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Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Alyssa R Goldbach, Suzanne Pascarella, Simin Dadpravarar
We report a case of a 29-year-old female with a history of asthma, post-partum ARDS, and pulmonary hypertension who presents with severe shortness of breath. The patient describes her shortness of breath as progressive over the past 10 years. Chest radiography and CT angiography of the thorax showed findings consistent with fibrosing mediastinitis with severe stenosis of the left main pulmonary artery. This resulted in appearance of unilateral absent left lung perfusion on quantitative Tc-99-MAA perfusion and Xe-133 ventilation (V/Q) scan...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Fayçal Ben Bouallègue, Fabien Vauchot, Denis Mariano-Goulart
Baseline 18 F-FDG PET was performed in a 74-year-old patient with relapsing upper mediastinum lymphoma. Left subclavian thrombosis was suspected on prior contrast-enhanced CT. Dynamic PET imaging was achieved during 3 min after IV injection of 18 F-FDG to the left arm in order to further assess left subclavian vein permeability. The 20-s dynamic frame at 1 min after injection confirmed the absence of flow in the left subclavian vein and evidenced the derivation of 18 F-FDG through left axillary, then superficial, then right internal mammary collaterals to the superior vena cava, hence confirming the subclavian thrombosis...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Dharmender Malik, Rajender Kumar, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Gaurav Parkash, Amanjit Bal, Anish Bhattacharya
We present a case of papillary thyroid cancer (post-thyroidectomy status) on regular treatment with suppressive Levothyroxine therapy. On follow-up at 6 months after radioactive iodine ablation for remnant thyroid tissue, her thyroglobulin, and anti-thyroglobulin levels were 0.06 ng/ml and 670 IU/ml, respectively. Low-dose whole-body I-131 scan was negative. To look for the cause of isolated increased anti-thyroglobulin level, a whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT was done which revealed multiple FDG-avid lytic skeletal lesions suggestive of metastases...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Meghana Prabhu, Deepali Jain, Siddhartha Datta Gupta, Chandrasekhar Bal, Rakesh Kumar
Thyroid carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of endocrine malignancies. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) constitutes 90% of the thyroid carcinomas, rest being medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). Distant metastases occur in up to 10% of patients with DTC. Metastases to axillary lymph nodes (ALN) are very rare. As per literature, only 25 cases have been reported. We report an unusual case of 47-year-old male with Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid presenting with a solitary axillary lymph node metastasis 17 years after thyroidectomy, along with review of literature...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Young Jin Jeong, Kyung Won Park, Do-Young Kang
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a heterogenous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by declining language and speech ability. Various underlying neuropathologies can induce PPA, and the disorder is divided into three subtypes-progressive non-fluent aphasia, semantic variant aphasia, and logopenic aphasia-according to clinical features. Accurate disease classification and prediction of underlying diseases are necessary for appropriate treatment, but proper use of imaging tests is important because clinical information alone often makes it difficult to make accurate decisions...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sungwoo Bae, Ji-In Bang, Yoo Sung Song, Won Woo Lee
Respiratory-gated 18 F-fluorodeoxygluocse (18 F-FDG) PET/CT has been successfully used to better localize malignancies in the lung or upper abdominal organs. However, clinical usefulness of respiratory-gated 18 F-FDG PET/CT in detection of fever focus has not been reported yet. A 68-year-old male patient with a history of living donor liver transplantation and biliary stenting was referred for 18 F-FDG PET/CT due to fever of unknown origin (FUO). To find the accurate fever focus, respiratory-gated and non-gated 18 F-FDG PET/CT was performed...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Venkata Subramanian Krishnaraju, Dharmender Malik, Rajender Kumar, Giridhar S Bora, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Anish Bhattacharya
Testicular torsion is a common differential diagnosis of acute scrotal pain along with acute epididymo-orchitis, which may lead to testicular non-viability. Doppler ultrasound and testicular scintigraphy are two routinely used modalities for the assessment of testicular viability. However, in some cases, these investigations may prove inadequate in differentiating between the two entities with widely differing management. Here, we present a case of a 52-year-old male with questionable viability of testis, who was investigated initially using testicular scintigraphy and was further subjected to a regional 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, in view of inconclusive findings with the conventional modalities...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jihyun Kim, Hyunjong Lee, Hwanhee Lee, Ji-In Bang, Yeon-Koo Kang, Sungwoo Bae, Yoo Sung Song, Won Woo Lee
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the usefulness of quantitative salivary single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) using Tc-99m pertechnetate in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed quantitative salivary SPECT/CT data from 95 xerostomic patients who were classified as either SS ( n  = 47, male:female = 0:47, age = 54.60 ± 13.16 y [mean ± SD]) or non-SS ( n  = 48, male:female = 5:43, age = 54...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Myoung Hyoun Kim, Seul-Gi Kim, Dae-Weung Kim
Purpose: We developed a Tc-99m and fluorescence-labeled peptide, Tc-99m TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI, to target tumor cells, and evaluated the diagnostic performance as a dual-modality imaging agent for tumor in a murine model. Methods: TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI was synthesized using Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. Radiolabeling of TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-GNQWFI with Tc-99m was done using ligand exchange via tartrate. Binding affinity and in vitro cellular uptake studies were performed...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Daris Theerakulpisut, Yutapong Raruenrom, Nantaporn Wongsurawat, Charoonsak Somboonporn
Purpose: Diagnostic I-131 MIBG scintigraphy is an important imaging modality for evaluation of patients with neuroblastoma (NB) especially in centers where I-123 MIBG is not available. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) could potentially improve lesion detection over planar scintigraphy, but studies regarding its usefulness as an add-on to diagnostic I-131 MIBG scintigraphy are limited. This study aimed to determine the usefulness and factors related to usefulness of SPECT/CT in diagnostic I-131 MIBG scintigraphy in NB patients...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Hyun Joo Kim, Reeree Lee, Hongyoon Choi, Jin Chul Paeng, Gi Jeong Cheon, Dong Soo Lee, June-Key Chung, Keon Wook Kang
Purpose: Although 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a standard imaging modality for response evaluation in FDG-avid lymphoma, there is a controversy using FDG PET in indolent lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of quantitative indexes on FDG PET in response evaluation of the indolent lymphoma. Methods: Fifty-seven indolent lymphoma patients who completed chemotherapy were retrospectively enrolled...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Hyun Kyung Yi, Yong-Jin Park, Ji Hoon Bae, Jong Kyun Lee, Kwang Hyuk Lee, Seong Ho Choi, Kyung-Han Lee, Byung-Tae Kim, Joon Young Choi
Purpose: As there were few previous studies with a small number of subjects, the purpose of this was to evaluate the prognostic significance of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in patients with distal bile duct cancer undergoing curative surgery. Methods: The study included 40 patients (M/F = 24:16; age 68.0 ± 8.0 years) who underwent preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT followed by curative surgical resection. The participant's age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance-status score, baseline serum CA 19-9 level, stage, pathologic T and N stages, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor growth pattern, R0 resection, and adjuvant therapy were included as clinicopathological variables for predicting overall survival...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Hwan Hee Lee, Jin Chul Paeng, Gi Jeong Cheon, Dong Soo Lee, June-Key Chung, Keon Wook Kang
Purpose: In malignant melanoma, recurrence is often observed in distant areas from the primary site. While FDG PET is a sensitive imaging for detecting malignant lesions, the role of FDG PET in posttreatment surveillance period has not been investigated sufficiently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of PET during posttreatment surveillance in melanoma. Methods: A total of 76 melanoma patients who underwent FDG PET during surveillance period after completion of the first treatment were retrospectively enrolled...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
June-Key Chung, Hyun Woo Kim, Haewon Youn, Gi Jeong Cheon
Although radioiodine has been applied in thyroid diseases including carcinoma for over 70 years, it was only in 1996 that the basic molecular mechanism of iodine uptake was identified. Iodide is actively transported into the thyroid via a membrane glycoprotein known as sodium iodide symporter (NIS). NIS mediates radioiodine uptake into thyroid normal and cancer cells. The knowledge on NIS expression has provided scientific background to the empirical management of thyroid carcinoma. Based on recent studies of the NIS gene, this paper provides current clinical applications and future studies...
October 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Paulo Schiavom Duarte, Luciana Audi de Castroneves, Heitor Naoki Sado, Marcelo Tatit Sapienza, Ana Amélia Fialho de Oliveira Hoff, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel
Herein, we report a case of a 19-year-old man with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) diagnosed when he was 12 years of age. The patient had previously undergone total thyroidectomy, cervical radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. He progressed with known bone, pulmonary, and lymph node metastases and was scanned with 18 F-fluoride (18 F-NaF) and 68 Ga-dotatate whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for metastatic disease monitoring. We found that the MTC bone metastases and soft tissue calcified metastases were better characterized on 18 F-NaF PET/CT than on 68 Ga-dotatate PET/CT...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Chang-Hee Lee, Seung Hyun Son, Chae Moon Hong, Ju Hye Jeong, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Tae-Geon Kwon, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Purpose: Bisphosphonate (BP) is the first-line therapy for the management of osteoporosis. BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and atypical femoral fracture (AFF) are increasingly common comorbidities in patients with osteoporosis under long-term BP treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for AFF features on bone scintigraphy in patients with BRONJ. Methods: Among total of 373 BRONJ patients treated between September 2005 and July 2014, 237 (220 women, 17 men; median age 73 years) who underwent three-phase bone scintigraphy were enrolled for this retrospective study...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Alireza Sadremomtaz, Zeinab Telikani
Purpose: This study aims to compare Monte Carlo-based codes' characteristics in the determination of the basic parameters of a high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (HiReSPECT) scanner. Methods: The geometry of this dual-head gamma camera equipped with a pixelated CsI(Na) scintillator and lead hexagonal hole collimator were accurately described in the GEANT4 Application for the Tomographic Emission (GATE), Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNP-X), and simulation of imaging nuclear detectors (SIMIND) codes...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sejin Ha, Jong Jin Lee
Purpose: Among the different methods of measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using 51 Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance, the two-plasma-sample method (TPSM) is widely used, and highly accurate. The single-plasma-sample method (SPSM) is occasionally used for simplicity, at the expense of accuracy. Our aims were (1) to investigate the correlation and (2) to compare the accuracy of six known SPSMs in pediatric patients in reference to TPSM. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 122 pediatric cases (65 boys, age 7...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Minchul Song, Subin Jeon, Sae-Ryung Kang, Zeenat Jabin, Su Woong Yoo, Jung-Joon Min, Hee-Seung Bom, Sang-Geon Cho, Jahae Kim, Ho-Chun Song, Seong Young Kwon
Purpose: Thyroglobulin (Tg) may be released from damaged residual thyroid tissues after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We investigated whether altered levels of serum Tg after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH)-aided RAI therapy could be a prognostic marker in patients with DTC. Methods: We evaluated 68 patients who underwent RAI therapy after total thyroidectomy. Serum Tg levels were measured just before RAI administration (D0Tg) and 7 days after RAI therapy (D7Tg)...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Reeree Lee, Jihyun Kim, Jin Chul Paeng, Jung Woo Byun, Gi Jeong Cheon, Dong Soo Lee, June-Key Chung, Keon Wook Kang
Purpose: 68 Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- N , N ', N ″, N ‴-tetraacetic acid-d-Phe1 -Tyr3 -octreotide (68 Ga-DOTATOC) is taken up by activated macrophages, which accumulate in active inflammatory lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for assessment of vulnerable plaque, by evaluating correlation between aortic uptake of 68 Ga-DOTATOC and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Fifty patients with neuroendocrine tumors who underwent 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT were retrospectively enrolled...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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