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Science China. Life Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446870/hi-tom-a-platform-for-high-throughput-tracking-of-mutations-induced-by-crispr-cas-systems
#1
Qing Liu, Chun Wang, Xiaozhen Jiao, Huawei Zhang, Lili Song, Yanxin Li, Caixia Gao, Kejian Wang
The CRISPR/Cas system has been extensively applied to make precise genetic modifications in various organisms. Despite its importance and widespread use, large-scale mutation screening remains time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. Here, we developed Hi-TOM (available at https://doi.org/www.hi-tom.net/hi-tom/ ), an online tool to track the mutations with precise percentage for multiple samples and multiple target sites. We also described a corresponding next-generation sequencing (NGS) library construction strategy by fixing the bridge sequences and barcoding primers...
November 13, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443862/diverse-and-variable-sex-determination-mechanisms-in-vertebrates
#2
REVIEW
Xi-Yin Li, Jian-Fang Gui
Sex is prevalent in nature and sex determination is one of the most fundamental biological processes, while the way of initiating female and male development exhibits remarkable diversity and variability across vertebrates. The knowledge on why and how sex determination mechanisms evolve unusual plasticity remains limited. Here, we summarize sex determination systems, master sex-determining genes and gene-regulatory networks among vertebrates. Recent research advancements on sex determination system transition are also introduced and discussed in some non-model animals with multiple sex determination mechanisms...
November 13, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443861/diversity-evolutionary-contribution-and-ecological-roles-of-aquatic-viruses
#3
REVIEW
Qi-Ya Zhang, Jian-Fang Gui
Aquatic viruses include infected viruses in aquatic animals, plants and microorganisms, and free-floating viruses (virioplankton) in water environments. In the last three decades, a huge number of aquatic viruses, especially diverse free-floating viruses, including cyanophages, phycoviruses, archaea viruses, giant viruses, and even virophages, have been identified by virological experiments and metagenomic analyses. Based on a comprehensive introduction of aquatic virus classification and their morphological and genetic diversity, here, we summarize and outline main virus species, their evolutionary contribution to aquatic communities through horizontal gene transfer, and their ecological roles for cyanobacterial bloom termination and global biogeochemical cycling in freshwater and marine ecosystems...
November 13, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443860/characterization-of-h3-methylation-in-regulating-oocyte-development-in-cyprinid-fish
#4
Rong Zhou, Rujie Shang, Dingbin Gong, Xiujuan Xu, Shaojun Liu
Histone post-modifications are important epigenetic markers involved in multiple cellular processes via regulation of gene transcription or remodeling of chromatin structure. Oocyte development is a critical process under rigorous control to prevent the generation of aberrant gametes. However, the regulatory mechanism of oocyte early development is not well-understood due to the tiny size and poor distinguishability of the gonad in juvenile stages. Here, two cyprinid hybrid fishes, a sterile allotriploid fish and a gynogenetic hybrid fish with delayed oocyte development, provided research models to investigate the mechanisms involved...
November 13, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421294/profile-of-dr-zhao-shen-li
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421293/profile-of-dr-zhigang-tian
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421292/profile-of-dr-tao-xu
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421295/the-arabidopsis-agamous-5-utr-represses-downstream-gene-translation
#8
LETTER
Ying Cao, Ying Wang, Yan Li, Jing Yang, Ligeng Ma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414008/vaccination-of-poultry-successfully-eliminated-human-infection-with-h7n9-virus-in-china
#9
REVIEW
Xianying Zeng, Guobin Tian, Jianzhong Shi, Guohua Deng, Chengjun Li, Hualan Chen
The H7N9 viruses that emerged in China in 2013 were nonpathogenic in chickens but mutated to a highly pathogenic form in early 2017 and caused severe disease outbreaks in chickens. The H7N9 influenza viruses have caused five waves of human infection, with almost half of the total number of human cases (766 of 1,567) being reported in the fifth wave, raising concerns that even more human infections could occur in the sixth wave. In September 2017, an H5/H7 bivalent inactivated vaccine for chickens was introduced, and the H7N9 virus isolation rate in poultry dropped by 93...
November 7, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414005/genetic-engineering-of-t-cells-with-chimeric-antigen-receptors-for-hematological-malignancy-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Dongdong Ti, Yunfei Niu, Zhiqiang Wu, Xiaobing Fu, Weidong Han
The host immune system plays an instrumental role in the surveillance and elimination of tumors by recognizing and destroying cancer cells. In recent decades, studies have mainly focused on adoptive immunotherapy using engineered T cells for the treatment of malignant diseases. Through gene engraftment of the patient's own T cells with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), they can recognize tumor specific antigens effectively and eradicate selectively targeted cells in an MHC-independent fashion. To date, CAR-T cell therapy has shown great clinical utility in patients with B-cell leukemias...
November 7, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30426455/ultra-stable-super-resolution-fluorescence-cryo-microscopy-for-correlative-light-and-electron-cryo-microscopy
#11
Xiaojun Xu, Yanhong Xue, Buyun Tian, Fengping Feng, Lusheng Gu, Weixing Li, Wei Ji, Tao Xu
Remarkable progress in correlative light and electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-CLEM) has been made in the past decade. A crucial component for cryo-CLEM is a dedicated cryo-fluorescence microscope (cryo-FM). Here, we describe an ultra-stable superresolution cryo-FM that exhibits excellent thermal and mechanical stability. The temperature fluctuations in 10 h are less than 0.06 K, and the mechanical drift over 5 h is less than 200 nm in three dimensions. We have demonstrated the super-resolution imaging capability of this system (average single molecule localization accuracy of ~13...
November 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421296/nk-cells-in-liver-homeostasis-and-viral-hepatitis
#12
REVIEW
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
As an important member of the innate immune system, natural killer (NK) cells are well known for their rapid and efficient immune responses against infectious agents and tumors. NK cells are widely distributed throughout the body and are particularly enriched within the liver, where they display unique phenotypic and functional properties, playing important roles in various liver diseases. Herein, we present an overview of liver NK cell properties with regard to phenotype, function, and subset composition at steady state, and we also summarize the complex reciprocal interactions between liver NK cells and other cell types within the local environment of the liver...
November 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417246/altered-small-world-functional-brain-networks-in-patients-with-lower-back-pain
#13
Jing Liu, Feng Zhang, Xiufen Liu, Zhizheng Zhuo, Juan Wei, Minyi Du, Queenie Chan, Xiaoying Wang, Dongxin Wang
In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional network changes that occur in patients with lower back pain (LBP). We also investigated the link between LBP and the small-world properties of functional networks within the brain. Functional MRI (fMRI) was performed on 20 individuals with LBP and 17 age and gender-matched normal controls during the resting state. The severity of the pain in the individuals with LBP ranged from 5 to 8 on a 0-10 scale, with 0 indicating no pain. Network-based statistics were performed to investigate the differences between the brain networks of individuals with LBP and those of normal controls...
November 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414007/new-insights-into-nanomaterials-combating-bacteria-ros-and-beyond
#14
Zhengwei Liu, Xiaogang Qu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414006/identification-of-a-seed-dormancy-gene-in-soybean-sheds-light-on-crop-domestication
#15
Xin Wei, Xuehui Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417245/metabolic-characteristics-and-nutrient-utilization-in-high-feed-efficiency-pigs-selected-using-different-feed-conversion-ratio-models
#16
Beibei He, Tiantian Li, Wei Wang, Hang Gao, Yu Bai, Shuai Zhang, Jianjun Zang, Defa Li, Junjun Wang
An understanding of the nutrient utilization characteristics of pigs with different feed efficiencies (FEs) will help us to develop new strategies to reduce the costs of pig production. In this study, we selected pigs with a range of FEs according to two feed conversion ratio models: the feed intake (FI) model, where pigs had the same average daily gains (ADGs) but different FIs, and the ADG model, where pigs had the same FIs but different ADGs. High-FE pigs had a higher abundance of short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria (Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae_1, and Coriobacteriaceae) in their caecum in the FI model, and low-FE pigs had a higher abundance of two families (Bacteroidales_S24_7_group and Peptococcaceae) and two genera (Anaerotruncus and Candidatus_Soleaferrea) in both models...
October 30, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377902/nobel-goes-to-immune-checkpoint-innovative-cancer-treatment-by-immunotherapy
#17
Jing Li, Dong Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377901/predav-h1-a-user-friendly-web-server-for-predicting-antigenic-variants-of-influenza-h1n1-viruses
#18
LETTER
Congyu Lu, Mi Liu, Aiping Wu, Yuelong Shu, Yousong Peng, Taijiao Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443859/comparison-of-breast-conserving-surgery-and-mastectomy-in-early-breast-cancer-using-observational-data-revisited-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#19
Kai Chen, Zihao Pan, Liling Zhu, Tingting Hu, Min Peng, Weijuan Jia, Fengxi Su, Shunrong Li, Erwei Song
Recent observational studies showed that breast-conserving surgery (BCS) resulted in superior survival compared to mastectomy in breast cancer patients. This study compared the clinical outcomes of BCS and mastectomy using propensity score (PS) matching analysis, which had advantages over conventional methods in reducing bias. Nonmetastatic breast cancer patients who underwent BCS and mastectomy were matched 1:1 based on their PS. We used the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression model to estimate the treatment effects...
October 24, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361895/why-were-so-few-people-infected-with-h7n9-influenza-a-viruses-in-china-from-late-2017-to-2018
#20
Xiaoman Wei, Jie Cui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
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