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Nature Communications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230193/the-critical-role-of-point-defects-in-improving-the-specific-capacitance-of-%C3%AE-mno2-nanosheets
#1
Peng Gao, Peter Metz, Trevyn Hey, Yuxuan Gong, Dawei Liu, Doreen D Edwards, Jane Y Howe, Rong Huang, Scott T Misture
3D porous nanostructures built from 2D δ-MnO2 nanosheets are an environmentally friendly and industrially scalable class of supercapacitor electrode material. While both the electrochemistry and defects of this material have been studied, the role of defects in improving the energy storage density of these materials has not been addressed. In this work, δ-MnO2 nanosheet assemblies with 150 m(2) g(-1) specific surface area are prepared by exfoliation of crystalline KxMnO2 and subsequent reassembly. Equilibration at different pH introduces intentional Mn vacancies into the nanosheets, increasing pseudocapacitance to over 300 F g(-1), reducing charge transfer resistance as low as 3 Ω, and providing a 50% improvement in cycling stability...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230169/fostering-reproducible-fmri-research
#2
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230164/dynamical-majorana-edge-modes-in-a-broad-class-of-topological-mechanical-systems
#3
Emil Prodan, Kyle Dobiszewski, Alokik Kanwal, John Palmieri, Camelia Prodan
Mechanical systems can display topological characteristics similar to that of topological insulators. Here we report a large class of topological mechanical systems related to the BDI symmetry class. These are self-assembled chains of rigid bodies with an inversion centre and no reflection planes. The particle-hole symmetry characteristic to the BDI symmetry class stems from the distinct behaviour of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom under inversion. This and other generic properties led us to the remarkable conclusion that, by adjusting the gyration radius of the bodies, one can always simultaneously open a gap in the phonon spectrum, lock-in all the characteristic symmetries and generate a non-trivial topological invariant...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230156/drebrin-mediated-microtubule-actomyosin-coupling-steers-cerebellar-granule-neuron-nucleokinesis-and-migration-pathway-selection
#4
Niraj Trivedi, Daniel R Stabley, Blake Cain, Danielle Howell, Christophe Laumonnerie, Joseph S Ramahi, Jamshid Temirov, Ryan A Kerekes, Phillip R Gordon-Weeks, David J Solecki
Neuronal migration from a germinal zone to a final laminar position is essential for the morphogenesis of neuronal circuits. While it is hypothesized that microtubule-actomyosin crosstalk is required for a neuron's 'two-stroke' nucleokinesis cycle, the molecular mechanisms controlling such crosstalk are not defined. By using the drebrin microtubule-actin crosslinking protein as an entry point into the cerebellar granule neuron system in combination with super-resolution microscopy, we investigate how these cytoskeletal systems interface during migration...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230154/compiler-aided-systematic-construction-of-large-scale-dna-strand-displacement-circuits-using-unpurified-components
#5
Anupama J Thubagere, Chris Thachuk, Joseph Berleant, Robert F Johnson, Diana A Ardelean, Kevin M Cherry, Lulu Qian
Biochemical circuits made of rationally designed DNA molecules are proofs of concept for embedding control within complex molecular environments. They hold promise for transforming the current technologies in chemistry, biology, medicine and material science by introducing programmable and responsive behaviour to diverse molecular systems. As the transformative power of a technology depends on its accessibility, two main challenges are an automated design process and simple experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the use of circuit design software, combined with the use of unpurified strands and simplified experimental procedures, for creating a complex DNA strand displacement circuit that consists of 78 distinct species...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230105/interface-confined-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-in-zero-valent-metal-nanoparticles-intercalated-molybdenum-disulfide
#6
Zhongxin Chen, Kai Leng, Xiaoxu Zhao, Souradip Malkhandi, Wei Tang, Bingbing Tian, Lei Dong, Lirong Zheng, Ming Lin, Boon Siang Yeo, Kian Ping Loh
Interface confined reactions, which can modulate the bonding of reactants with catalytic centres and influence the rate of the mass transport from bulk solution, have emerged as a viable strategy for achieving highly stable and selective catalysis. Here we demonstrate that 1T'-enriched lithiated molybdenum disulfide is a highly powerful reducing agent, which can be exploited for the in-situ reduction of metal ions within the inner planes of lithiated molybdenum disulfide to form a zero valent metal-intercalated molybdenum disulfide...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230100/product-selectivity-in-plasmonic-photocatalysis-for-carbon-dioxide-hydrogenation
#7
Xiao Zhang, Xueqian Li, Du Zhang, Neil Qiang Su, Weitao Yang, Henry O Everitt, Jie Liu
Photocatalysis has not found widespread industrial adoption, in spite of decades of active research, because the challenges associated with catalyst illumination and turnover outweigh the touted advantages of replacing heat with light. A demonstration that light can control product selectivity in complex chemical reactions could prove to be transformative. Here, we show how the recently demonstrated plasmonic behaviour of rhodium nanoparticles profoundly improves their already excellent catalytic properties by simultaneously reducing the activation energy and selectively producing a desired but kinetically unfavourable product for the important carbon dioxide hydrogenation reaction...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230099/pairing-mechanism-in-the-ferromagnetic-superconductor-ucoge
#8
Beilun Wu, Gaël Bastien, Mathieu Taupin, Carley Paulsen, Ludovic Howald, Dai Aoki, Jean-Pascal Brison
Superconductivity is a unique manifestation of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale, and one of the rare examples of many-body phenomena that can be explained by predictive, quantitative theories. The superconducting ground state is described as a condensate of Cooper pairs, and a major challenge has been to understand which mechanisms could lead to a bound state between two electrons, despite the large Coulomb repulsion. An even bigger challenge is to identify experimentally this pairing mechanism, notably in unconventional superconductors dominated by strong electronic correlations, like in high-Tc cuprates, iron pnictides or heavy-fermion compounds...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230094/hierarchical-tissue-organization-as-a-general-mechanism-to-limit-the-accumulation-of-somatic-mutations
#9
Imre Derényi, Gergely J Szöllősi
How can tissues generate large numbers of cells, yet keep the divisional load (the number of divisions along cell lineages) low in order to curtail the accumulation of somatic mutations and reduce the risk of cancer? To answer the question we consider a general model of hierarchically organized self-renewing tissues and show that the lifetime divisional load of such a tissue is independent of the details of the cell differentiation processes, and depends only on two structural and two dynamical parameters. Our results demonstrate that a strict analytical relationship exists between two seemingly disparate characteristics of self-renewing tissues: divisional load and tissue organization...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230081/direct-observation-of-oxygen-vacancy-driven-structural-and-resistive-phase-transitions-in-la2-3sr1-3mno3
#10
Lide Yao, Sampo Inkinen, Sebastiaan van Dijken
Resistive switching in transition metal oxides involves intricate physical and chemical behaviours with potential for non-volatile memory and memristive devices. Although oxygen vacancy migration is known to play a crucial role in resistive switching of oxides, an in-depth understanding of oxygen vacancy-driven effects requires direct imaging of atomic-scale dynamic processes and their real-time impact on resistance changes. Here we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate reversible switching between three resistance states in epitaxial La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 films...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230080/demonstrating-the-potential-of-yttrium-doped-barium-zirconate-electrolyte-for-high-performance-fuel-cells
#11
Kiho Bae, Dong Young Jang, Hyung Jong Choi, Donghwan Kim, Jongsup Hong, Byung-Kook Kim, Jong-Ho Lee, Ji-Won Son, Joon Hyung Shim
In reducing the high operating temperatures (≥800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (≤600 °C). Among many protonic ceramics, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has attracted attention due to its excellent chemical stability, which is the main issue in protonic-ceramic fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230064/direct-observation-of-intrinsic-twin-domains-in-tetragonal-ch3nh3pbi3
#12
Mathias Uller Rothmann, Wei Li, Ye Zhu, Udo Bach, Leone Spiccia, Joanne Etheridge, Yi-Bing Cheng
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are exciting candidates for next-generation solar cells, with CH3NH3PbI3 being one of the most widely studied. While there have been intense efforts to fabricate and optimize photovoltaic devices using CH3NH3PbI3, critical questions remain regarding the crystal structure that governs its unique properties of the hybrid perovskite material. Here we report unambiguous evidence for crystallographic twin domains in tetragonal CH3NH3PbI3, observed using low-dose transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230057/ensemble-and-single-molecule-dynamics-of-ift-dynein-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-cilia
#13
Jona Mijalkovic, Bram Prevo, Felix Oswald, Pierre Mangeol, Erwin J G Peterman
Cytoplasmic dyneins drive microtubule-based, minus-end directed transport in eukaryotic cells. Whereas cytoplasmic dynein 1 has been widely studied, IFT dynein has received far less attention. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy of labelled motors in living Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate IFT-dynein motility at the ensemble and single-molecule level. We find that while the kinesin composition of motor ensembles varies along the track, the amount of dynein remains relatively constant. Remarkably, this does not result in directionality changes of cargo along the track, as has been reported for other opposite-polarity, tug-of-war motility systems...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230054/magnetization-switching-in-ferromagnets-by-adsorbed-chiral-molecules-without-current-or-external-magnetic-field
#14
Oren Ben Dor, Shira Yochelis, Anna Radko, Kiran Vankayala, Eyal Capua, Amir Capua, See-Hun Yang, Lech Tomasz Baczewski, Stuart Stephen Papworth Parkin, Ron Naaman, Yossi Paltiel
Ferromagnets are commonly magnetized by either external magnetic fields or spin polarized currents. The manipulation of magnetization by spin-current occurs through the spin-transfer-torque effect, which is applied, for example, in modern magnetoresistive random access memory. However, the current density required for the spin-transfer torque is of the order of 1 × 10(6) A·cm(-2), or about 1 × 10(25) electrons s(-1) cm(-2). This relatively high current density significantly affects the devices' structure and performance...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230052/unraveling-the-processes-shaping-mammalian-gut-microbiomes-over-evolutionary-time
#15
Mathieu Groussin, Florent Mazel, Jon G Sanders, Chris S Smillie, Sébastien Lavergne, Wilfried Thuiller, Eric J Alm
Whether mammal-microbiome interactions are persistent and specific over evolutionary time is controversial. Here we show that host phylogeny and major dietary shifts have affected the distribution of different gut bacterial lineages and did so on vastly different bacterial phylogenetic resolutions. Diet mostly influences the acquisition of ancient and large microbial lineages. Conversely, correlation with host phylogeny is mostly seen among more recently diverged bacterial lineages, consistent with processes operating at similar timescales to host evolution...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230051/cellular-senescence-mediates-fibrotic-pulmonary-disease
#16
Marissa J Schafer, Thomas A White, Koji Iijima, Andrew J Haak, Giovanni Ligresti, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Ann L Oberg, Jodie Birch, Hanna Salmonowicz, Yi Zhu, Daniel L Mazula, Robert W Brooks, Heike Fuhrmann-Stroissnigg, Tamar Pirtskhalava, Y S Prakash, Tamara Tchkonia, Paul D Robbins, Marie Christine Aubry, João F Passos, James L Kirkland, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Hirohito Kita, Nathan K LeBrasseur
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease characterized by interstitial remodelling, leading to compromised lung function. Cellular senescence markers are detectable within IPF lung tissue and senescent cell deletion rejuvenates pulmonary health in aged mice. Whether and how senescent cells regulate IPF or if their removal may be an efficacious intervention strategy is unknown. Here we demonstrate elevated abundance of senescence biomarkers in IPF lung, with p16 expression increasing with disease severity...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230050/oxidation-of-f-actin-controls-the-terminal-steps-of-cytokinesis
#17
Stéphane Frémont, Hussein Hammich, Jian Bai, Hugo Wioland, Kerstin Klinkert, Murielle Rocancourt, Carlos Kikuti, David Stroebel, Guillaume Romet-Lemonne, Olena Pylypenko, Anne Houdusse, Arnaud Echard
Cytokinetic abscission, the terminal step of cell division, crucially depends on the local constriction of ESCRT-III helices after cytoskeleton disassembly. While the microtubules of the intercellular bridge are cut by the ESCRT-associated enzyme Spastin, the mechanism that clears F-actin at the abscission site is unknown. Here we show that oxidation-mediated depolymerization of actin by the redox enzyme MICAL1 is key for ESCRT-III recruitment and successful abscission. MICAL1 is recruited to the abscission site by the Rab35 GTPase through a direct interaction with a flat three-helix domain found in MICAL1 C terminus...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230049/broad-scale-lake-expansion-and-flooding-inundates-essential-wood-bison-habitat
#18
Jennifer B Korosi, Joshua R Thienpont, Michael F J Pisaric, Peter deMontigny, Joelle T Perreault, Jamylynn McDonald, Myrna J Simpson, Terry Armstrong, Steven V Kokelj, John P Smol, Jules M Blais
Understanding the interaction between the response of a complex ecosystem to climate change and the protection of vulnerable wildlife species is essential for conservation efforts. In the Northwest Territories (Canada), the recent movement of the Mackenzie wood bison herd (Bison bison athabascae) out of their designated territory has been postulated as a response to the loss of essential habitat following regional lake expansion. We show that the proportion of this landscape occupied by water doubled since 1986 and the timing of lake expansion corresponds to bison movements out of the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230048/differential-regulation-of-the-epr3-receptor-coordinates-membrane-restricted-rhizobial-colonization-of-root-nodule-primordia
#19
Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Mette W Nielsen, Simon Kelly, Euan K James, Kasper R Andersen, Sheena R Rasmussen, Winnie Füchtbauer, Lene H Madsen, Anne B Heckmann, Simona Radutoiu, Jens Stougaard
In Lotus japonicus, a LysM receptor kinase, EPR3, distinguishes compatible and incompatible rhizobial exopolysaccharides at the epidermis. However, the role of this recognition system in bacterial colonization of the root interior is unknown. Here we show that EPR3 advances the intracellular infection mechanism that mediates infection thread invasion of the root cortex and nodule primordia. At the cellular level, Epr3 expression delineates progression of infection threads into nodule primordia and cortical infection thread formation is impaired in epr3 mutants...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230047/electrically-tunable-artificial-gauge-potential-for-polaritons
#20
Hyang-Tag Lim, Emre Togan, Martin Kroner, Javier Miguel-Sanchez, Atac Imamoğlu
Neutral particles subject to artificial gauge potentials can behave as charged particles in magnetic fields. This fascinating premise has led to demonstrations of one-way waveguides, topologically protected edge states and Landau levels for photons. In ultracold neutral atoms, effective gauge fields have allowed the emulation of matter under strong magnetic fields leading to realization of Harper-Hofstadter and Haldane models. Here we show that application of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields effects a tunable artificial gauge potential for two-dimensional microcavity exciton polaritons...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
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