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Cellular Reprogramming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135280/factors-affecting-mouse-somatic-cell-nuclear-reprogramming-by-rabbit-ooplasms
#1
Xia Huang, Lili Song, Zhiyan Zhan, Haihui Gu, Haizhong Feng, Yanxin Li
Successful development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos depends on compatibilities between ooplasmic and nuclear components. However, the mechanisms by which the compatibilities are regulated are still unknown. In this study, using mouse Oct4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells as donors and rabbit oocytes as recipients, we show that Oct4 and other pluripotency related genes were reactivated in some of mouse-rabbit iSCNT embryos, which could also activate Oct4 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene expression...
November 14, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090966/effects-of-embryo-aggregation-and-pxd101-on-the-in-vitro-development-of-mouse-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#2
Xiaoyan Qiu, Nan Li, Xiong Xiao, Liang Zhang, Haihong You, Yuemin Li
To improve the cloning efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and to establish nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (NT-ESCs) reliably, it is necessary to produce high-quality blastocysts derived from mice SCNT embryos. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate an optimal method for mouse SCNT embryo production and NT-ESCs derivation by comparing the effects of two methods: the treatment of histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 after SCNT, embryo aggregation and their combination treatment...
November 1, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058487/lc3-dependent-autophagy-in-pig-2-cell-cloned-embryos-could-influence-the-degradation-of-maternal-mrna-and-the-regulation-of-epigenetic-modification
#3
Daming Chi, Yaqiong Zeng, Mingzhu Xu, Linan Si, Xiao Qu, Honglin Liu, Juan Li
In this study, the distribution as well as the effect of autophagy on reprogramming in pig cloned embryos were observed immediately after somatic cell nuclear transfer. Results showed that the LC3 was at the highest level in cloned embryos at 2-cell stage, and it decreased with the development from 2-cell stage to blastocyst. Different to cloned embryos, the intensity of LC3 in parthenogenetic activation (PA) embryos was at the highest level at 4-cell stage. A markedly higher level of Bmp15, H1foo, and Dppa3 was shown in cloned embryos at 2-cell stage (p < 0...
October 23, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058474/prolonged-expansion-induces-spontaneous-neural-progenitor-differentiation-from-human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from dental tissues received considerable interest in regenerative medicine, particularly in nerve regeneration owing to their embryonic origin and ease of harvest. Proliferation efficacy and differentiation capacity into diverse cell lineages propose dental MSCs as an in vitro tool for disease modeling. In this study, we investigated the spontaneous differentiation efficiency of dental MSCs obtained from human gingiva tissue (hGMSCs) into neural progenitor cells after extended passaging...
October 23, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035086/notch-signaling-is-essential-for-maturation-self-renewal-and-tri-differentiation-of-in-vitro-derived-human-neural-stem-cells
#5
Katari Venkatesh, L Vinod Kumar Reddy, Salar Abbas, Madhubanti Mullick, Erfath Thanjeem Begum Moghal, Janardhana Papayya Balakrishna, Dwaipayan Sen
Although neural stem cells (NSCs) have potential applications in treating neurological disorders, much still needs to be understood about the differentiation biology for their successful clinical translation. In this study, we aimed at deriving NSCs from human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) and explored the role of Notch signaling in the differentiation process. The hUCB-MSCs were characterized as per guidelines of the International Society of Cellular Therapy. NSCs were successfully generated from hUCB-MSCs by using epidermal and fibroblast growth factors under serum-free conditions...
October 16, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019700/taillessness-in-a-cloned-cow-is-not-genetically-transmitted
#6
Stefan Wagner, Alison Cullum, David N Wells, Götz Laible
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), commonly referred to as cloning, results in the generation of offspring that, except for mitochondrial DNA, are genetically identical to the nuclear donor. We previously used a genetically modified bovine cell line as the donor for SCNT and obtained a calf, named Daisy, that was born without a tail. To determine whether the missing tail was a result of the genetic modification, we performed recloning experiments by using either cells from a sacrificed pregnancy of a second clone (Daisy's "twin" clone) or cells from tailless Daisy as donors for SCNT...
October 11, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910138/hsp90-inhibition-and-cellular-stress-elicits-phenotypic-plasticity-in-hematopoietic-differentiation
#7
Abdalla A Lawag, Jennifer M Napper, Caroline A Hunter, Nickolas A Bacon, Seth Deskins, Manaf El-Hamdani, Sarah-Leigh Govender, Emine C Koc, Vincent E Sollars
Cancer cells exist in a state of Darwinian selection using mechanisms that produce changes in gene expression through genetic and epigenetic alteration to facilitate their survival. Cellular plasticity, or the ability to alter cellular phenotype, can assist in survival of premalignant cells as they progress to full malignancy by providing another mechanism of adaptation. The connection between cellular stress and the progression of cancer has been established, although the details of the mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated...
October 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910136/nrp1-accelerates-odontoblast-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-through-classical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#8
Yihua Song, Xiaojuan Liu, Xingmei Feng, Zhifeng Gu, Yongchun Gu, Min Lian, Jingwen Xiao, Peipei Cao, Ke Zheng, Xiaobing Gu, Dongping Li, Ping He, Chenfei Wang
Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is one of the members of neuropilin family. It can combine with disparate ligands involved in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. The binding of NRP1 to Sema3A stimulates osteoblast differentiation through the classical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. However, the functions of NRP1 in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are not clear. The aim of our study was to investigate how NRP1 controlled odontoblast differentiation in DPSCs and clarified the underlying mechanisms. NRP1 expression was increased in time-dependent manner along with cell odontoblast differentiation...
October 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880575/from-stem-cell-research-to-three-dimensional-organoids-and-their-applications-in-cancer-research-meeting-report-on-the-9th-international-meeting-of-the-stem-cell-network-north-rhine-westphalia
#9
Samantha Langer, Peter A Horn, Stefan Heinrichs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880574/selection-of-suitable-internal-control-genes-for-accurate-normalization-of-real-time-quantitative-pcr-data-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-blastocysts-produced-by-scnt-and-ivf
#10
Tanushri Jerath Sood, Swati Viviyan Lagah, Ankita Sharma, Suresh Kumar Singla, Manishi Mukesh, Manmohan Singh Chauhan, Radheysham Manik, Prabhat Palta
We evaluated the suitability of 10 candidate internal control genes (ICGs), belonging to different functional classes, namely ACTB, EEF1A1, GAPDH, HPRT1, HMBS, RPS15, RPS18, RPS23, SDHA, and UBC for normalizing the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data of blastocyst-stage buffalo embryos produced by hand-made cloning and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Total RNA was isolated from three pools, each of cloned and IVF blastocysts (n = 50/pool) for cDNA synthesis. Two different statistical algorithms geNorm and NormFinder were used for evaluating the stability of these genes...
October 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846452/concise-review-lin28-let-7-signaling-a-critical-double-negative-feedback-loop-during-pluripotency-reprogramming-and-tumorigenicity
#11
Maryam Farzaneh, Farnoosh Attari, Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) with 20-30 nucleotides have recently emerged as the multidimensional regulators of cell fate decisions. Recent improvement in high-throughput sequencing has highlighted the potential role of LIN28/let-7 regulatory network in several developmental events. It was proposed that this pathway might represent a functional signature in cell proliferation, transition between commitment and pluripotency, and regulation of cancer and tumorigenicity. LIN28/let-7 regulatory pathway is one of the excellent examples of the relationship between an miRNA and mRNAs...
October 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832180/effect-of-pou5f1-expression-level-in-clonal-subpopulations-of-bovine-fibroblasts-used-as-nuclear-donors-for-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#12
André Luiz Sá, Rafael V Sampaio, Nathália Nogueira da Costa Almeida, Juliano Rodrigues Sangalli, Karynne Nazaré Lins Brito, Fabiana Fernandes Bressan, Joirge Dores Rissino, Simone do Socorro Damasceno Santos, Flavio Vieira Meirelles, Otávio Mitio Ohashi, Moysés Dos Santos Miranda
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) success is partially hindered by the low epigenetic reprogramming efficiency of the donor cell. Previous studies suggest cellular heterogeneity among donor nuclei in regard to reprogramming potential, which precludes comparison among different strategies to increase cloning success. In this context, we evaluated the effect of using clonal cell populations (CPs) of bovine adult fibroblasts established by single-cell plating in SCNT. Different CPs were evaluated in regard to proliferation rate, senescence level, and chromosome stability, as well as for POU5F1 (POU class 5 homeobox 1) mRNA expression levels...
October 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749737/improved-chondrogenic-potential-and-proteomic-phenotype-of-porcine-chondrocytes-grown-in-optimized-culture-conditions
#13
Sehwon Koh, Molly Purser, Richard Wysk, Jorge A Piedrahita
For successful cartilage tissue engineering, the ability to generate a high number of chondrocytes in vitro while avoiding terminal differentiation or de-differentiation is critical. The ability to accomplish this by using the abundant and easily sampled costal cartilage could provide a practical alternative to the use of articular cartilage and mesenchymal stem cells. Chondrocytes isolated from pig costal cartilage were expanded in either serum-free medium with FGF2 (SFM) or fetal bovine serum-containing medium (SCM), under either high (21%) or low (5%) oxygen conditions...
August 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682669/m-6-a-rna-modification-determines-cell-fate-by-regulating-mrna-degradation
#14
Minjun Guo, Xinhui Liu, Xiaotong Zheng, Yinghui Huang, Xuechai Chen
Emerging evidence suggests that epitranscriptional modifications influence multiple cellular processes. N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A), as the most abundant reversible methylation of mRNA, has also been reported to play critical roles in modulating embryonic stem cell differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming by regulating gene expression. This review examined the characteristics of m(6)A, including the distribution profile and currently discovered "writer," "eraser," and "reader" proteins. Moreover, the hypothesis is proposed that m(6)A could influence cell fate determination, and the underlying mechanisms are due to the related mRNA degradation, causing weakening of previous cell characteristics and eventually leading them to develop into the reverse direction (pluripotency or differentiation state)...
August 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682643/yy1-is-required-for-posttranscriptional-stability-of-sox2-and-oct4-proteins
#15
Mary C Wallingford, Jacob Hiller, Kun Zhang, Jesse Mager
Yinyang1 (YY1) participates in protein-DNA, protein-RNA, and protein-protein interactions and regulates developmental processes and disease mechanisms. YY1 interactions regulate a range of important biological functions, including oocyte maturation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. We tested the hypothesis that YY1 is required for inner cell mass (ICM) lineage commitment during preimplantation development. In this study, we document gene expression patterns and protein localization of key transcription factors in Yy1 global, tissue-specific, and dsRNA-mediated knockout/down embryos...
August 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650694/investigation-of-the-developmental-potential-and-developmental-kinetics-of-bovine-parthenogenetic-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-using-a-time-lapse-monitoring-system
#16
Min-Jee Park, Eun-Young Kim, Man-Jong Kang, Jun-Beom Lee, Chang-Jin Jeong, Se-Pill Park
A time-lapse monitoring system has predictive value for selecting good-quality embryos with the highest implantation potential. Using this new tool, we investigated the developmental potential and developmental kinetics of bovine parthenogenetic (PA) and two types of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Bovine non-transgenic ear cells (bECs) or transgenic cells (bTGCs) were used as donor cells. The cleavage and blastocyst development rates did not significantly differ among the PA, NT-bEC, and NT-bTGC groups, and first cleavage occurred an average of 19...
August 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632450/combinations-of-activin-a-or-nicotinamide-with-the-pancreatic-transcription-factor-pdx1-support-differentiation-of-human-amnion-epithelial-cells-toward-a-pancreatic-lineage
#17
Shruti Balaji, Yu Zhou, Emmanuel C Opara, Shay Soker
The differentiation of multipotent stem cells toward a pancreatic lineage provides us with an alternative cell-based therapeutic approach to type 1 diabetes and enables us to study pancreas development. The current study aims to study the effect of growth factors such as activin A or nicotinamide, alone and in combinations with the transcription factor, PDX1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1), on human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) toward a pancreatic lineage. Ectopic expression of Pdx1 followed by treatment of hAECs with nicotinamide for 4 days resulted in strong induction of pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic progenitor genes, including NKX6...
August 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632430/hematopoietic-developmental-potential-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-lines-is-accompanied-by-the-morphology-of-embryoid-bodies-and-the-expression-of-endodermal-and-hematopoietic-markers
#18
Lenka Tesarova, Pavel Simara, Stanislav Stejskal, Irena Koutna
The potential clinical applications of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are limited by the difficulty of recapitulating embryoid hematopoiesis and by the unknown differentiation potential of hPSC lines. To evaluate their hematopoietic developmental potential, available hPSC lines were differentiated by an embryoid body (EB) suspension culture in serum-free medium supplemented with three different cytokine mixes (CMs). The hPSC differentiation status was investigated by the flow cytometry expression profiles of cell surface molecules, and the gene expression of pluripotency and differentiation markers over time was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
August 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520465/mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-in-regenerative-medicine-past-present-and-future
#19
Ourania Trohatou, Maria G Roubelakis
The concept of Regenerative Medicine combined with Cell based Therapy and Tissue Engineering represents the fourth pillar of healthcare and provides a promising approach for the treatment of serious diseases. Recently, cell based therapies are focused on the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Human MSCs, that represent a mesoderm derived population of progenitors, are easily expanded in culture. They are capable to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes and exhibit the potential to repair or regenerate damaged tissues...
August 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557624/rna-guided-activation-of-pluripotency-genes-in-human-fibroblasts
#20
Kai Xiong, Yan Zhou, Kristian Aabo Blichfeld, Poul Hyttel, Lars Bolund, Kristine Karla Freude, Yonglun Luo
Specific activation of endogenous genes can be achieved by programmable artificial transcription factors (ATFs). In this study, we compared two artificial, programmable, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based, ubiquitous transcription factors: deficient CRISPR-associated protein 9 (dCas9)-VP64 (CRISPRa) alone, or a combination of dCas9-VP64 and MS2-P65-HSF1 [synergistic activation mediator (SAM) system] mediated activation of five pluripotency genes: KLF4 (K), LIN28 (L), MYC (M), OCT4 (O), and SOX2 (S) in human cells (HEK293T, HeLa, HepG2, and primary fibroblasts)...
June 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
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