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Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Paulo Schiavom Duarte, Luciana Audi de Castroneves, Heitor Naoki Sado, Marcelo Tatit Sapienza, Ana Amélia Fialho de Oliveira Hoff, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel
Herein, we report a case of a 19-year-old man with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) diagnosed when he was 12 years of age. The patient had previously undergone total thyroidectomy, cervical radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. He progressed with known bone, pulmonary, and lymph node metastases and was scanned with 18 F-fluoride (18 F-NaF) and 68 Ga-dotatate whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for metastatic disease monitoring. We found that the MTC bone metastases and soft tissue calcified metastases were better characterized on 18 F-NaF PET/CT than on 68 Ga-dotatate PET/CT...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Chang-Hee Lee, Seung Hyun Son, Chae Moon Hong, Ju Hye Jeong, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Tae-Geon Kwon, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Purpose: Bisphosphonate (BP) is the first-line therapy for the management of osteoporosis. BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and atypical femoral fracture (AFF) are increasingly common comorbidities in patients with osteoporosis under long-term BP treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for AFF features on bone scintigraphy in patients with BRONJ. Methods: Among total of 373 BRONJ patients treated between September 2005 and July 2014, 237 (220 women, 17 men; median age 73 years) who underwent three-phase bone scintigraphy were enrolled for this retrospective study...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Alireza Sadremomtaz, Zeinab Telikani
Purpose: This study aims to compare Monte Carlo-based codes' characteristics in the determination of the basic parameters of a high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (HiReSPECT) scanner. Methods: The geometry of this dual-head gamma camera equipped with a pixelated CsI(Na) scintillator and lead hexagonal hole collimator were accurately described in the GEANT4 Application for the Tomographic Emission (GATE), Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNP-X), and simulation of imaging nuclear detectors (SIMIND) codes...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sejin Ha, Jong Jin Lee
Purpose: Among the different methods of measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using 51 Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance, the two-plasma-sample method (TPSM) is widely used, and highly accurate. The single-plasma-sample method (SPSM) is occasionally used for simplicity, at the expense of accuracy. Our aims were (1) to investigate the correlation and (2) to compare the accuracy of six known SPSMs in pediatric patients in reference to TPSM. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 122 pediatric cases (65 boys, age 7...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Minchul Song, Subin Jeon, Sae-Ryung Kang, Zeenat Jabin, Su Woong Yoo, Jung-Joon Min, Hee-Seung Bom, Sang-Geon Cho, Jahae Kim, Ho-Chun Song, Seong Young Kwon
Purpose: Thyroglobulin (Tg) may be released from damaged residual thyroid tissues after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We investigated whether altered levels of serum Tg after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH)-aided RAI therapy could be a prognostic marker in patients with DTC. Methods: We evaluated 68 patients who underwent RAI therapy after total thyroidectomy. Serum Tg levels were measured just before RAI administration (D0Tg) and 7 days after RAI therapy (D7Tg)...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Reeree Lee, Jihyun Kim, Jin Chul Paeng, Jung Woo Byun, Gi Jeong Cheon, Dong Soo Lee, June-Key Chung, Keon Wook Kang
Purpose: 68 Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- N , N ', N ″, N ‴-tetraacetic acid-d-Phe1 -Tyr3 -octreotide (68 Ga-DOTATOC) is taken up by activated macrophages, which accumulate in active inflammatory lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for assessment of vulnerable plaque, by evaluating correlation between aortic uptake of 68 Ga-DOTATOC and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Fifty patients with neuroendocrine tumors who underwent 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT were retrospectively enrolled...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Dong-Yeon Kim, Sang-Geon Cho, Hee-Seung Bom
Myocardial perfusion imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) has several advantages over single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The recent advances in SPECT technology have shown promise, but there is still a large need for PET in the clinical management of coronary artery disease (CAD). Especially, absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) using PET is extremely important. In spite of considerable advances in the diagnosis of CAD, novel PET radiopharmaceuticals remain necessary for the diagnosis of CAD because clinical use of current cardiac radiotracers is limited by their physical characteristics, such as decay mode, emission energy, and half-life...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Daiki Kayano, Seigo Kinuya
Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine and specifically targets neuroendocrine cells including some neuroendocrine tumors. Iodine-131 (I-131)-labeled MIBG (I-131 MIBG) therapy for neuroendocrine tumors has been performed for more than a quarter-century. The indications of I-131 MIBG therapy include treatment-resistant neuroblastoma (NB), unresectable or metastatic pheochromocytoma (PC) and paraganglioma (PG), unresectable or metastatic carcinoid tumors, and unresectable or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC)...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Chae Moon Hong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer has been successfully used for more than 70 years. However, there is still plenty of controversy surrounding the use and doses of radioiodine. There is insufficient evidence to answer the questions. Recent American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines seem to favor low-dose RAI, based on recent clinical trials and meta-analyses. However, long-term follow-up data remains limited, and there are additional factors we should consider that might affect the efficacy of RAI therapy...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Myoung Hyoun Kim, Dae-Weung Kim
A 72-year-old male patient with a history of polycystic kidney disease and lung malignancy underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) for the evaluation of tumor recurrence. The FDG PET/CT and subsequent non-enhanced CT scans revealed a hemorrhage in the peri-renal space of the left original kidney. Interesting in this case was the incidental detection of unexpected peri-renal hemorrhage during an oncologic assessment with FDG PET/CT.
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Saurabh Arora, Nishikant Avinash Damle, Averilicia Passah, Madhav Prasad Yadav, Sanjana Ballal, Vivek Aggarwal, Yashdeep Gupta, Praveen Kumar, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar Bal
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is characterized by combined occurrence of tumors of endocrine glands including the parathyroid, the pancreatic islet cells, and the anterior pituitary gland. Parathyroid involvement is the most common manifestation and usually the first clinical involvement in MEN1 syndrome, followed by gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Here we present a case where the patient initially presented with metastatic gastric NET and a single parathyroid adenoma was detected incidentally on 68 Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT done as part of post 177 Lu-DOTATATE therapy (PRRT) follow-up...
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Ji-In Bang, Ho-Young Lee, Geyoung Woon Noh, Jeong Mi Park, June Kee Yoon
Purpose: In radioimmunoassay (RIA), the gamma counter is the important instrument for the accurate measurement. To manage quality assurance of RIA, the counting efficiency of gamma counter is one of the important parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the counting efficiency of gamma counters in multiple institutes on the base of traceability by using the certified reference materials (CRMs). Methods: Twenty-three institutes that perform RIA were enrolled in this study...
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Soo Young Kim, Jung Mi Park, Jae Pil Hwang
Purpose: A low-iodine diet is necessary in patients about to undergo radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer to decrease the competitive absorption of ingested nonradioactive iodine. This study aimed to assess the iodine concentrations in salts and basic Korean sauces, and to provide fundamental data for guidelines on a low-iodine diet before radioiodine therapy. Methods: The iodine contents of refined salts, solar sea salts, fish sauces, and commonly used Korean sauces with added refined salt were determined by ICP-MS...
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Miho Ota, Jun Ogura, Shintaro Ogawa, Koichi Kato, Hiroshi Matsuda, Hiroshi Kunugi
Purpose: Intracranial administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to elicit a rapid innate immune response, activate glial cells in the brain, and induce depression-like behavior. However, no study has focused on the changes in glial cells induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS in vivo. Methods: Ten adult male Fischer F344 rats underwent [11 C]PK11195 PET before and 2 days after intraperitoneal injection of LPS to evaluate the changes in glial cells...
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Yun Soo Park, Seok Mo Lee, Ji Sun Park, Sang Kyun Bae, Hye-Kyung Shim, Won-Sik Lee, Sang-Min Lee
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the value of clinical prognostic factors and semiquantitative metabolic parameters from initial staging fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients treated with stem cell transplantation (SCT). Methods: A total of 39 malignant lymphoma patients who underwent initial staging F-18 FDG PET/CT were enrolled in this study. SUVmax, MTV_wb, and TLG_wb were measured during the initial staging PET/CT...
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Keunyoung Kim, Seong-Jang Kim
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a systemic cytotoxic radiation therapy using a compound of β-emitting radionuclide chelated to a peptide for the treatment of tumor with overexpressed specific cell receptor such as somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) of neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Surgical resection should be performed for the curative treatment for NETs when it is feasible; however, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed when locally advanced or metastasized disease. PRRT with lutetium-177 (Lu-177)-labeled somatostatin analogues, as a new treatment modality targeting metastatic or inoperable NETs expressing the SSTR2, have been developed and successfully used for the past two decades...
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Joon Young Choi
Bone is a common metastatic site of cancer. Bone metastasis reduces life expectancy and results in serious symptoms and complications such as bone pain, pathological fractures, and spinal cord compression, decreasing quality of life by restricting sleep and mobility. Treatment for bone metastasis includes drugs (pure analgesics, hormones, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and bisphosphonates, among others), external radiation therapy, surgery, and radionuclide therapy using bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals. Particulate radiation with α- or β-rays is used as a bone-targeting radiopharmaceutical in radionuclide therapy...
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Nader Hirmas, Raya Jadaan, Akram Al-Ibraheem
Purpose and Methods: Patients with inoperable and metastasized neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), particularly those with grades 1 and 2, usually receive treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSAs). Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has gained momentum over the past two decades in patients who progress on SSAs. 177Lu-DOTATATE is currently the most widely used radiopeptide for PRRT. We reviewed the recent evidence on PRRT and the treatment of gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs)...
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jeong Won Lee, Sang Mi Lee
18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is widely used for staging, evaluating treatment response, and predicting prognosis in malignant diseases. FDG uptake and volumetric PET parameters such as metabolic tumor volume have been used and are still used as conventional PET parameters to assess biological characteristics of tumors. However, in recent years, additional features derived from PET images by computational processing have been found to reflect intratumoral heterogeneity, which is related to biological tumor features, and to provide additional predictive and prognostic information, which leads to the concept of radiomics...
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Byeong-Cheol Ahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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