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Cellular Reprogramming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277752/regulation-of-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-differentiation-by-micrornas
#1
Xi Ran, Chun-Hong Xiao, Gui-Ming Xiang, Xin-Ze Ran
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They play an important role in various cellular processes such as apoptosis, differentiation, secretion, and proliferation. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of the embryo. miRNAs are critical factors for the self-renewal and differentiation of ESCs. In this review, we will focus on the role of miRNAs in the self-renewal and directional differentiation of ESCs. We will present the current knowledge on key points related to miRNA biogenesis and their function in ESCs...
March 9, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266869/pig-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-rosettes-parallel-human-differentiation-into-sensory-neural-subtypes
#2
Robin L Webb, Amalia Gallegos-Cárdenas, Colette N Miller, Nicholas J Solomotis, Hong-Xiang Liu, Franklin D West, Steven L Stice
The pig is the large animal model of choice for study of nerve regeneration and wound repair. Availability of porcine sensory neural cells would conceptually allow for analogous cell-based peripheral nerve regeneration in porcine injuries of similar severity and size to those found in humans. After recently reporting that porcine (or pig) induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) differentiate into neural rosette (NR) structures similar to human NRs, here we demonstrate that pig NR cells could differentiate into neural crest cells and other peripheral nervous system-relevant cell types...
March 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266868/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activity-is-not-essential-for-the-first-step-of-nuclear-reprogramming-in-bovine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#3
Tetsuya Tani, Yoko Kato
For reprogramming a somatic nucleus during mammalian cloning, metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII) oocytes has been widely used as recipient cytoplasm. High activity of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is believed to accelerate the remodeling and/or reprogramming of a somatic nucleus introduced into the ooplasm by somatic cell nuclear transfer. We demonstrated previously that the first step in nuclear reprogramming is not directly regulated by MPF and MAPK because activated oocytes in which MPF activity is diminished and MAPK activity is maintained can develop to the blastocyst stage after receiving an M phase somatic nucleus in bovine cloning...
March 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266867/an-overview-on-current-issues-and-challenges-of-endothelial-progenitor-cell-based-neovascularization-in-patients-with-diabetic-foot-ulcer
#4
Sushant Kumar Das, Yi Feng Yuan, Mao Quan Li
Diabetic foot ulcer's impaired wound healing, which leads to the development of chronic non-healing wounds and ultimately amputation, is a major problem worldwide. Although recently endothelial progenitor cell-derived cell therapy has been used as a therapeutic intervention to treat diabetic wounds, thereby promoting neovascularization, the results, however, are not satisfactory. In this article, we have discussed the several steps that are involved in the neovascularization process, which might be impaired during diabetes...
March 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266864/recent-advances-in-therapeutic-applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Farzaneh Rami, Shamsi Naderi Beni, Mahboobeh Mojaver Kahnamooi, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Ahmad Reza Salehi, Rasoul Salehi
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells. These cells are identical to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in gene expression pattern and the ability to differentiate. iPS cells can be used in in vitro modeling of diseases, testing drugs, assessing gene therapy methods, and cell therapy. Yet, the most important and promising application of iPS cells is in regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine is a novel area in medicine aiming at the treatment of impaired or lost tissues by replacing them with functional and healthy ones...
March 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253448/abortive-spontaneous-egg-activation-an-emerging-biological-threat-for-the-existence-of-mammals
#6
Shilpa Prasad, Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Mammals are important for balancing the natural ecosystem, but in the past few decades, several species have rapidly been entered under threatened category worldwide. The environmental changes, loss of natural habitats, human activities, and thereby stress are responsible for a gradual decline in reproductive outcome. Stress induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). High physiological level of ROS drives abortive spontaneous egg activation (SEA), while beyond the physiological level causes oxidative stress (OS)...
March 2, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170296/muse-cells-derived-from-dermal-tissues-can-differentiate-into-melanocytes
#7
Ting Tian, Ru-Zhi Zhang, Yu-Hua Yang, Qi Liu, Di Li, Xiao-Ru Pan
The objective of the authors has been to obtain multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring cells (Muse cells) from primary cultures of dermal fibroblasts, identify their pluripotency, and detect their ability to differentiate into melanocytes. The distribution of SSEA-3-positive cells in human scalp skin was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the distribution of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and SSEA-3-positive cells was determined by immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of Sox2, Oct4, hKlf4, and Nanog mRNAs and proteins in Muse cells were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses and Western blots, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170287/intermediate-reprogramming-of-mouse-skin-fibroblasts-into-stem-like-cells-by-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4
#8
Seung-Eun Lee, Sang-Jun Uhm, Yeo-Jin Son, Yun-Gwi Park, Eun-Young Kim, Se-Pill Park
Specific transcription factors are sufficient to reprogram fully induced pluripotent stem cells or other types of cells. These findings raise the question of whether chemical molecules or proteins can replace transcription factors to alter the defined cell fate. In this study, we treated mouse skin fibroblasts (MSFs) with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and examined intermediate reprogramming of MSFs into stem-like cells. Putative epidermal stem cells isolated from the ventral skin epidermis of an adult mouse were used to confirm the reprogramming activity of BMP4, which increased the proliferation of these cells...
February 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170286/effects-of-alcohol-on-mitochondrial-functions-of-cumulus-cells-in-mice
#9
Wanlu Xu, Lihui Huo, Jingjing Li, Chunli Xu, Shuang Wang, Yanhong Yang, Chuang Liu, Xiaomin Zheng, Xiuliang Feng, Xingrong Yan
Alcohol is an important compound used in food, agriculture, and medicine. In this study, we investigated the effect of alcohol on oocyte quality in mice by exposing animals for different duration times during an estrous cycle. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from mice after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin- and human chorionic gonadotropin-induced superovulation. Ovulation number, E2 level in serum, and parthenogenetic embryo development in vitro were evaluated. Mitochondrial gene expression, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the cumulus were also assessed...
February 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112985/comparison-of-human-amniotic-chorionic-and-umbilical-cord-multipotent-mesenchymal-stem-cells-regarding-their-capacity-for-differentiation-toward-female-germ-cells
#10
Hamid Reza Asgari, Mohammad Akbari, Hossein Yazdekhasti, Zahra Rajabi, Shadan Navid, Fereshte Aliakbari, Niloufar Abbasi, Freidon Sargolzaei Aval, Alireza Shams, Mehdi Abbasi
Placenta harbors a plentiful source of various cells with stem cells or stem-like cell properties, which can be used in therapeutic procedures and research. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted much attention due to their specific differentiation potential and tolerogenic properties. MSCs have been isolated from different parts of placenta; however, in this study, we isolated MSCs from amnion and chorion membrane, as well as umbilical cord (Wharton's jelly [WJ]) and compared their capacity regarding differentiation toward female germ cells under influence of 10 ng/mL BMP4...
February 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112984/effects-of-trichostatin-a-and-pxd101-on-the-in-vitro-development-of-mouse-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#11
Xiaoyan Qiu, Haihong You, Xiong Xiao, Nan Li, Yuemin Li
The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with aberrant epigenetic nuclear reprogramming. It has been demonstrated that treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) enhances developmental potential of SCNT embryos. Previous studies in many species revealed that treatment of SCNT embryos with trichostatin A (TSA)-an HDACi-significantly enhances the in vitro development of SCNT embryos. In this study, we compared two different SCNT protocols with TSA and investigate, for the first time, the effect of another new HDACi, PXD101 (belinostat), on in vitro development of mouse SCNT embryo...
February 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055238/valproic-acid-increases-histone-acetylation-and-alters-gene-expression-in-the-donor-cells-but-does-not-improve-the-in-vitro-developmental-competence-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-embryos-produced-by-hand-made-cloning
#12
Naresh L Selokar, Monika Saini, Himanshu Agrawal, Prabhat Palta, Manmohan Singh Chauhan, Radheysham Manik, Suresh Kumar Singla
Use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) is believed to improve the developmental competence and quality of cloned embryos produced. We examined the effects of treatment of buffalo fibroblasts with valproic acid (VPA), a HDACi on these cells and on embryos produced from them by hand-made cloning. VPA treatment (1.5, 3.0, or 4.5 mM) altered (p < 0.05) the growth characteristics and relative expression level of HDAC1, DNMT1, DNMT3a, P53, and CASPASE3, and the global level of H3K9/14ac, H4K5ac, and H3K18ac but not H3K27me3 in the cells...
February 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055237/enrichment-propagation-and-characterization-of-mouse-testis-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#13
Mai Ahmed, Myret Ghabriel, Asma Amleh
The therapeutic potential of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) largely depends on the isolation and expansion methods used. In this study, we propose a laminin-based technique to select and enrich for MSCs isolated from the mouse testis. Primary cell cultures were prepared from juvenile mouse testes and the capacity to generate colony forming units together with population doubling time (PDT) during expansion were determined. The identity of MSCs was assayed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry for the active expression of cell surface markers, such as CD44, CD73, and CD29; absence of the CD45 hematopoietic cell marker; and in vitro differentiation of the cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes...
February 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055234/scriptaid-upregulates-expression-of-development-related-genes-inhibits-apoptosis-and-improves-the-development-of-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-mini-pig-embryos
#14
Li Zhang, Yuemeng Huang, Yanjun Wu, Jinglei Si, Yanna Huang, Qinyang Jiang, Ganqiu Lan, Yafen Guo, Hesheng Jiang
The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms by which Scriptaid treatment improves the developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) mini-pig embryos in vitro. We found that treatment with 500 nmol/L Scriptaid for 15 hours significantly improved the development of mini-pig SCNT embryos. Compared with the control group, the blastocyst rate was higher (18.3% vs. 10.7%; p < 0.05). The acetylation level on H3K14 of the Scriptaid-treated group was higher compared with the control group in SCNT embryos at two-cell, four-cell, and blastocyst stages (p < 0...
February 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055225/overexpression-of-prox1-induces-the-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-into-lymphatic-endothelial-like-cells-in-vitro
#15
Jingcheng Deng, Tingting Dai, Yiyu Sun, Qi Zhang, Zhaohua Jiang, Shengli Li, Weigang Cao
Constant levels of homeobox transcription factor Prox1 expression are required throughout the life of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) to maintain their differentiated identity. Recent studies have demonstrated that using human LECs for cell transplantation therapy may improve secondary lymphedema in a nude rat model. However, the application is currently limited by the low yield of LECs. In this study, Prox1 was overexpressed in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by using the transfection of lentiviral vectors to induce the differentiation of hADSCs to LECs...
February 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898217/increased-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-expression-associates-with-spontaneous-exit-from-m-ii-arrest-in-rat-eggs
#16
Shilpa Prasad, Shail K Chaube
In mammals, postovulatory egg aging deteriorates egg quality possibly by mediating spontaneous exit from metaphase-II (M-II) arrest and/or inducing apoptosis. To test this possibility, present study was designed to investigate telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression, Bcl2 expression, and DNA fragmentation during postovulatory egg aging in vivo, as well as in vitro. Results suggest that postovulatory egg aging induced a time-dependent increase in the number of eggs undergoing spontaneous exit from M-II arrest in vivo, as well as in vitro...
February 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906587/differentiation-of-mouse-ovarian-stem-cells-toward-oocyte-like-structure-by-coculture-with-granulosa-cells
#17
Soraya Parvari, Hossein Yazdekhasti, Zahra Rajabi, Valliollah Gerayeli Malek, Tayebeh Rastegar, Mehdi Abbasi
An increasing body of evidence has confirmed existence and function of ovarian stem cells (OSCs). In this study, a novel approach on differentiation of OSCs into oocyte-like cells (OLCs) has been addressed. Recently, different methods have been recruited to isolate and describe aspects of OSCs, but newer and more convenient strategies in isolation are still growing. Herein, a morphology-based method was used to isolate OSCs. Cell suspension of mouse neonatal ovaries was cultured and formed colonies were harvested mechanically and cultivated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906586/neural-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-scaffolds-for-nerve-tissue-engineering-applications
#18
Kerlin Quintiliano, Thayane Crestani, Davi Silveira, Virginia Etges Helfer, Annelise Rosa, Eduardo Balbueno, Daniela Steffens, Geraldo Pereira Jotz, Diogo André Pilger, Patricia Pranke
Scaffolds produced by electrospinning act as supports for cell proliferation and differentiation, improved through the release of neurotrophic factors. The objective of this study was to develop aligned and random nanofiber scaffolds with and without nerve growth factor to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for neural differentiation. Nanofiber morphology, diameter, degradability, cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, viability, cytotoxicity, and neural differentiation were performed to characterize the scaffolds...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906585/birth-of-cloned-microminipigs-derived-from-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-that-have-been-transiently-treated-with-valproic-acid
#19
Kazuchika Miyoshi, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Kosuke Maeda, Masahiro Sato, Kohei Akioka, Michiko Noguchi, Masahisa Horiuchi, Akihide Tanimoto
In our previous study, we found that treatment of miniature pig somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with 4 mM valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for 48 hours after activation enhanced blastocyst formation rate and octamer-binding transcription factor-3/4 (Oct-3/4) gene expression at the late blastocyst stage; however, the production of viable cloned pups failed, when those VPA-treated SCNT embryos were transferred to recipients. This failure suggests that the present VPA treatment is suboptimal...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906584/effects-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-beta-signaling-pathway-on-the-differentiation-of-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-into-male-germ-cells
#20
Yani Zhang, Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Dong Li, Wenhui Zhang, Chao Lian, Beibei Tang, Tianrong Xiao, Man Wang, Kehua Wang, Bichun Li
The objectives of the present study were to screen for key gene and signaling pathways involved in the production of male germ cells in poultry and to investigate the effects of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway on the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into male germ cells. The ESCs, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were sorted using flow cytometry for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. Male chicken ESCs were induced using 40 ng/mL of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
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