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Stroke Research and Treatment

Shambhu Prasad Adhikari, Jarugool Tretriluxana, Pakaratee Chaiyawat, Chutima Jalayondeja
Background: Action-observation-execution (AOE) primes physical training. We examined the immediate effect of AOE with accelerated skill acquisition program (ASAP) on dexterity in subacute stroke. Methods: Twelve individuals from 1 to 6 months after stroke were allocated into two groups by matching age and side of stroke. After AOE of 30 minutes, the experimental group received ASAP for 60 minutes whereas the control group received dose-equivalent usual care. The movement time (MT) and functional ability (FA) of hand items of the Wolf motor function test (WMFT), hand functions and global recovery of stroke impact scale (SIS), and intrinsic motivation items of stroke rehabilitation motivation scale were assessed at baseline, after training, and during one-week follow-up...
2018: Stroke Research and Treatment
Alexandra L Terrill, Jaclyn K Schwartz, Samir R Belagaje
Individuals with mild strokes are generally considered fully functional and do not traditionally receive rehabilitation services. Because patients with mild stroke are assumed to have a good recovery, they may have deficits in other areas, including mental health, that are not addressed. As a result, patients with mild stroke are unable to meet quality of life standards. In addition, healthcare professionals are likely unaware of the potential mental health issues that may arise in mild stroke. To address this gap in knowledge, we review the evidence supporting mental health evaluation and intervention in mild stroke...
2018: Stroke Research and Treatment
Sarah Mello, Ciaran Judge, Roisin Kelly, David Bradley, Joseph Harbison
Introduction: Various bodily tissues have been reported to enter the arterial circulation and embolize to the brain resulting in ischemic stroke. Most frequently nonthrombotic embolic stroke (NTES) of tissue origin is iatrogenic or related to an underlying disease process. With the increase in elective surgery and intravascular procedures, NTES may increase in prevalence. Aim: To compile a summary of the background, incidence, presentation, and treatment of NTES of tissue origin, by conducting a systematic review of the current literature...
2018: Stroke Research and Treatment
Celine Timmermans, Melvyn Roerdink, Thomas W J Janssen, Carel G M Meskers, Peter J Beek
Cognitive-motor interference may contribute to the risk of falling in people with stroke, as may be the associated phenomenon of inappropriate task prioritization. Examining dual-task walking could provide valuable insights as to how to best evaluate and treat walking in people with stroke. This study aimed to examine the effect of different walking environments on cognitive-motor interference and task prioritization in dual-task walking in people with stroke. Using a repeated-measures design, cognitive-motor interference and task prioritization were assessed in 30 stroke survivors, while walking in a plain environment and in two challenging environments that were enriched with either stationary physical context or suddenly appearing projector-augmented context...
2018: Stroke Research and Treatment
Sharon Flora Kramer, Liam Johnson, Julie Bernhardt, Toby Cumming
Introduction. Stroke survivors use more energy than healthy people during activities such as walking, which has consequences for the way exercise is prescribed for stroke survivors. There is a need for wearable device that can validly measure energy expenditure (EE) of activity to inform exercise prescription early after stroke. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the SenseWear-Armband (SWA) to measure EE and step-counts during activity <1 month after stroke. Materials and Methods. EE was measured using the SWA and metabolic cart and steps-counts were measured using the SWA and direct observation...
2018: Stroke Research and Treatment
Alijan Ahmadi Ahangar, Payam Saadat, Sona Niroomand, Shayan Alijanpour, Reza Sohrabnezhad, Alireza Firozejahi, Mohamad Ali Biani, Fatemeh Arab, Hamed Hosseinzadeh, Sekine Faraji, Jalal Niroomand
Background: Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The role of zinc as a new predictor of stroke was considered. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital within a year on 100 stroke and 100 control patients. Findings: The difference in zinc serum level in two groups was significant (deficiency: 3 (3%) in patients versus 20 (20%) in control group, normal: 25 (25%) versus 54 (54%), and increased level: 72 (72%) versus 26 (26%); p < 0...
2018: Stroke Research and Treatment
Monica C Serra
Background: Despite evidence that many of the consequences of stroke that hinder recovery (i.e., obesity, muscle atrophy, and functional declines) have nutritionally modifiable behavior components, little attention has been focused on the significance of nutrition beyond the acute phase of stroke. Objective: This literature review summarizes the evidence for and against the influence of nutrition on optimal recovery and rehabilitation in chronic (>6 months) stroke...
2018: Stroke Research and Treatment
Sangwoo Jung, Kyeongjin Lee, Myungjoon Kim, Changho Song
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of audiovisual biofeedback-based trunk stabilization training using a pressure biofeedback system (PBS) in stroke patients. Forty-three chronic stroke patients, who had experienced a stroke more than 6 months ago and were able to sit and walk independently, participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to an experimental group ( n = 21) or a control group ( n = 22). The experimental group participated in audiovisual biofeedback-based trunk stabilization training for 50 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi, Hélio José Coelho-Junior, Paulo Adriano Schwingel, Fabiano de Jesus Furtado Almeida, Tânia Maria Gaspar Novais, Paula de Lourdes Lauande Oliveira, Bismarck Ascar Sauaia, Cristiane Dominice Melo, Marco Carlos Uchida, Bruno Rodrigues
The aim of this study was to carry out a literature review on the overall benefits of resistance training (RT) after stroke and undertake a critical analysis of the resistance exercise programs surveyed (rest interval between sets and exercises, number of sets, number of repetitions, intensity, duration of training, and weekly frequency). To obtain articles for the review, we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Inclusion criteria were considered using the PICO (population, intervention, control/comparison, and outcome variables) model...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Stephen N Housley, David Wu, Kimberly Richards, Samir Belagaje, Maysam Ghovanloo, Andrew J Butler
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability around the world. Many survivors experience upper extremity (UE) impairment with few rehabilitation opportunities, secondary to a lack of voluntary muscle control. We developed a novel rehabilitation paradigm (TDS-HM) that uses a Tongue Drive System (TDS) to control a UE robotic device (Hand Mentor: HM) while engaging with an interactive user interface. In this study, six stroke survivors with moderate to severe UE impairment completed 15 two-hour sessions of TDS-HM training over five weeks...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Ciaran Judge, Sarah Mello, David Bradley, Joseph Harbison
Introduction: The inadvertent or purposeful introduction of foreign bodies or substances can lead to cerebral infarction if they embolize to the brain. Individual reports of these events are uncommon but may increase with the increased occurrences of their risk factors, for example, intra-arterial procedures. Method: We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for articles on embolic stroke of nontissue origin. 1889 articles were identified and screened and 216 articles were ultimately reviewed in full text and included in qualitative analysis...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Reza Rahimzadeh Khiabani, George Mochizuki, Farooq Ismail, Chris Boulias, Chetan P Phadke, William H Gage
Background: Balance impairments, falls, and spasticity are common after stroke, but the effect of spasticity on balance control after stroke is not well understood. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, twenty-seven participants with stroke were divided into two groups, based on ankle plantar flexor spasticity level. Fifteen individuals with high spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score of ≥2) and 12 individuals with low spasticity (MAS score <2) completed quiet standing trials with eyes open and closed conditions...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Yacouba N Mapoure, Chia Mark Ayeah, M S Doualla, H Ba, Hugo B Mbatchou Ngahane, Salomon Mbahe, Henry N Luma
BACKGROUND: Prognostic significance of serum uric acid (SUA) in acute stroke still remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its association with outcome of stroke patients in the Douala General Hospital (DGH). METHODS: This was a hospital based prospective cohort study which included acute stroke patients with baseline SUA levels and 3-month poststroke follow-up data. Associations between high SUA levels and stroke outcomes were analyzed using multiple logistic regression and survival analysis (Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier)...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Kyle M Ware, Douglas L Feinstein, Israel Rubinstein, Prudhvi Battula, Jose Otero, Lee Hebert, Tzu-Fei Wang, Alexandra Ivanova, Shweta Chaudhary, Jessica Hemminger, Sergey V Brodsky
Background and Purpose. Anticoagulant therapy is broadly used to prevent thromboembolic events. Intracranial hemorrhages are serious complications of anticoagulation, especially with warfarin. Direct oral anticoagulants reduce but do not eliminate the risk of intracranial hemorrhages. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of intracranial hemorrhage after application of anticoagulants without additional triggers. Methods. Rats were treated with different anticoagulant classes (vitamin K antagonists, heparin, direct thrombin inhibitor, and factor Xa inhibitor)...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Luciana Ripamonti, Roberto Riva, Fabiola Maioli, Corrado Zenesini, Gaetano Procaccianti
Three thousand two hundred and ninety-eight patients admitted to our Stroke Unit with hemorrhagic, large artery atherosclerosis, cardioembolic, small-vessel occlusion, and undetermined etiology-cryptogenic strokes were included in the study. The circadian variability in onset in each stroke subgroup and the associations with various risk factors were analyzed. In each subgroup, a significant minority of patients suffered from stroke during sleep. In the ischemic group, hypercholesterolemia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and previous myocardial infarction facilitated the onset during waking...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Siim Schneider, Alina Kornejeva, Riina Vibo, Janika Kõrv
OBJECTIVES: Reports on young patients with ischemic stroke from Eastern Europe have been scarce. This study aimed to assess risk factors and etiology of first-ever and recurrent stroke among young Estonian patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged 18-54 years who were treated in our two hospitals from 2003 to 2012. RESULTS: We identified 741 patients with first-ever stroke and 96 patients with recurrent stroke...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Isaac Arbeláez-Quintero, Mauricio Palacios
Ischemic strokes are major causes of death and disability. Searching for potential therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat stroke is necessary, given the increase in overall life expectancy. Epidemiological reports indicate that metformin is an oral antidiabetic medication that can reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Its mechanism of action has not been elucidated, but metformin pleiotropic effects involve actions in addition to glycemic control. AMPK activation has been described as one of the pharmacological mechanisms that explain the action of metformin and that lead to neuroprotective effects...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Andreea D Ceornodolea, Roland Bal, Johan L Severens
In Europe, 1-3% of the population suffers from atrial fibrillation (AF) and has increased stroke risk. By 2060 a doubling in number of cases and great burden in managing this medical condition are expected. This paper offers an overview of data on epidemiology and management of AF and stroke in four European countries as well as the interconnection between these dimensions. A search index was developed to access multiple scientific and "grey" literatures. Information was prioritised based on strength of evidence and date...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Philip M Bath, Jane May, Katie Flaherty, Lisa J Woodhouse, Natalia Dovlatova, Sue C Fox, Timothy J England, Kailash Krishnan, Thompson G Robinson, Nikola Sprigg, Stan Heptinstall, Tardis Investigators
BACKGROUND: The TARDIS trial assessed the safety and efficacy of intensive versus guideline antiplatelet agents given for one month in patients with acute stroke or TIA. The aim of this substudy was to assess the effect of antiplatelet agents taken at baseline on platelet function reactivity and activation. METHODS: Platelet function, assessed by remotely measured surface expression of P-selectin, was assessed in patients at their time of randomisation. Data are median fluorescence values...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
Ahsan Rao, Alex Bottle, Ara Darzi, Paul Aylin
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the chronological order of the causes of readmissions may help us assess any repeated chain of events among high-impact users, those with high readmission rate. We aim to perform sequence analysis of administrative data to identify distinct sequences of emergency readmissions among the high-impact users. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of all cerebrovascular patients identified through national administrative data and followed for 4 years...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
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