using the Agilent Bioanalyzer on-chip technology...
May 28, 2017: Toxins
Maria Filek, Maria Łabanowska, Magdalena Kurdziel, Apolonia Sieprawska
These studies concentrate on the possibility of using selenium ions and/or 24-epibrassinolide at non-toxic levels as protectors of wheat plants against zearalenone, which is a common and widespread mycotoxin. Analysis using the UHPLC-MS technique allowed for identification of grains having the stress-tolerant and stress-sensitive wheat genotype. When germinating in the presence of 30 µM of zearalenone, this mycotoxin can accumulate in both grains and hypocotyls germinating from these grains. Selenium ions (10 µM) and 24-epibrassinolide (0...
May 27, 2017: Toxins
Ana I Prieto, Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Rocío Valderrama-Fernández, Ángeles Jos, Ana M Cameán
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has become increasingly important as a freshwater algal toxin, showing cytotoxic effects. This toxin is able to bioaccumulate in freshwater food webs, representing a serious human health problem. Normally, fish is cooked before consumption, and CYN concentration can be altered. For the first time, the effects of microwaving and broiling for 1 and 2 min on CYN concentration and its decomposition products in fish muscle (Oreochromis niloticus) contaminated in the laboratory were investigated, using UPLC-MS/MS and Orbitrap...
May 26, 2017: Toxins
Tomoya Yoshinari, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi, Takahiro Ohnishi, Jun Terajima
Blasticidin S (BcS) is a protein synthesis inhibitor which shows strong growth inhibitory activity against a number of microorganisms. However, BcS inhibited aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus without affecting its growth. In order to obtain information about the structure-activity relationship of BcS as an aflatoxin production inhibitor, BcS derivatives were prepared and their aflatoxin production inhibitory activities were evaluated. Among five derivatives, blasticidin S carboxymethyl ester, deaminohydroxyblasticidin S, and pyrimidinoblasticidin S showed inhibitory activity, while the others did not...
May 26, 2017: Toxins
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