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Nature Communications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006629/strong-plates-enhance-mantle-mixing-in-early-earth
#1
Roberto Agrusta, Jeroen van Hunen, Saskia Goes
In the present-day Earth, some subducting plates (slabs) are flattening above the upper-lower mantle boundary at ~670 km depth, whereas others go through, indicating a mode between layered and whole-mantle convection. Previous models predicted that in a few hundred degree hotter early Earth, convection was likely more layered due to dominant slab stagnation. In self-consistent numerical models where slabs have a plate-like rheology, strong slabs and mobile plate boundaries favour stagnation for old and penetration for young slabs, as observed today...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006627/single-molecule-insights-into-surface-mediated-homochirality-in-hierarchical-peptide-assembly
#2
Yumin Chen, Ke Deng, Shengbin Lei, Rong Yang, Tong Li, Yuantong Gu, Yanlian Yang, Xiaohui Qiu, Chen Wang
Homochirality is very important in the formation of advanced biological structures, but the origin and evolution mechanisms of homochiral biological structures in complex hierarchical process is not clear at the single-molecule level. Here we demonstrate the single-molecule investigation of biological homochirality in the hierarchical peptide assembly, regarding symmetry break, chirality amplification, and chirality transmission. We find that homochirality can be triggered by the chirality unbalance of two adsorption configuration monomers...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006624/nicotine-aversion-is-mediated-by-gabaergic-interpeduncular-nucleus-inputs-to-laterodorsal-tegmentum
#3
Shannon L Wolfman, Daniel F Gill, Fili Bogdanic, Katie Long, Ream Al-Hasani, Jordan G McCall, Michael R Bruchas, Daniel S McGehee
Nicotine use can lead to dependence through complex processes that are regulated by both its rewarding and aversive effects. Recent studies show that aversive nicotine doses activate excitatory inputs to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) from the medial habenula (MHb), but the downstream targets of the IPN that mediate aversion are unknown. Here we show that IPN projections to the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDTg) are GABAergic using optogenetics in tissue slices from mouse brain. Selective stimulation of these IPN axon terminals in LDTg in vivo elicits avoidance behavior, suggesting that these projections contribute to aversion...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006620/limits-to-growth-of-forest-biomass-carbon-sink-under-climate-change
#4
Kai Zhu, Jian Zhang, Shuli Niu, Chengjin Chu, Yiqi Luo
Widely recognized as a significant carbon sink, North American forests have experienced a history of recovery and are facing an uncertain future. This growing carbon sink is dictated by recovery from land-use change, with growth trajectory modified by environmental change. To address both processes, we compiled a forest inventory dataset from North America to quantify aboveground biomass growth with stand age across forest types and climate gradients. Here we show, the biomass grows from 90 Mg ha-1 (2000-2016) to 105 Mg ha-1 (2020 s), 128 Mg ha-1 (2050 s), and 146 Mg ha-1 (2080 s) under climate change scenarios with no further disturbances...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006619/reactive-astrocytic-s1p3-signaling-modulates-the-blood-tumor-barrier-in-brain-metastases
#5
Brunilde Gril, Anurag N Paranjape, Stephan Woditschka, Emily Hua, Emma L Dolan, Jeffrey Hanson, Xiaolin Wu, Wojciech Kloc, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Renata Duchnowska, Rafał Pęksa, Wojciech Biernat, Jacek Jassem, Naema Nayyar, Priscilla K Brastianos, O Morgan Hall, Cody J Peer, William D Figg, Gary T Pauly, Christina Robinson, Simone Difilippantonio, Emilie Bialecki, Philippe Metellus, Joel P Schneider, Patricia S Steeg
Brain metastases are devastating complications of cancer. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which protects the normal brain, morphs into an inadequately characterized blood-tumor barrier (BTB) when brain metastases form, and is surrounded by a neuroinflammatory response. These structures contribute to poor therapeutic efficacy by limiting drug uptake. Here, we report that experimental breast cancer brain metastases of low- and high permeability to a dextran dye exhibit distinct microenvironmental gene expression patterns...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006605/nonstimulatory-peptide-mhc-enhances-human-t-cell-antigen-specific-responses-by-amplifying-proximal-tcr-signaling
#6
Xiang Zhao, Shvetha Sankaran, Jiawei Yap, Chien Tei Too, Zi Zong Ho, Garry Dolton, Mateusz Legut, Ee Chee Ren, Andrew K Sewell, Antonio Bertoletti, Paul A MacAry, Joanna Brzostek, Nicholas R J Gascoigne
Foreign antigens are presented by antigen-presenting cells in the presence of abundant endogenous peptides that are nonstimulatory to the T cell. In mouse T cells, endogenous, nonstimulatory peptides have been shown to enhance responses to specific peptide antigens, a phenomenon termed coagonism. However, whether coagonism also occurs in human T cells is unclear, and the molecular mechanism of coagonism is still under debate since CD4 and CD8 coagonism requires different interactions. Here we show that the nonstimulatory, HIV-derived peptide GAG enhances a specific human cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to HBV-derived epitopes presented by HLA-A*02:01...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006598/single-neurons-may-encode-simultaneous-stimuli-by-switching-between-activity-patterns
#7
Valeria C Caruso, Jeff T Mohl, Christopher Glynn, Jungah Lee, Shawn M Willett, Azeem Zaman, Akinori F Ebihara, Rolando Estrada, Winrich A Freiwald, Surya T Tokdar, Jennifer M Groh
How the brain preserves information about multiple simultaneous items is poorly understood. We report that single neurons can represent multiple stimuli by interleaving signals across time. We record single units in an auditory region, the inferior colliculus, while monkeys localize 1 or 2 simultaneous sounds. During dual-sound trials, we find that some neurons fluctuate between firing rates observed for each single sound, either on a whole-trial or on a sub-trial timescale. These fluctuations are correlated in pairs of neurons, can be predicted by the state of local field potentials prior to sound onset, and, in one monkey, can predict which sound will be reported first...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006596/controlled-gene-and-drug-release-from-a-liposomal-delivery-platform-triggered-by-x-ray-radiation
#8
Wei Deng, Wenjie Chen, Sandhya Clement, Anna Guller, Zhenjun Zhao, Alexander Engel, Ewa M Goldys
Liposomes have been well established as an effective drug delivery system, due to simplicity of their preparation and unique characteristics. However conventional liposomes are unsuitable for the on-demand content release, which limits their therapeutic utility. Here we report X-ray-triggerable liposomes incorporating gold nanoparticles and photosensitizer verteporfin. The 6 MeV X-ray radiation induces verteporfin to produce singlet oxygen, which destabilises the liposomal membrane and causes the release of cargos from the liposomal cavity...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006589/population-genomics-of-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clonal-group-23-reveals-early-emergence-and-rapid-global-dissemination
#9
Margaret M C Lam, Kelly L Wyres, Sebastian Duchêne, Ryan R Wick, Louise M Judd, Yunn-Hwen Gan, Chu-Han Hoh, Sophia Archuleta, James S Molton, Shirin Kalimuddin, Tse Hsien Koh, Virginie Passet, Sylvain Brisse, Kathryn E Holt
Severe liver abscess infections caused by hypervirulent clonal-group CG23 Klebsiella pneumoniae have been increasingly reported since the mid-1980s. Strains typically possess several virulence factors including an integrative, conjugative element ICEKp encoding the siderophore yersiniabactin and genotoxin colibactin. Here we investigate CG23's evolutionary history, showing several deep-branching sublineages associated with distinct ICEKp acquisitions. Over 80% of liver abscess isolates belong to sublineage CG23-I, which emerged in ~1928 following acquisition of ICEKp10 (encoding yersiniabactin and colibactin), and then disseminated globally within the human population...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006573/modulation-of-anti-tumor-immunity-by-the-brain-s-reward-system
#10
Tamar L Ben-Shaanan, Maya Schiller, Hilla Azulay-Debby, Ben Korin, Nadia Boshnak, Tamar Koren, Maria Krot, Jivan Shakya, Michal A Rahat, Fahed Hakim, Asya Rolls
Regulating immunity is a leading target for cancer therapy. Here, we show that the anti-tumor immune response can be modulated by the brain's reward system, a key circuitry in emotional processes. Activation of the reward system in tumor-bearing mice (Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and B16 melanoma) using chemogenetics (DREADDs), resulted in reduced tumor weight. This effect was mediated via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), manifested by an attenuated noradrenergic input to a major immunological site, the bone marrow...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006572/atp-synthase-f-1-subunits-recruited-to-centromeres-by-cenp-a-are-required-for-male-meiosis
#11
Caitríona M Collins, Beatrice Malacrida, Colin Burke, Patrick A Kiely, Elaine M Dunleavy
The histone H3 variant CENP-A epigenetically defines the centromere and is critical for chromosome segregation. Here we report an interaction between CENP-A and subunits of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex in the germline of male Drosophila. Furthermore, we report that knockdown of CENP-A, as well as subunits ATPsyn-α, -βlike (a testis-specific paralogue of ATPsyn-β) and -γ disrupts sister centromere cohesion in meiotic prophase I. We find that this disruption is likely independent of reduced ATP levels...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006570/highly-efficient-rna-guided-base-editing-in-rabbit
#12
Zhiquan Liu, Mao Chen, Siyu Chen, Jichao Deng, Yuning Song, Liangxue Lai, Zhanjun Li
Cytidine base editors (CBEs) and adenine base editors (ABEs), composed of a cytidine deaminase or an evolved adenine deaminase fused to Cas9 nickase, enable the conversion of C·G to T·A or A·T to G·C base pair in organisms, respectively. Here, we show that BE3 and ABE7.10 systems can achieve a targeted mutation efficiency of 53-88% and 44-100%, respectively, in both blastocysts and Founder (F0) rabbits. Meanwhile, this strategy can be used to precisely mimic human pathologies by efficiently inducing nonsense or missense mutations as well as RNA mis-splicing in rabbit...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006565/co-expression-of-cd39-and-cd103-identifies-tumor-reactive-cd8-t-cells-in-human-solid-tumors
#13
Thomas Duhen, Rebekka Duhen, Ryan Montler, Jake Moses, Tarsem Moudgil, Noel F de Miranda, Cheri P Goodall, Tiffany C Blair, Bernard A Fox, Jason E McDermott, Shu-Ching Chang, Gary Grunkemeier, Rom Leidner, Richard Bryan Bell, Andrew D Weinberg
Identifying tumor antigen-specific T cells from cancer patients has important implications for immunotherapy diagnostics and therapeutics. Here, we show that CD103+ CD39+ tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells (CD8 TIL) are enriched for tumor-reactive cells both in primary and metastatic tumors. This CD8 TIL subset is found across six different malignancies and displays an exhausted tissue-resident memory phenotype. CD103+ CD39+ CD8 TILs have a distinct T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, with T-cell clones expanded in the tumor but present at low frequencies in the periphery...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006551/author-correction-dynamics-of-a-qubit-while-simultaneously-monitoring-its-relaxation-and-dephasing
#14
Q Ficheux, S Jezouin, Z Leghtas, B Huard
The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements: Z. Leghtas' primary affiliation is Centre Automatique et Systèmes, Mines ParisTech. This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006550/influence-of-atomic-site-specific-strain-on-catalytic-activity-of-supported-nanoparticles
#15
Torben Nilsson Pingel, Mikkel Jørgensen, Andrew B Yankovich, Henrik Grönbeck, Eva Olsson
Heterogeneous catalysis is an enabling technology that utilises transition metal nanoparticles (NPs) supported on oxides to promote chemical reactions. Structural mismatch at the NP-support interface generates lattice strain that could affect catalytic properties. However, detailed knowledge about strain in supported NPs remains elusive. We experimentally measure the strain at interfaces, surfaces and defects in Pt NPs supported on alumina and ceria with atomic resolution using high-precision scanning transmission electron microscopy...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006548/kif20a-mklp2-regulates-the-division-modes-of-neural-progenitor-cells-during-cortical-development
#16
Anqi Geng, Runxiang Qiu, Kiyohito Murai, Jiancheng Liu, Xiwei Wu, Heying Zhang, Henry Farhoodi, Nam Duong, Meisheng Jiang, Jiing-Kuan Yee, Walter Tsark, Qiang Lu
Balanced symmetric and asymmetric divisions of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are crucial for brain development, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we report that mitotic kinesin KIF20A/MKLP2 interacts with RGS3 and plays a crucial role in controlling the division modes of NPCs during cortical neurogenesis. Knockdown of KIF20A in NPCs causes dislocation of RGS3 from the intercellular bridge (ICB), impairs the function of Ephrin-B-RGS cell fate signaling complex, and leads to a transition from proliferative to differentiative divisions...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006544/hhex-is-a-transcriptional-regulator-of-the-vegfc-flt4-prox1-signaling-axis-during-vascular-development
#17
Sébastien Gauvrit, Alethia Villasenor, Boris Strilic, Philip Kitchen, Michelle M Collins, Rubén Marín-Juez, Stefan Guenther, Hans-Martin Maischein, Nana Fukuda, Maurice A Canham, Joshua M Brickman, Clifford W Bogue, Padma-Sheela Jayaraman, Didier Y R Stainier
Formation of the lymphatic system requires the coordinated expression of several key regulators: vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC), its receptor FLT4, and a key transcriptional effector, PROX1. Yet, how expression of these signaling components is regulated remains poorly understood. Here, using a combination of genetic and molecular approaches, we identify the transcription factor hematopoietically expressed homeobox (HHEX) as an upstream regulator of VEGFC, FLT4, and PROX1 during angiogenic sprouting and lymphatic formation in vertebrates...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006532/magnetostatic-twists-in-room-temperature-skyrmions-explored-by-nitrogen-vacancy-center-spin-texture-reconstruction
#18
Y Dovzhenko, F Casola, S Schlotter, T X Zhou, F Büttner, R L Walsworth, G S D Beach, A Yacoby
Magnetic skyrmions are two-dimensional non-collinear spin textures characterized by an integer topological number. Room-temperature skyrmions were recently found in magnetic multilayer stacks, where their stability was largely attributed to the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The strength of this interaction and its role in stabilizing the skyrmions is not yet well understood, and imaging of the full spin structure is needed to address this question. Here, we use a nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond to measure a map of magnetic fields produced by a skyrmion in a magnetic multilayer under ambient conditions...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006529/skilful-forecasting-of-global-fire-activity-using-seasonal-climate-predictions
#19
Marco Turco, Sonia Jerez, Francisco J Doblas-Reyes, Amir AghaKouchak, Maria Carmen Llasat, Antonello Provenzale
Societal exposure to large fires has been increasing in recent years. Estimating the expected fire activity a few months in advance would allow reducing environmental and socio-economic impacts through short-term adaptation and response to climate variability and change. However, seasonal prediction of climate-driven fires is still in its infancy. Here, we discuss a strategy for seasonally forecasting burned area anomalies linking seasonal climate predictions with parsimonious empirical climate-fire models using the standardized precipitation index as the climate predictor for burned area...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006528/neutralization-of-the-plasmodium-encoded-mif-ortholog-confers-protective-immunity-against-malaria-infection
#20
Alvaro Baeza Garcia, Edwin Siu, Tiffany Sun, Valerie Exler, Luis Brito, Armin Hekele, Gib Otten, Kevin Augustijn, Chris J Janse, Jeffrey B Ulmer, Jürgen Bernhagen, Erol Fikrig, Andrew Geall, Richard Bucala
Plasmodium species produce an ortholog of the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor, PMIF, which modulates the host inflammatory response to malaria. Using a novel RNA replicon-based vaccine, we show the impact of PMIF immunoneutralization on the host response and observed improved control of liver and blood-stage Plasmodium infection, and complete protection from re-infection. Vaccination against PMIF delayed blood-stage patency after sporozoite infection, reduced the expression of the Th1-associated inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-12, and IFN-γ during blood-stage infection, augmented Tfh cell and germinal center responses, increased anti-Plasmodium antibody titers, and enhanced the differentiation of antigen-experienced memory CD4 T cells and liver-resident CD8 T cells...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
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