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Science China. Life Sciences

Huika Xia, Qinrui Hu, Luojia Li, Xin Tang, Jimei Zou, Lvzhen Huang, Xiaoxin Li
The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in response to blue light damage in aged mice and in human retinal pigmented epithelium (hRPE) cells. Blue light damage to the retina was induced in 10-month-old (10 mo) C57 mice and hRPE cells. Flash electroretinography was used to assess retinal function. Retinal structure changes were observed by electron microscopy. Western blot was conducted to determine the expression levels of the following proteins: cleaved caspase-3, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3), P62, and Beclin-1...
September 19, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Fengming Huang, Jianchao Du, Zhu Liang, Zhichao Xu, Jiantao Xu, Yan Zhao, Yexuan Lin, Song Mei, Quan He, Jindong Zhu, Qiang Liu, Yanxu Zhang, Yuhao Qin, Wei Sun, Jingyuan Song, Shilin Chen, Chengyu Jiang
Plant-derived microRNAs have recently been reported to function in human blood and tissues. Controversy was immediately raised due to possible contamination and the lack of large sample sizes. Here, we report thousands of unique small RNAs derived from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs found in human blood cells and mouse lung tissues using a large-scale analysis. We extracted small RNAs from decoctions of 10 TCM plants (Ban Zhi Lian, Chai Hu, Chuan Xin Lian, Di Ding Zi Jin, Huang Qin, Jin Yin Hua, Lian Qiao, Pu Gong Ying, Xia Ku Cao, and Yu Xing Cao) and obtained millions of RNA sequences from each herb...
September 18, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Haijun Wu, Mengmeng Wang, Jianxia Wang, Yunqiang An, Hui Wang, Yaqi Huang
A better understanding of airflow characteristics in the upper airway (UA) is crucial in investigating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), particle sedimentation, drug delivery, and many biomedical problems. Direct visualization of air flow patterns in in-vitro models with realistic anatomical structures is a big challenge. In this study, we constructed unique half-side transparent physical models of normal UA based on realistic anatomical structures. A smoke-wire method was developed to visualize the air flow in UA models directly...
September 12, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Lu Liu, Xiaoxia Li, Hanspeter E Killer, Kai Cao, Jing Li, Ningli Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
W Dalton Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Yang Liu, Xiaojun Huang, Qian Fei, Lanping Xu, Xiaohui Zhang, Kaiyan Liu, Yuhong Chen, Huan Chen, Yu Wang
In order to compare the effect between haploidentical (HID) stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and matched sibling donor (MSD) stem cell transplantation for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission status (CR1), we retrospectively studied 170 cases who received stem cell transplantation from Jan 2008 to Jul 2015 in Peking University People's Hospital. We divided all cases into MSD group (43 cases) and HID (127 cases) group. Patients in HID and MSD group displayed similar baseline characteristics except for age distribution...
September 5, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Laura Weichselbaum, Ophir D Klein
The constant renewal of the intestinal epithelium is fueled by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) lying at the base of crypts, and these ISCs continuously give rise to transit-amplifying progenitor cells during homeostasis. Upon injury and loss of ISCs, the epithelium has the ability to regenerate by the dedifferentiation of progenitor cells that then regain stemness and repopulate the pool of ISCs. Epithelial cells receive cues from immune cells, mesenchymal cells and the microbiome to maintain homeostasis. This review focuses on the response of the epithelium to damage and the interplay between the different intestinal compartments...
September 4, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Xudong Wang, Qiong Lu, Jianxun Qi, Yan Chai, Youchun Wang, George Fu Gao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Li Ren, Xin Gao, Conghui Yang, Hui Tan, Jialin Cui, Shi Wang, Wuhui Li, Chun Zhang, Min Tao, Qinbo Qin, Shaojun Liu
Focusing on adaptation of aquatic organisms, especially fish, can help elucidate complex dynamics in freshwater ecology. The differences in genetic and epigenetic regulation between diploid and triploid Carassius auratus affect survival under eutrophication. To identify the underlying mechanisms that lead to better adaption of triploids than diploids, we compared mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expressions in liver tissue of diploid and triploid individuals obtained from the Dongting lake water system in central China...
August 30, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Hua Qin, Andong Zhao, Kui Ma, Xiaobing Fu
Transplantation of motor neurons can provide long-term functional benefits in animal models of neurodegenerative motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and traumatic spinal cord injury. Although embryonic stem cells can differentiate into motor neurons, alternative sources of motor neurons may be controllable for disease modeling and transplantation. Here, we show that human and mouse fibroblasts can be efficiently and directly converted into motor neurons by a cocktail of five small molecules, without the involvement of the neural progenitor stage...
August 27, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Jingyuan Yang, Keyu Wei, Yeqin Wang, Yanzhao Li, Ning Ding, Da Huo, Tianran Wang, Guanyuan Yang, Mingcan Yang, Tan Ju, Weng Zeng, Chuhong Zhu
The rapid endothelialization of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) can effectively prevent thrombosis and inhibit intimal hyperplasia. The traditional Chinese medicine ingredient icariin is highly promising for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. β-cyclodextrin sulfate is a type of hollow molecule that has good biocompatibility and anticoagulation properties and exhibits a sustained release of icariin. We studied whether icariin-loaded β-cyclodextrin sulfate can promote the endothelialization of TEBVs...
August 27, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Shunong Bai, Hao Ge, Hong Qian
Distinguishing things from beings, or matters from lives, is a fundamental question. Extending E. Schrödinger's neg-entropy and I. Prigogine's dissipative structure, we propose a chemical kinetic view that the earliest "live" process is embedded essentially in a special interaction between a pair of specific components under a particular, corresponding environmental conditions. The interaction exists as an inter-molecular-force-bond complex (IMFBC) that couples two separate chemical processes: one is the spontaneous formation of the IMFBC driven by a decrease of Gibbs free energy as a dissipative process; while the other is the disassembly of the IMFBC driven thermodynamically by free energy input from the environment...
August 27, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Yaqiong Dong, Tessandra Stewart, Yue Zhang, Min Shi, Chang Tan, Xue Li, Lan Yuan, Aanchal Mehrota, Jing Zhang, Xiaoda Yang
Association of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with cerebral glucose hypometabolism, likely due to impairments of insulin signaling, has been reported recently, with encouraging results when additional insulin is provided to AD patients. Here, we tested the potential effects of the anti-diabetic vanadium, vanadyl (IV) acetylacetonate (VAC), on AD in vitro and in vivo models. The experimental results showed that VAC at sub-micromolar concentrations improved the viability of neural cells with or without increased β-amyloid (Aβ) burden; and in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, VAC treatment (0...
August 21, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Yun Tian, Michael X Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Kun Ma, Yao-Guang Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Tianyi Xin, Yu Zhang, Xiangdong Pu, Ranran Gao, Zhichao Xu, Jingyuan Song
From Shen Nong's Herbal Classic (Shennong Bencao Jing) to the Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao Gangmu) and the first scientific Nobel Prize for the mainland of China, each milestone in the historical process of the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) involves screening, testing and integrating. After thousands of years of inheritance and development, herbgenomics (bencaogenomics) has bridged the gap between TCM and international advanced omics studies, promoting the application of frontier technologies in TCM...
August 14, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Bangxiao Zheng, Yongguan Zhu, Jordi Sardans, Josep Peñuelas, Jianqiang Su
Microorganisms are major drivers of elemental cycling in the biosphere. Determining the abundance of microbial functional traits involved in the transformation of nutrients, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S), is critical for assessing microbial functionality in elemental cycling. We developed a high-throughput quantitative-PCR-based chip, Quantitative microbial element cycling (QMEC), for assessing and quantifying the genetic potential of microbiota to mineralize soil organic matter and to release C, N, P and S...
August 13, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Hua Qin, Andong Zhao, Xiaobing Fu
Chemical modulation of cell fates has been widely used to promote tissue and organ regeneration. Small molecules can target the self-renewal, expansion, differentiation, and survival of endogenous stem cells for enhancing their regenerative power or induce dedifferentiation or transdifferentiation of mature cells into proliferative progenitors or specialized cell types needed for regeneration. Here, we discuss current progress and potential using small molecules to promote in vivo regenerative processes by regulating the cell fate...
August 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Tianqing Li, Zongyong Ai, Weizhi Ji
A growing body of literature has shown that stem cells are very effective for the treatment of degenerative diseases in rodents but these exciting results have not translated to clinical practice. The difference results from the divergence in genetic, metabolic, and physiological phenotypes between rodents and humans. The high degree of similarity between non-human primates (NHPs) and humans provides the most accurate models for preclinical studies of stem cell therapy. Using a NHP model to understand the following key issues, which cannot be addressed in humans or rodents, will be helpful for extending stem cell applications in the basic science and the clinic...
August 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
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