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Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology

Ola S Norrie, Rose Dziadekwich, Raquel Fernandez, Colleen J Metge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Hiten Naik, Xin Qiu, M Catherine Brown, Mary Mahler, Henrique Hon, Kyoko Tiessen, Henry Thai, Valerie Ho, Christina Gonos, Rebecca Charow, Vivien Pat, Margaret Irwin, Lindsay Herzog, Anthea Ho, Wei Xu, Doris Howell, Soo Jin Seung, Geoffrey Liu, Nicole Mittmann
BACKGROUND: Health utility (HU) scores play an essential role in pharmacoeconomic analyses. Routine clinical administration of the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) can allow for HU and health related quality of life (HRQOL) assessments in the real-world setting. OBJECTIVES: The primary goals of this study were to evaluate whether patients were willing to complete the EQ-5D instrument on a routine basis and which clinical or demographic factors influence this willingness...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Pendar Farahani
Evidence from literature illustrates that from a pathophysiological perspective, sulfonylureas (SU) may impact the heart three ways: directly by intrinsic properties from a pharmacological receptor perspective, indirectly by adverse effects related to hypoglycemia, and obesity. From a pharmacologlogical receptor perspective, SU can bind to ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cardiomyocytes. Channel binding by SU in cardiac tissue may prevent ischemia myocardial protective mechanisms. From a pathophysiological perspective, obesity is associated with cardiac issues such as pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmia, and atrial fibrillation...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Isabelle Goyer, Gabrielle Ferland, Ni Ruo, Caroline Morin, Marie-Sophie Brochet, Lucie Morin, Ema Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Since 2006, the empiric use of azithromycin in women at risk of premature birth has become prevalent in our institution without any evidence of its efficacy. Although antibiotics can prolong pregnancy in preterm prolonged rupture of membranes, no published data are available for women with intact membranes. OBJECTIVES: To describe the purpose of adding azithromycin to the usual treatments (cerclage, tocolysis, rest, etc.) to prolong pregnancy in women with intact membranes who are at risk of or already in preterm labour...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Suthakar Sabapathy, Cheryl Neslusan, Kim Yoong, Anna Teschemaker, Pierre Johansen, Michael Willis
BackgroundCanagliflozin, an agent that inhibits sodium glucose co-transporter 2, is approved as add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Canada. Canagliflozin offers greater glycemic control, as well as important additional benefits such as weight loss and blood pressure reductions, versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin.  ObjectiveThis analysis evaluated the cost-effectiveness of canagliflozin 300 mg and canagliflozin 100 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin plus sulfonylurea from the perspective of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
P G J Ter Horst, Mitko Madjunkov, Shahnaz Chaudry
BackgroundA safe amount of alcohol that can be ingested by suckling infants is not known. As a result, alcohol consumption by lactating mothers during this crucial time can potentially harm infants. ObjectiveThis article provides an overview of alcohol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in breast milk. Methods/DiscussionThis paper reviews literature on alcohol exposure as it relates to suckling infants. Intended and unintended alcohol exposure through breast milk may occur by skin contact, inhalation and by use of alcohol co-formulated drugs...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
B Alyahya, S Tamur, S Aljenedil, A Larocuque, E Holody, S Gosselin
BackgroundReduced gastrointestinal motility can alter the toxicokinetics of acetaminophen poisoning. We report a case of altered acetaminophen toxicokinetics due to delayed gastrointestinal absorption, likely secondary to intestinal trauma/surgery.  Case ReportA 37-year-old woman ingested an unknown amount of acetaminophen and ethanol then stabbed herself in the abdomen. The initial acetaminophen was 1,285.9 μmol/L and the time of ingestion was not known. Intravenous acetylcysteine protocol was started. She developed an ileus post-surgery for the stab wounds...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
J Daupin, G Rosseaux, D Lebel, S Atkinson, P Bedard, J-F Bussieres
BackgroundMedication reconciliation (MedRec) can improve patient safety. In Canada, most provinces are implementing electronic health records (EHR). The Quebec Health Record (QHR) can theoretically be used for medication reconciliation. However, the quantity and the quality of information available in this EHR have not been studied. ObjectivesThe main objective was to compare the quantity and quality of the information collected between the inpatient best possible medication history (BPMH) and the QHR.   MethodsThis is a descriptive prospective study conducted at CHU Sainte-Justine, a 500-bed tertiary mother-and-child university hospital center...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Jonathan Baskin, Jolie R Delja, Catherine Mogil, Clarissa M Gorospe, Blair Paley
BackgroundThere is a notable absence of evidence based early interventions for young children with FASD.  ObjectiveThis study examines clinicians' perspectives regarding the needs of caregivers of children with FASD and how such perspectives informed the development of a family-centered early intervention for young children with prenatal alcohol exposure.  Method19 professionals who work with children with prenatal alcohol exposure and / or in out-of-home care were recruited to participate in focus groups...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
R LeBlanc, S Hollmann, J Tay
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer caused by malignant plasma cells that accumulate mostly in the bone marrow. In Canada, the most common maintenance therapy options after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) are bortezomib and lenalidomide. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incremental cost between bortezomib and lenalidomide maintenance therapies for patients with MM post ASCT. METHODS: Analyses were conducted to compare the annual costs of bortezomib and lenalidomide maintenance treatments for patients with MM post ASCT in Canada...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Michel Perreault, El Hadj Toure, Marie-Josee Fleury, Serge Beaulieu, Jean Caron
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Antidepressants constitute one of the most consumed classes of psychotropic medication. This study aims to identify a typology of users based on their individual characteristics, such as presence of a mental disorder and use of other psychotropic medication during the last year. METHODS: Antidepressant use for residents in the epidemiological zone of South-West Montreal aged 15 years and older was documented in 2009, 2011, and 2013. Among the 2433 participants from the initial study, 249 had used antidepressants (10%)...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Raewyn C Mutch, Heather M Jones, Carol Bower, Rochelle E Watkins
BACKGROUND: People with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) can be involved in high risk, socially unacceptable and harmful behaviours and are at high risk of engaging with the justice system. OBJECTIVE: To obtain baseline data on Western Australian justice professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice relating to FASD to inform the development of FASD resources. METHODS: Cross sectional study using on-line survey methods, descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis methods for qualitative data...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Amos S Hundert, Anna Huguet, Courtney R Green, Amy J Hewitt, Christopher J Mushquash, Nazeem Muhajarine, Andre Sourander, Heather Caughey, Patricia Lingley-Pottie, Patrick J McGrath, James N Reynolds
BACKGROUND: In order to meet the need for accessible interventions and support for families affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), we have developed an Internet-based, distance intervention for caregivers of children with FASD between the ages of four and twelve, called Strongest Families™ FASD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of the Strongest Families FASD program content and website in terms of learnability, efficiency and acceptability. METHODS: A remote usability testing approach was conducted in two iterative cycles of participants...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Nguyen Xuan Thanh, Egon Jonsson
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the life expectancy and specify the causes of death among people with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). METHODS: Included were all patients recorded in Alberta provincial databases of inpatients, outpatients, or practitioner claims from 2003 to 2012. People with FAS were identified by ICD-9 code 760.71 and ICD-10 codes Q86.0 and P04.3, and were linked to the Vital Statistics Death Registry to get information about mortality. Life expectancy was estimated by using the life table template developed in the United Kingdom, which is recommended for estimating life expectancy in small areas or populations...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Beth Anne Currie, Jane Hoy, Lynda Legge, Valerie K Temple, Munazza Tahir
BACKGROUND: Adults with FASD are at increased risk for contact with the criminal justice system (CJS). To date, there has been limited research devoted to development of supports for adults with FASD and it is unclear what supports are required to improve outcomes and reduce CJS contact. OBJECTIVES: To examine the services and supports experienced by a small group of adults with FASD living in both rural and urban locations in Ontario, and their contact with the CJS...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
B Al-Judaibi, U I Schwarz, N Huda, G K Dresser, J C Gregor, T Ponich, N Chande, M Mosli, R B Kim
BACKGROUND: Thiopurines (Azathioprine (AZA) and 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) are considered a well-established therapy for patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD). However, nearly 20% of patients discontinue thiopurines due to adverse events. Functional polymorphisms of several enzymes involved in the metabolism of thiopurines have been linked with toxicity. The clinical value of variant carriers such as TPMT, ITPA and GSTs in predicting toxicity and adverse events for IBD patients treated with thiopurines remains to be clarified...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
C Girouard, J-P Gregoire, J-F Kayibanda, P Poirier, E Demers, J Moisan
BACKGROUND: Little is known about exposure to heart failure (HF) treatment among seniors with ischemic heart disease. OBJECTIVES: In a population of seniors, we: 1) estimated the association between age and exposure to HF drug therapy at 6, 12, 36 and 60 month intervals after HF diagnosis, and 2) determined the influence of the passage of time on exposure to drug therapy. METHODS: Using the Quebec provincial administrative databases, we conducted a population-based inception cohort study that included all individuals aged ≥ 65 with a first HF diagnosis between 2000 and 2009 and an ischemic heart disease diagnosis in the year before HF diagnosis...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
B Hill-Taylor, I S Sketris, D M Gardner, K Thompson
BACKGROUND: Optimization of prescribing in older adults is needed. The STOPP criteria provide a systematic way of identifying potentially inappropriate prescribing in this population. Previous research indicates poor concordance between benzodiazepine prescribing and STOPP. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent and predictors of benzodiazepine and zopiclone (BZD-Z) pharmacy dispensations in older adults with a history of a recent fall, in concordance with STOPP. METHODS: Prescription claims data from the Nova Scotia Seniors' Phamacare Program were linked with fall-related injury data from the CIHI Discharge Abstract Database...
2016: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Caroline Sirois, Valérie Émond
With the always-increasing prevalence and incidence of chronic diseases, polypharmacy becomes a necessity for many individuals. There is a genuine interest to studying polypharmacy because it is associated with both favourable and dreadful consequences. Nonetheless, there is still no formal universal definition for polypharmacy. There is a need to determine what medications to include in the definition. Administrative databases are valuable sources of information for performing populational surveillance of polypharmacy, but they encounter some limits, such as the fact that over the counter drugs are not accounted for...
2015: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Nigel S B Rawson
An article in the National Post on suicidal effects associated with varenicline (Champix) highlights deficiencies in the Canadian spontaneous reporting system (SRS) for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The issues of under-reporting, poor quality information, duplication of reports and lack of a population denominator of drug use are discussed. Canada's SRS is deficient. There are immediate and medium-term actions that could be instituted that would improve pharmacovigilance in Canada. However, education about appropriate prescribing, the recognition of ADRs, and the duty to report them is a key long-term strategy to improving the pharmacovigilance system and should be included at every opportunity in the training of healthcare professionals so that life-long habits are developed...
2015: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
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