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Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949681/meta-analysis-of-pregnancy-outcomes-after-exposure-to-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitors-during-pregnancy-for-the-treatment-of-arthritic-diseases
#1
Kamelia Mirdamadi, Tim Salinas, Reza Vali, Manny Papadimitropoulos, Micheline Piquette-Miller
Pregnancy Outcomes after Exposure to TNF-α Inhibitors During Pregnancy for the Treatment of Arthritic Diseases: A Meta-Analysis   Authors: Mirdamadi K, Salinas T, Vali R, Papadimitripulous M, Piquette-Miller M Background: Auto-immune arthritic diseases affect many women of child-bearing age. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are currently used for the treatment of various immune-mediated diseases during pregnancy. However, there has been no evaluation of safety in the treatment of arthritic diseases during gestation...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949683/impact-of-drug-exposure-definitions-on-observed-associations-in-pharmacoepidemiology-research
#2
Maxim Eskin, Dean T Eurich, Scot H Simpson
BACKGROUND - A variety of methods are used to define exposure in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Although each method has known biases, the relative effect of these biases on an observed association has not been fully examined. OBJECTIVE - To explore the influence of different exposure definitions on estimates, using the association between metformin and all-cause mortality as a proto-typical model. METHODS - New users of oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs were identified using administrative health databases from Alberta, Canada between 1998 and 2010...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949680/assessing-motor-skills-to-inform-a-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-diagnosis-focusing-on-persons-older-than-12-years-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
Bernadette Safe, Annette Joosten, Roslyn Giglia
METHODS: A systematic review of current evidence using various electronic databases was conducted. Studies were appraised using a recognised clinical appraisal tool. RESULTS: Seven studies published between 1998 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. There is some evidence that difficulties with fine motor skills, visual motor integration, and balance skills persist in people who have been prenatally exposed to alcohol. Most studies did not focus on adolescent or adult participants in isolation, making it difficult to generalise results...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949682/prescribing-competency-of-medical-students-national-survey-of-medical-education-leaders
#4
Jiayu Liu, SherWin Wong, Gary Foster, Anne Holbrook
Introduction Evidence suggests that newly licensed physicians are not adequately prepared to prescribe safely. There is currently no national pre-licensure prescribing competency assessment required in North America. This study's purpose was to survey Canadian medical school leaders for their interest in and perceived need for a nationwide prescribing assessment for final year medical students.   Method In spring of 2015, surveys were disseminated online to medical education leaders in all 17 Canadian medical schools...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949684/reduced-out-of-pocket-costs-and-medication-adherence-a-population-based-study
#5
Shenzhen Yao, Lisa Lix, Yvonne Shevchuk, Gary Teare, David F Blackburn
BACKGROUND: In 2007, a drug benefit plan for Seniors (SDP) was launched in Saskatchewan, Canada. SDP capped out-of-pocket costs at $15 per prescription for individuals aged 65 and older. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the impact of the SDP on chronic medication adherence.  Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted for participants aged 65 or older who were eligible to the SPD, controlled by a younger group aged 40 to 64 who were ineligible. Adherence was measured over 365 days using medication possession ratio (MPR)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432673/anticounterfeiting-strategies-of-local-drug-manufacturers-in-lagos-nigeria-implications-for-public-health
#6
Olufinsho Awodele, Samson Fatoki
BACKGROUND: Nigeria has been plagued by counterfeit and poor quality medicines with several studies indicating varying degree of prevalence. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the anticounterfeiting strategies employed by local drug manufacturers in Lagos-Nigeria. METHOD: The first phase was a descriptive study which involves the use of a self-administered closed ended structured questionnaire to assess the anticounterfeiting strategies employed by local manufacturers in Nigeria...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432671/what-does-the-new-ontario-pharmacare-plan-offer-children-and-young-adults-with-rare-disorders
#7
Nigel Rawson
A publicly-funded pharmacare program (OHIP+) was announced in the 2017 Ontario budget for all children and young adults that will begin in January 2018 and cover drugs in the Ontario Public Drug Programs (OPDP) formulary. In this commentary, drugs indicated for rare disorders commonly occurring in childhood that were reviewed by the Common Drug Review (CDR) between 2004 and 2016 are examined to assess the Ontario reimbursement situation. OPDP reimburse few of these drugs and only about half of those covered are accessible with consistency and without onerous conditions...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432672/development-and-validation-of-an-index-score-to-adjust-for-healthy-user-bias-in-observational-studies
#8
Dean Trevor Eurich, Karly A Achtymichuk, Jeffrey A Johnson, Jashu K Minhas-Sandhu, Mu Lin
BACKGROUND: Objectives: To develop a healthy user index to serve as a method of confounding adjustment in future observational studies of preventive therapies. METHODS: A large administrative database of patients with type 2 diabetes was split in half randomly, yielding derivation and validation cohorts. Influenza vaccination was used as a 'prototypical marker' of a healthy user. In our derivation cohort, we fitted a mixed effects logistic regression model, and a points-based system was used to construct the index...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186712/a-practical-methodology-for-disaggregating-the-drivers-of-drug-costs-using-administrative-data
#9
Elena R Lungu, Orlando J Manti, Mitchell A H Levine, Douglas A Clark, Tanya M Potashnik, Carol I McKinley
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug expenditures represent a significant component of health care costs in Canada, with estimates of $28.8 billion spent in 2014. Identifying the major cost drivers and the effect they have on prescription drug expenditures allows policy makers and researchers to interpret current cost pressures and anticipate future expenditure levels. OBJECTIVES: To identify the major drivers of prescription drug costs and to develop a methodology to disaggregate the impact of each of the individual drivers...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873293/the-role-of-midodrine-for-hypotension-outside-of-the-intensive-care-unit
#10
REVIEW
Lawrence B Gutman, Ben J Wilson
Midodrine is an oral, peripherally acting alpha-adrenergic agonist. After gaining Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1996 for orthostatic hypotension, its use has evolved to target vasoplegic conditions such as intradialytic hypotension in the end-stage renal disease population, refractory ascites in cirrhotic patients to support diuresis, and in hepatorenal syndrome. Upon oral ingestion, the drug undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis to an active metabolite, desglymidodrine. Its use has been well tolerated at 2...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873292/dose-exposure-simulation-for-piperacillin-tazobactam-dosing-strategies-in-infants-and-young-children
#11
Céline Thibault, Nastya Kassir, Yves Théorêt, France Varin, Catherine Litalien, Julie Autmizguine
BACKGROUND: Extended piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) infusions have been associated with favourable outcomes. There are currently no pediatric dosing recommendations. OBJECTIVES: To determine appropriate TZP dosing strategies in children 2 months - 6 years according to age and different minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). METHODS: Age and weight were simulated for 1000 children. Post-hoc pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were generated using published clearance and volume of distribution data...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873291/increase-in-psychoactive-drug-prescriptions-in-the-years-following-autism-spectrum-diagnosis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Caroline Croteau, Laurent Mottron, Nancy Presse, Jean-Eric Tarride, Marc Dorais, Sylvie Perreault
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive medications are commonly prescribed to autistic individuals, but little is known about how their use changes after diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: This study describes the use of psychoactive drugs in children and young adults newly diagnosed with autism spectrum, between the year before and up to 5 years after diagnosis. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the use psychoactive drugs before the first diagnosis of autism spectrum condition (from 1998 to 2010), and the clinical and demographic characteristics, identified from public health care databases in Quebec...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632983/a-descriptive-study-of-a-community-based-home-visiting-program-with-preschool-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#13
Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Sayma Malik, Julia Wellwood, Karen Johnston, Holly Gammon, Kathy N Andrew, Breann Maxwell, Sally Longstaffe
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) increases the risk of insecure caregiver-child attachment and related negative child emotional-behavioural outcomes. Research also shows positive effects of attachment-focused interventions in preventing disrupted caregiver-child attachment relationships; however, such interventions have not been specifically adapted for children with FASD. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the implementation, challenges, and results of a community home-based attachment intervention, Circle of Security® (COS), with preschool children affected by PAE/FASD in Manitoba, Canada...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594483/effect-of-an-institutional-medication-adherence-program-for-long-acting-injectable-risperidone-on-adherence-and-psychiatric-hospitalizations-evidence-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jessica J Jalbert, Michel Rossignol, Bernard Astruc, Franck Baylé, Clementine Nordon, Bernard Avouac, Frédéric Rouillon, Lucien Abenhaim, Lamiae Grimaldi-Bensouda
BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable (LAI) atypical antipsychotics are associated with improved adherence and reduced relapse rates in schizophrenia but reminder-based interventions may further improve outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess an institutional medication adherence program's (IMAP) effectiveness on adherence and psychiatric hospitalizations among schizophrenia patients taking risperidone LAI (RLAI). METHODS: Between 2009 and 2010, we recruited patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia treated with RLAI receiving outpatient care from psychiatric centres in France...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594482/non-severe-hypoglycemia-risk-difference-between-sulfonylurea-and-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2-i-as-an-add-on-to-metformin-in-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Pendar Farahani
BACKGROUND: Non-severe hypoglycemia reduces well-being, lowers quality of life, reduces productivity and increases treatment costs. The non-severe hypoglycemia rate, attributable to sulfonylurea (SU) utilization compared with newer classes such as SGLT2-I, could be of clinical significance. OBJECTIVES: To explore the non-severe hypoglycemia risk difference (RD) for SU use compared with SGLT2-I in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as an add on to metformin. METHODS: A search was conducted for RCTs of SGLT2-I...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594480/comparison-of-drug-benefits-provided-by-veterans-affairs-canada-and-the-canadian-forces-health-services-group
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Matthew Chow, Charles J Wicks, Janice Ma, Sylvain Grenier
BACKGROUND: Drug benefits are provided at public expense to all actively serving Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel, with ongoing drug coverage offered by Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) for selected conditions following termination of employment. Differences in drug coverage between these programs could introduce risks for treatment disruption. OBJECTIVES: Work was undertaken to establish a process that would allow systematic comparison of the entire VAC and CAF formularies, and to identify and explain discordant listings in 14 therapeutic categories that pose risk of adverse outcomes with sudden treatment interruption...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594481/emotional-understanding-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-a-promising-target-for-intervention
#17
Christie L M Petrenko, Mary E Pandolfino, Julie Quamma, Heather Carmichael Olson
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for secondary conditions, including mental health difficulties. Data on both children with typical development and other clinical conditions suggest that limited emotional understanding (EU) raises risk for psychopathology, but little is known about EU in FASD. OBJECTIVES: To determine if EU is a reasonable treatment target for children with FASD. METHODS: 56 children (6-13 years) with FASD completed the Kusche Affective Interview-Revised, a verbal interview measure of EU...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594479/does-the-number-of-pharmacies-a-patient-frequents-affect-adherence-to-statins
#18
Russell Christie, Ingrid Sketris, Pantalis Andreou, Anne Holbrook, Adrian Levy, Hala Tamim
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that medication adherence is affected by the number of pharmacies a patient frequents. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to estimate the strength of association between the number of pharmacies a patient frequents and adherence to statins. METHODS: Using administrative data from the Nova Scotia Seniors' Pharmacare program, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among subjects aged 65 years and older first dispensed statin between 1998 and 2008...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594478/what-influences-the-cost-effectiveness-of-dabigatran-versus-warfarin-for-stroke-prevention-in-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jathishinie Jegathisawaran, Anne Holbrook, James M Bowen, Natasha Burke, Kaitryn Campbell, Jean-Eric Tarride
OBJECTIVES: The introduction of new oral anticoagulants for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) has changed the clinical management of AF. To inform decision making around dabigatran by identifying factors influencing cost-effectiveness results, we undertook a systematic review of economic evaluations of dabigatran versus warfarin for the prevention of stroke in AF patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search of Ovid Medline and Embase, Wiley's Cochrane Library, HEED, PubMed databases and grey literature was carried out for primary economic evaluations comparing dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with AF...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282104/retrospective-analysis-of-emerging-drugs-use-in-a-quebec-women-s-and-children-s-university-hospital-and-perspectives-for-safe-and-optimal-drug-use
#20
Jennifer Corny, Elaine Pelletier, Denis Lebel, Jean-François Bussières
BACKGROUND: Only few medicines are licensed for children. The use of emerging drugs (unmarketed drug, off-label drug with poorly documented use, and/or costly drugs) might represent an essential alternative for pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess emerging drug uses rate and profile in our women's and children's centre to support the implementation of an appropriate policy. METHODS: We identified retrospectively emerging drugs used between 2013-01-01 and 2014-02-28, using computerized pharmacist software extraction of drugs used...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
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