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Science China. Life Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327330/microbiome-analysis-and-omics-studies-of-microbial-denitrification-processes-in-wastewater-treatment-recent-advances
#1
REVIEW
Lili Miao, Zhipei Liu
Nitrogen pollution is an increasingly severe worldwide problem because of drainage of nitrogen-containing wastewater and intensive application of nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Denitrification, a key process in nitrogen cycles, is commonly employed for nitrogen removal in engineered wastewater treatment systems. Biological denitrification is performed by denitrifying microbes (bacteria) that use nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. Better understanding the functions of diverse microbial populations in denitrification-based wastewater treatment systems, and the interactions of these populations with operating environments, is essential for improving both treatment performance and system stability...
January 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327329/microrna-mediated-r-gene-regulation-molecular-scabbards-for-double-edged-swords
#2
REVIEW
Yingtian Deng, Minglei Liu, Xiaofei Li, Feng Li
Plant resistance (R) proteins are immune receptors that recognize pathogen effectors and trigger rapid defense responses, namely effector-triggered immunity. R protein-mediated pathogen resistance is usually race specific. During plant-pathogen coevolution, plant genomes accumulated large numbers of R genes. Even though plant R genes provide important natural resources for breeding disease-resistant crops, their presence in the plant genome comes at a cost. Misregulation of R genes leads to developmental defects, such as stunted growth and reduced fertility...
January 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318498/collection-and-preservation-of-urinary-proteins-using-a-fluff-pulp-diaper
#3
Weiwei Qin, Zhenhuan Du, Youhe Gao
Change is the most fundamental property of a biomarker. In contrast to the blood, which is under homeostatic controls, urine reflects changes in the body earlier and is more sensitive, thus making it a better biomarker source. Moreover, drawing blood from infants and toddlers is difficult and not tolerated well. For patients limited by language, communicating their chief complaint is difficult. Thus, monitoring biomarkers in urine can provide valuable clues for the diagnosis of diseases, especially pediatric diseases...
January 4, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318497/epigenetic-mechanism-of-survivin-dysregulation-in-human-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Hui Lyu, Jingcao Huang, Zhimin He, Bolin Liu
Survivin (coding gene BIRC5) is a dual functional protein acting as a critical inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) and key regulator of cell cycle progression. It is usually produced in embryonic tissues during development and undetectable in most adult tissues. Overexpression of Survivin frequently occurs in various human cancers and increased Survivin correlates with poor clinic outcome, tumor recurrence, and therapeutic resistance. Because of its selective expression in tumor, but not normal tissues, Survivin has been recognized as an attractive target for cancer treatment...
January 4, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307111/inorganic-nitrate-alleviates-the-senescence-related-decline-in-liver-function
#5
Haifeng Wang, Lei Hu, Le Li, Xiaoshan Wu, Zhipeng Fan, Chunmei Zhang, Jinsong Wang, Jidong Jia, Songlin Wang
Senescence-related decline in liver function is a common complication in the elderly that can lead to impaired health in older individuals. Dietary nitrate supplements have physiological and therapeutic effects on organ function by nitrate (NO3-)-nitrite (NO2-)-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. However, the role of dietary nitrate on the senescence-related decline in liver function is unclear. The findings of the present study showed that nitrate levels in the serum and liver decreased, whereas the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum increased in ageing mice...
January 3, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307110/soil-ph-determines-fungal-diversity-along-an-elevation-gradient-in-southwestern-china
#6
Dan Liu, Guohua Liu, Li Chen, Juntao Wang, Limei Zhang
Fungi play important roles in ecosystem processes, and the elevational pattern of fungal diversity is still unclear. Here, we examined the diversity of fungi along a 1,000 m elevation gradient on Mount Nadu, Southwestern China. We used MiSeq sequencing to obtain fungal sequences that were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and to measure the fungal composition and diversity. Though the species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the fungal community did not exhibit significant trends with increasing altitude, they were significantly lower at mid-altitudinal sites than at the base...
January 3, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305786/computational-investigation-of-small-rnas-in-the-establishment-of-root-nodules-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-leguminous-plants
#7
Danfeng Jin, Xianwen Meng, Yue Wang, Jingjing Wang, Yuhua Zhao, Ming Chen
Many small RNAs have been confirmed to play important roles in the development of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza. In this study, we carried out the identification of certain small RNAs in leguminous plants (Medicago truncatula, soybean, peanut and common bean), such as miRNAs, tRFs and srRNAs, as well as the computational investigation of their regulations. Thirty miRNAs were predicted to be involved in establishing root nodules and mycorrhiza, and 12 of them were novel in common bean and peanut. The generation of tRFs in M...
January 3, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318502/a-brief-introduction-of-cryo-em-revolution-the-nobel-prize-in-chemistry-2017
#8
Kai Zhang, Zheng Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318501/function-of-fezf1-during-early-neural-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#9
Xin Liu, Pei Su, Lisha Lu, Zicen Feng, Hongtao Wang, Jiaxi Zhou
The understanding of the mechanism underlying human neural development has been hampered due to lack of a cellular system and complicated ethical issues. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an invaluable model for dissecting human development because of unlimited self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into nearly all cell types in the human body. In this study, using a chemical defined neural induction protocol and molecular profiling, we identified Fez family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) as a potential regulator of early human neural development...
January 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318500/interpretation-of-the-nobel-prize-in-physiology-or-medicine-2017
#10
Ying Xu, Dejing Pan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318499/biological-clock-the-oscillator-of-gene-expression
#11
Qiang Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307109/mir-137-inhibits-melanoma-cell-proliferation-through-downregulation-of-glo1
#12
Na Lv, Shuai Hao, Chonglin Luo, Alia Abukiwan, Ying Hao, Fei Gai, Weiwei Huang, Lingyun Huang, Xueyuan Xiao, Stefan B Eichmüller, Dacheng He
Late-stage melanoma is refractory to current therapies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can modulate many physiological and pathological processes of melanoma. Studies have demonstrated that miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the proliferation of melanoma cells through targeting multiple mRNAs. The glyoxalase system member glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) is the principal scavenging enzyme of methylglyoxal (MG), a toxic byproduct of glycolysis. Using 35S in vivo/vitro labelling analysis for dynamic proteomics (SiLAD), we found that miR-137 downregulated the expression of GLO1 in melanoma cells...
January 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305785/rna-methylation-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-specification
#13
Chunxia Zhang, Feng Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288427/comparative-wgbs-identifies-genes-that-influence-non-ripe-phenotype-in-tomato-epimutant-colourless-non-ripening
#14
Weiwei Chen, Zhiming Yu, Junhua Kong, Hui Wang, Yichen Li, Mei Zhao, Xiaohong Wang, Qianqian Zheng, Nongnong Shi, Pengcheng Zhang, Silin Zhong, Paul Hunter, Mahmut Tör, Yiguo Hong
Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) allows single-base resolution and genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in plants and animals. This technology provides a powerful tool to identify genes that are potentially controlled by dynamic changes of DNA methylation and demethylation. However, naturally occurring epimutants are rare and genes under epigenetic regulation as well as their biological relevances are often difficult to define. In tomato, fruit development and ripening are a complex process that involves epigenetic control...
December 27, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285717/broadening-the-applicability-of-crispr-cas9-in-plants
#15
Holger Puchta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285719/a-new-digital-information-storing-and-reading-system-based-on-synthetic-dna
#16
LETTER
Yunpeng Zhong, Shanshan Qi, Fuxu Sheng, Jingjing Tian, Peihuang Zhu, Ping Yang, Xiaohui Cai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 25, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285711/robust-genome-editing-of-crispr-cas9-at-nag-pams-in-rice
#17
LETTER
Xiangbing Meng, Xixun Hu, Qing Liu, Xiaoguang Song, Caixia Gao, Jiayang Li, Kejian Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 25, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285710/newly-characterized-crystal-structures-further-insights-into-the-architecture-of-gpcrs
#18
Binghe Tan, Mingyao Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 25, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282607/mechanism-of-the-reconstruction-of-aqueous-outflow-drainage
#19
REVIEW
Chen Xin, Ning Tian, Meng Li, Huaizhou Wang, Ningli Wang
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The reconstruction of aqueous outflow drainage (RAOD) has recently been proposed to aid in restoring aqueous outflow drainage in primary open-angle glaucoma. However, the mechanism of RAOD remains to be fully understood. Based on literature review and research studies, the potential mechanisms of RAOD are the following: (i) Circumferential dilation of the Schlemm's canal (SC) and surrounding collector channels. (ii) Instant formation of microcracks through RAOD procedures...
December 22, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255946/bayesian-evolutionary-analysis-for-emerging-infectious-disease-an-exemplified-application-for-h7n9-avian-influenza-viruses
#20
LETTER
Xiaoman Wei, Mingyue Chen, Jie Cui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
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