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Briefings in Functional Genomics

Manoj K Dhar, Munish Sharma, Archana Bhat, Nikhil K Chrungoo, Sanjana Kaul
Saffron is considered to be the costliest spice of the world. It has been regarded as highly valued medicinal plant in Ayurveda to treat various ailments. Over the past few years, considerable interest has developed in saffron because of its anticancer, antimutagenic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Saffron's colour, bitter taste and aroma are its three main and peculiar characteristics, which are conferred by three chemicals namely: crocin, picrocrocin and safranal, respectively. The present review focuses on recent research/progress made in saffron in the area of functional genomics and highlights the potential of several genes and transcription factors involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid pathway and responsible for flavour and aroma of saffron...
March 28, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Fabian V Filipp
Histone methylation is an epigenetic modification of chromatin undergoing dynamic changes and balancing tissue-specific demands of proliferation and differentiation. In cancer, aberrant histone methylation can facilitate oncogenic and tumor suppression programs by modulating gene expression. Histone remodelers such as lysine methyltransferases and lysine demethylases are seemingly opposite or contrary forces but may be part of an interconnected network complementing each other. We identify several layers of molecular communication where epigenetic master regulators engage in crosstalk between tumor metabolism and histone remodeling...
March 24, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Vineetha Mandlik, Ritika Kabra, Shailza Singh
The new era in systems pharmacology has revolutionized the human biology. Its applicability, precise treatment, adequate response and safety measures fit into all the paradigm of medical/clinical practice. The importance of mathematical models in understanding the disease pathology and epideomology is now being realized. The advent of high-throughput technologies and the emergence of systems biology have resulted in the creation of systems pharmacogenomics and the focus is now on personalized medicine. However, there are some regulatory issues that need to be addresssed; are we ready for this universal adoption? This article details some of the infectious disease pharmacogenomics to the developments in this area...
March 21, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Vaibhav Shukla, Vinay Koshy Varghese, Shama Prasada Kabekkodu, Sandeep Mallya, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs that regulate the gene expression posttranscriptionally in sequence-specific manner, there has been a release of number of tools useful for both basic and advanced applications. This is because of the significance of miRNAs in many pathophysiological conditions including cancer. Numerous bioinformatics tools that have been developed for miRNA analysis have their utility for detection, expression, function, target prediction and many other related features...
February 25, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Georgi K Marinov
Throughout the past nearly a decade, the application of high-throughput sequencing to RNA molecules in the form of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and its many variations has revolutionized transcriptomic studies by enabling researchers to take a simultaneously deep and truly global look into the transcriptome. However, there is still considerable scope for improvement on RNA-seq data in its current form, primarily because of the short-read nature of the dominant sequencing technologies, which prevents the completely reliable reconstruction and quantification of full-length transcripts, and the sequencing library building protocols used, which introduce various distortions in the final data sets...
February 17, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Mazahar Moin, Achala Bakshi, Anusree Saha, Mouboni Dutta, P B Kirti
The epitome of any genome research is to identify all the existing genes in a genome and investigate their roles. Various techniques have been applied to unveil the functions either by silencing or over-expressing the genes by targeted expression or random mutagenesis. Rice is the most appropriate model crop for generating a mutant resource for functional genomic studies because of the availability of high-quality genome sequence and relatively smaller genome size. Rice has syntenic relationships with members of other cereals...
January 30, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Swadha Singh, Raghvendra Singh
Riboswitches, the small structured RNA elements, were discovered about a decade ago. It has been the subject of intense interest to identify riboswitches, understand their mechanisms of action and use them in genetic engineering. The accumulation of genome and transcriptome sequence data and comparative genomics provide unprecedented opportunities to identify riboswitches in the genome. In the present study, we have evaluated the following six machine learning algorithms for their efficiency to classify riboswitches: J48, BayesNet, Naïve Bayes, Multilayer Perceptron, sequential minimal optimization, hidden Markov model (HMM)...
March 1, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Yong Huang, Dong-Hong Chen, Bo-Yu Liu, Wen-Hui Shen, Ying Ruan
The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic regulators of gene expression in animals and plants. They act in multiprotein complexes, of which the best characterized is the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which catalyses the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at chromatin targets. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PRC2 proteins are involved in the regulation of diverse developmental processes, including cell fate determination, vegetative growth and development, flowering time control and embryogenesis...
March 1, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Zeyad Abd Algfoor, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Afnizanfaizal Abdullah, Hoshang Kolivand
Metabolic pathways have become increasingly available for various microorganisms. Such pathways have spurred the development of a wide array of computational tools, in particular, mathematical pathfinding approaches. This article can facilitate the understanding of computational analysis of metabolic pathways in genomics. Moreover, stoichiometric and pathfinding approaches in metabolic pathway analysis are discussed. Three major types of studies are elaborated: stoichiometric identification models, pathway-based graph analysis and pathfinding approaches in cellular metabolism...
March 1, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Zhuoyuan Xin, Qin Ma, Shuangchun Ren, Guoqing Wang, Fan Li
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large type of noncoding RNAs characterized by their circular shape resulting from covalently closed continuous loops. They are known to regulate gene expression in mammals. These tissue-specific transcripts are largely generated from exonic or intronic sequences of their host genes. Although several models of circRNA biogenesis have been proposed, the understanding of their origin is far from complete. Unlike other noncoding RNAs, circRNAs are widely expressed, highly conserved and stable in cytoplasm, which confer special functionalities to them...
March 1, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Jana Schleicher, Theresia Conrad, Mika Gustafsson, Gunnar Cedersund, Reinhard Guthke, Jörg Linde
Recent and rapidly evolving progress on high-throughput measurement techniques and computational performance has led to the emergence of new disciplines, such as systems medicine and translational systems biology. At the core of these disciplines lies the desire to produce multiscale models: mathematical models that integrate multiple scales of biological organization, ranging from molecular, cellular and tissue models to organ, whole-organism and population scale models. Using such models, hypotheses can systematically be tested...
March 1, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Fredrick M Mobegi, Aldert Zomer, Marien I de Jonge, Sacha A F T van Hijum
The minimal subset of genes required for cellular growth, survival and viability of an organism are classified as essential genes. Knowledge of essential genes gives insight into the core structure and functioning of a cell. This might lead to more efficient antimicrobial drug discovery, to elucidation of the correlations between genotype and phenotype, and a better understanding of the minimal requirements for a (synthetic) cell. Traditionally, constructing a catalog of essential genes for a given microbe involved costly and time-consuming laboratory experiments...
March 1, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Claire E Duff, Matthew J Simmonds
Kidney and pancreas transplantation have helped transform the lives of people with end-stage renal failure and individuals with type 1 diabetes who have poor glycaemic control/severe secondary complications, respectively. Despite an improvement in immunosuppressive regimes, operative techniques and decreased initial rejection rates, there has been little improvement in long-term graft survival rates over the past decade. Whilst limited progress has been made in establishing clinical markers of graft function, several genetic markers of long-term graft function have been identified...
January 20, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Vivek Dhar Dwivedi, Indra Prasad Tripathi, Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, Shiv Bharadwaj, Sarad Kumar Mishra
The genome of a pathogenic organism possesses a specific order of nucleotides that contains not only information about the synthesis and expression of proteomes, which are required for its growth and survival, but also about its evolution. Inhibition of any particular protein, which is required for the survival of that pathogenic organism, can be used as a potential therapeutic target for the development of effective drugs to treat its infections. In this review, the genomics, proteomics and evolution of dengue virus have been discussed, which will be helpful in better understanding of its origin, growth, survival and evolution, and may contribute toward development of new efficient anti-dengue drugs...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Ylenia D'Agostino, Salvatore D'Aniello
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a recently discovered tool for genome editing that has quickly revolutionized the ability to generate site-specific mutations in a wide range of animal models, including nonhuman primates. Indeed, a significant number of scientific reports describing single or multiplex guide RNA microinjection, double-nicking strategies, site-specific knock-in and conditional knock-out have been published in less than three years. However, despite the great potential of this new technology, there are some limitations because of the presence of off-target genomic sites, which must be taken into consideration...
January 5, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Xiao-Jie Lu, Hong-Mei Sun, Yong Xu, Xi Yu, Biao Gu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Taeyoung Koo, Jin-Soo Kim
The rapid development of programmable nuclease-based genome editing technologies has enabled targeted gene disruption and correction both in vitro and in vivo This revolution opens up the possibility of precise genome editing at target genomic sites to modulate gene function in animals and plants. Among several programmable nucleases, the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system has progressed remarkably in recent years, leading to its widespread use in research, medicine and biotechnology...
January 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Tomoko Kato, Shuji Takada
In the past few years, extensive progress has been made in the development of genome-editing technology. Among several genome-editing tools, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeat-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system is particularly widely used owing to the ease of sequence-specific nuclease construction and the highly efficient introduction of mutations. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was originally constructed to induce small insertion and deletion mutations, but various methods have been developed to introduce point mutations, deletions, insertions, chromosomal translocations and so on...
January 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Raul Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodriguez-Perales
Genome engineering is a powerful tool for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and medicine. The development of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system has revolutionized the field of gene editing, thus facilitating efficient genome editing through the creation of targeted double-strand breaks of almost any organism and cell type. In addition, CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been used successfully for many other purposes, including regulation of endogenous gene expression, epigenome editing, live-cell labelling of chromosomal loci, edition of single-stranded RNA and high-throughput gene screening...
January 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Xiaolong Qi, Jiwei Zhang, Yongzhao Zhao, Tao Chen, Yi Xiang, Jialiang Hui, Danxian Cai, Yanna Liu, Lei Xia, Tao Yu, Guoxin Li
CRISPR technology has rapidly changed the face of biological research, such that precise genome editing has now become routine for many labs within several years of its initial development. CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspace Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) gene editing system is a powerful and groundbreaking programmable genome editing technology developed based on an adaptive bacterial and archaea immune system resisting the invasion of exogenous nucleic acid. Compared with traditional genome editing technology, CRISPR/Cas9 system is easier, efficient and less cytotoxic...
January 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
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