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Briefings in Functional Genomics

Vivek Dhar Dwivedi, Indra Prasad Tripathi, Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, Shiv Bharadwaj, Sarad Kumar Mishra
The genome of a pathogenic organism possesses a specific order of nucleotides that contains not only information about the synthesis and expression of proteomes, which are required for its growth and survival, but also about its evolution. Inhibition of any particular protein, which is required for the survival of that pathogenic organism, can be used as a potential therapeutic target for the development of effective drugs to treat its infections. In this review, the genomics, proteomics and evolution of dengue virus have been discussed, which will be helpful in better understanding of its origin, growth, survival and evolution, and may contribute toward development of new efficient anti-dengue drugs...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Ylenia D'Agostino, Salvatore D'Aniello
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a recently discovered tool for genome editing that has quickly revolutionized the ability to generate site-specific mutations in a wide range of animal models, including nonhuman primates. Indeed, a significant number of scientific reports describing single or multiplex guide RNA microinjection, double-nicking strategies, site-specific knock-in and conditional knock-out have been published in less than three years. However, despite the great potential of this new technology, there are some limitations because of the presence of off-target genomic sites, which must be taken into consideration...
January 5, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Fernando de Castro, Ruth Seal, Roberto Maggi
It is accepted that confusion regarding the description of genetic variants occurs when researchers do not use standard nomenclature. The Human Genome Organization Gene Nomenclature Committee contacted a panel of consultants, all working on the KAL1 gene, to propose an update of the nomenclature of the gene, as there was a convention in the literature of using the 'KAL1' symbol, when referring to the gene, but using the name 'anosmin-1' when referring to the protein. The new name, ANOS1, reflects protein name and is more transferrable across species...
November 29, 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Hongbo Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Hongbo Liu, Song Li, Xinyu Wang, Jiang Zhu, Yanjun Wei, Yihan Wang, Yanhua Wen, Libo Wang, Yan Huang, Bin Zhang, Shipeng Shang, Yan Zhang
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of cytosines that undergoes dynamic changes in a temporal, spatial and cell-type-specific manner. Recent advances in technology have permitted the profiling of high-throughput methylomes in large numbers of biological samples. Various computational tools have been developed to identify and analyze DNA methylation dynamics in a variety of critical biological processes. As DNA methylation is becoming increasingly viewed as a dynamic process, the mechanisms governing DNA methylation dynamics and its roles in the transcriptional regulatory network are of great interest...
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Mònica Suelves, Elvira Carrió, Yaiza Núñez-Álvarez, Miguel A Peinado
DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification for mammalian development and is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of cellular identity. Traditionally, DNA methylation has been considered as a permanent repressive epigenetic mark. However, the application of genome-wide approaches has allowed the analysis of DNA methylation in different genomic contexts, revealing a more dynamic regulation than originally thought, as active DNA methylation and demethylation occur during cell fate commitment and terminal differentiation...
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Dao-Peng Chen, Ying-Chao Lin, Cathy S J Fann
DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms, and participates in the pathogenic processes of many diseases. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the genome have been reported and implicated in a number of different diseases, tissues and cell types, and are associated with gene expression levels. Therefore, identification of DMRs is one of the most critical and fundamental issues in dissecting the disease etiologies. Based on bisulfite conversion, advances in sequence- and array-based technologies have helped investigators study genome-wide DNA methylation...
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Floriana Della Ragione, Marcella Vacca, Salvatore Fioriniello, Giuseppe Pepe, Maurizio D'Esposito
It has been a long trip from 1992, the year of the discovery of MECP2, to the present day. What is surprising is that some of the pivotal roles of MeCP2 were already postulated at that time, such as repression of inappropriate expression from repetitive elements and the regulation of pericentric heterochromatin condensation. However, MeCP2 performs many more functions. MeCP2 is a reader of epigenetic information contained in methylated (and hydroxymethylated) DNA, moving from the 'classical' CpG doublet to the more complex view addressed by the non-CpG methylation, which is a feature of the postnatal brain...
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Veronique G LeBlanc, Marco A Marra
Adult diffuse gliomas account for the majority of primary malignant brain tumours, and are in most cases lethal. Current therapies are often only marginally effective, and improved options will almost certainly benefit from further insight into the various processes contributing to gliomagenesis and pathology. While molecular characterization of these tumours classifies them on the basis of genetic alterations and chromosomal abnormalities, DNA methylation patterns are increasingly understood to play a role in glioma pathogenesis...
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Fayou Wang, Naiqian Zhang, Jun Wang, Hao Wu, Xiaoqi Zheng
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA molecule that plays a vital role in gene expression regulation. It is not only involved in many basic biological processes, but also considered an important factor for tumorigenesis and other human diseases. Study of DNA methylation has been an active field in cancer epigenomics research. With the advances of high-throughput technologies and the accumulation of enormous amount of data, method development for analyzing these data has gained tremendous interests in the fields of computational biology and bioinformatics...
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Liyuan Han, Yanfen Liu, Shiwei Duan, Benjamin Perry, Wen Li, Yonghan He
Hypertension is a multifactorial disease influenced by an interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The exact molecular mechanism of hypertension remains unknown. Aberrant DNA methylation is the most well-defined epigenetic modification that regulates gene transcription. However, studies on the association between DNA methylation and hypertension are still in their infancy. This review summarizes the latest evidence and challenges regarding the role of DNA methylation on hypertension.
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Xiaofei Yang, Xiaojian Shao, Lin Gao, Shihua Zhang
DNA methylation has been proved to play important roles in cell development and complex diseases through comparative studies of DNA methylation profiles across different tissues and samples. Current studies indicate that the regulation of DNA methylation to gene expression depends on the genomic locations of CpGs. Common DNA methylation patterns shared across different cell types and tissues are abundant, and they are likely involved in the basic functions of cell development, such as housekeeping functions...
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Shicai Fan, Wenming Chi
Aberrant DNA methylation is considered to be one of the most common hallmarks of cancer. Several recent advances in assessing the DNA methylome provide great promise for deciphering the cancer-specific DNA methylation patterns. Herein, we present the current key technologies used to detect high-throughput genome-wide DNA methylation, and the available cancer-associated methylation databases. Additionally, we focus on the computational methods for preprocessing, analyzing and interpreting the cancer methylome data...
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Fu-Hui Xiao, Qing-Peng Kong, Benjamin Perry, Yong-Han He
Aging is a major risk factor for individuals' health problems. Moreover, environmental signals have a widespread influence on the aging process. Epigenetic modification, e.g. DNA methylation, represents a link between genetic and environmental signals via the regulation of gene transcription. An abundance of literature indicates that aberrant epigenetic change occurs throughout the aging process at both the cellular and the organismal level. In particular, DNA methylation presents globally decreasing and site-specific increasing in aging...
November 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Quanhu Sheng, Kasey Vickers, Shilin Zhao, Jing Wang, David C Samuels, Olivia Koues, Yu Shyr, Yan Guo
Quality control (QC) is a critical step in RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Yet, it is often ignored or conducted on a limited basis. Here, we present a multi-perspective strategy for QC of RNA-seq experiments. The QC of RNA-seq can be divided into four related stages: (1) RNA quality, (2) raw read data (FASTQ), (3) alignment and (4) gene expression. We illustrate the importance of conducting QC at each stage of an RNA-seq experiment and demonstrate our recommended RNA-seq QC strategy. Furthermore, we discuss the major and often neglected quality issues associated with the three major types of RNA-seq: mRNA, total RNA and small RNA...
September 29, 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Syed Shujaat Ali Zaidi, Xuegong Zhang
Microbial diversity in unique environmental settings enables abrupt responses catalysed by altering the gene regulation and formation of gene clusters called operons. Operons increases bacterial adaptability, which in turn increases their survival. This review article presents the emergence of computational operon prediction methods for whole microbial genomes and metagenomes, and discusses their strengths and limitations. Most of the whole-genome operon prediction methods struggle to generalize on unrelated genomes...
September 22, 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Marjorie F Oleksiak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Chiara Papetti, Magnus Lucassen, Hans-Otto Pörtner
Transcriptomic methods are now widely used in functional genomic research. The vast amount of information received from these studies comes along with the challenge of developing a precise picture of the functional consequences and the characteristic regulatory mechanisms. Here we assess recent studies in marine species and their adaptation to polar (and seasonal) cold and explore how they have been able to draw reliable conclusions from transcriptomic patterns on functional consequences in the organisms. Our analysis indicates that the interpretation of transcriptomic data suffers from insufficient understanding of the consequences for whole organism performance and fitness and comes with the risk of supporting only preliminary and superficial statements...
September 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Douglas L Crawford, Marjorie F Oleksiak
Marine species live in a wide diversity of environments and yet, because of their pelagic life stages, are thought to be well-connected: they have high migration rates that inhibit significant population structure. Recent innovations in sequencing technologies now provide information on nucleotide polymorphisms at thousands to tens of thousands of loci based on whole genomes, reduced representative portions of genomes (0.1-1%) or a majority of expressed mRNAs. Data from these genomic approaches are used to define and quantify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
September 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Fausto Valenzuela-Quiñonez
Fisheries genomics is an emerging field that advocates the application of genomic tools to address questions in fisheries management. Genomic approaches bring a new paradigm for fisheries management by making it possible to integrate adaptive diversity to understand fundamental aspects of fisheries resources. Hence, this review is focused on the relevance of genomic approaches to solve fisheries-specific questions. Particularly the detection of adaptive diversity (outlier loci) provides unprecedented opportunity to understand bio-complexity, increased power to trace processed sample origin to allow enforcement and the potential to understand the genetic basis of micro-evolutionary effects of fisheries-induced evolution and climate change...
September 2016: Briefings in Functional Genomics
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