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Cellular Reprogramming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30207795/generation-of-functional-myocytes-from-equine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Karin R Amilon, Yennifer Cortes-Araya, Benjamin Moore, Seungmee Lee, Simon Lillico, Amandine Breton, Cristina L Esteves, F Xavier Donadeu
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have revolutionized human biomedicine through their use in disease modeling and therapy. In comparison, little progress has been made toward the application of iPSCs in veterinary species. In that regard, skeletal myocytes from iPSCs would have great potential for understanding muscle function and disease in the equine athlete. In this study, we generated skeletal myotubes by transducing equine iPSC-derived mesenchymal derivatives with an inducible lentiviral vector coding for the human sequence of the myogenic factor, MyoD...
September 12, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204498/fgf2-signaling-plays-an-important-role-in-maintaining-pluripotent-state-of-pig-embryonic-germ-cells
#2
Kwang-Hwan Choi, Dong-Kyung Lee, Jong-Nam Oh, Hye-Young Son, Chang-Kyu Lee
Germ cells are alternative sources for deriving pluripotent stem cells. Because embryonic germ cells (EGCs) possess physiological and developmental features similar to those of embryonic stem cells, pig EGCs are considered a potential tool for generating transgenic animals for agricultural usage. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to establish and characterize pig EGCs from fetal gonads. EGC lines were derived from the genital ridges of porcine fetuses in media containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and stem cell factor...
September 11, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204478/a-rapid-and-highly-efficient-method-for-the-isolation-purification-and-passaging-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Xiugong Gao, Robert L Sprando, Jeffrey J Yourick
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold considerable promise for future biomedical applications. However, the generation, isolation, and establishment of an iPSC line still presents many challenges. In this study, we describe a simple yet highly efficient two-step method for the isolation, purification, and passaging of human iPSC lines that utilizes commercially available reagents. The first step adapts iPSCs to single cell culture and passage, promoting survival and self-renewal; the second step enables the isolation and purification of bona fide iPSCs from a mixed population using column-based positive selection of cells expressing pluripotency markers such as TRA-1-60...
September 11, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204474/umbilical-mononuclear-cells-and-fibroblast-interaction-downregulate-the-expression-of-cell-cycle-negative-control-genes
#4
Daniel Rodrigo Marinowic, Gabriele Zanirati, Pamella Nunes Azevedo, Eduardo Vieira De Souza, Fernanda Bruzzo, Samara Pedroso da Silva, Eliete Biasotto Heuser, Denise Cantarelli Machado, Jaderson Costa Da Costa
The human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is an excellent source of adult stem cells, having the benefit of being younger than the bone marrow stem cells. The role of stem cells in the lesion repair mechanism is still being studied. We evaluated the capability of HUCB to interfere into the fibroblast dedifferentiation plasticity through cocultivation. Direct and indirect cocultures were maintained for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Coculture viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The messenger RNA was extracted, and the expression of p16 and p21 genes was estimated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
September 11, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089028/porcine-fetal-derived-fibroblasts-alter-gene-expression-and-mitochondria-to-compensate-for-hypoxic-stress-during-culture
#5
Bethany R Mordhorst, Stephanie L Murphy, Martin Schauflinger, Shirley Rojas Salazar, Tieming Ji, Susanta K Behura, Kevin D Wells, Jonathan A Green, Randall S Prather
The Warburg effect is characterized by decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increased glycolytic flux in adequate oxygen. The preimplantation embryo has been described to have characteristics of the Warburg effect, including similar changes in gene expression and mitochondria, which are more rudimentary in appearance. We hypothesized hypoxia would facilitate anaerobic glycolysis in fibroblasts thereby promoting gene expression and media metabolite production reflecting the Warburg effect hallmarks in early embryos...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089027/wedelolactone-enhances-odontoblast-differentiation-by-promoting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-and-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#6
Chenfei Wang, Yihua Song, Zhifeng Gu, Min Lian, Dan Huang, Xiaohui Lu, Xingmei Feng, Qi Lu
Wedelolactone is a multitarget natural plant compound with many pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiosteoporosis. In this study, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were treated with or without wedelolactone. We found that wedelolactone stimulated odontoblast differentiation and mineralization. At the molecular level, wedelolactone directly promoted the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and thereafter stimulated the expression of odontoblast-related marker genes containing dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2)...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089026/evaluation-of-novel-mouse-specific-germ-cell-gene-expression-in-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-germ-cell-like-cells-in-vitro-with-retinoic-acid-treatment
#7
Maryam Gholamitabar Tabari, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Mohammad Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Ali Asghar Ahmadi, Mehdi Amirikia
We designed a study to induce differentiation of Oct4-GFP (expression of Green Fluorescent Protein of oct4) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by embryoid body (EB) culture system into germ cells (GCs) using retinoic acid (RA) and evaluated the expression level of (Fkbp6, Mov10l1, 4930432K21Rik, and Tex13) in differentiated cells. The expression levels of four GC-related genes, Oct4, Mvh, Scp3, and Stra8, was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR). Immunostaining and flow cytometry were used as additional tests to confirm q-RT-PCR findings...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989446/osthole-delays-tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-induced-premature-senescence-in-neural-stem-cells
#8
Yingjia Yao, Xicai Liang, Yue Shi, Ying Lin, Jingxian Yang
In our previous study, we found that osthole could promote the ability of proliferation and differentiation in normal neural stem cells (NSCs) under normal condition. Then, we used tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) to establish the model of senescence NSCs to detect the effects of osthole. Interestingly, the immunofluorescence results showed that osthole (100 μM) could enhance the ability of proliferation and differentiation, and CCK-8 assay results showed that osthole could also enhance the cell viabilities...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989433/oral-mucosa-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-patients-with-ectrodactyly-ectodermal-dysplasia-clefting-syndrome
#9
Marta Trevisan, Gualtiero Alvisi, Vanessa Barbaro, Luisa Barzon, Paolo Raffa, Angelo Migliorati, Giovanna Desole, Silvia Ruzittu, Giulia Masi, Enzo Di Iorio, Giorgio Palù
Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal dysplasia-Clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare monogenic disease with autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the TP63 gene, leading to progressive corneal keratinocyte loss, limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), and eventually blindness. Currently, there is no treatment available to cure or slow down the keratinocyte loss. Human oral mucosal epithelial stem cells (hOMESCs), which are a mixed population of keratinocyte precursor stem cells, are used as source of autologous tissue for treatment of bilateral LSCD...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989428/effect-of-dna-and-histone-methyl-transferase-inhibitors-on-outcomes-of-buffalo-bovine-interspecies-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#10
Husamaldeen Alsalim, Farnoosh Jafarpour, Nima Tanhaei Vash, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Amir Niasari-Naslaji
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) derived embryos suffer from abnormal epigenetic reprogramming, which handicaps pre- and postimplantation development. It was hypothesized that epigenetic modifiers, including zebularine (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors) and BIX-01294 (histone methyltransferase inhibitors), could decrease the respective levels of 5-methylcytosine and H3K9me2 in reconstructed oocytes (RO). Accordingly, we investigated whether treating RO with zebularine and BIX-01294 for 16 hours after activation could improve developmental competence and quality of buffalo-bovine interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) embryos...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851497/establishment-of-a-somatic-cell-bank-for-indian-buffalo-breeds-and-assessing-the-suitability-of-the-cryopreserved-cells-for-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#11
Naresh L Selokar, Papori Sharma, Ananth Krishna, Deepak Kumar, Dharmendra Kumar, Monika Saini, Arpna Sharma, Kennady Vijayalakshmy, Prem Singh Yadav
Biobanks of cryopreserved gametes and embryos of domestic animals have been utilized to spread desired genotypes and to conserve the animal germplasm of endangered breeds. In principle, somatic cells can be used for the same purposes, and for reviving of animals, the somatic cells must be suitable for animal cloning techniques, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer. In the present study, we derived and cryopreserved somatic cells from three breeds of riverine and swamp-like type buffaloes and established a somatic cell bank...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851496/cloning-a-sleeping-beauty-awaiting-the-kiss
#12
Gábor Vajta
The first 20 years of somatic cell nuclear transfer can hardly be described as a success story. Controversially, many factors leading to the fiasco are not intrinsic features of the technique itself. Misunderstandings and baseless accusations alongside with unsupported fears and administrative barriers hampered cloners to overcome the initial challenging period with obvious difficulties that are common features of a radically new approach. In spite of some promising results of mostly sporadic and small-scale experiments, the future of cloning is still uncertain...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782192/the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-ci994-improves-nuclear-reprogramming-and-in-vitro-developmental-potential-of-cloned-pig-embryos
#13
Long Jin, Qing Guo, Guang-Lei Zhang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
Epigenetic reprogramming and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning efficiency were recently enhanced using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis). In this study, we investigated the time effect of CI994, an HDACi, on the blastocyst formation rate, acetylation levels of H3K9 and H4K12, DNA methylation levels of anti-5-methylcytosine (5mC), and some mRNA expression of pluripotency-related genes in pig SCNT embryos. Treatment with 10 μM CI994 for 24 hours significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of SCNT embryos in comparison with the untreated group (p < 0...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782191/lipid-protein-and-microrna-composition-within-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes
#14
Hao Deng, Chun Sun, Yingxin Sun, Huhu Li, Lin Yang, Danbin Wu, Qing Gao, Xijuan Jiang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were regarded as one of the most promising type of seed cells in tissue engineering due to its easy accessibility and multipotent feature of being able to differentiate into adipocyte, osteoblast, cardiomyocytes, and neurons. For years, MSCs have been applied in treating cardiovascular disease, reconstructing kidney injury, and remodeling immune system with remarkable achievements. Basic researches revealed that its clinic effects are not only due to their pluripotent ability but also through their paracrine function that they synthesize and secrete a broad spectrum of growth factors and cytokines...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782184/the-growth-of-preantral-follicles-and-the-impact-of-different-supplementations-and-circumstances-a-review-study-with-focus-on-bovine-and-human-preantral-follicles
#15
Zahra Rajabi, Zunair Khokhar, Hossein Yazdekhasti
One of the most important concerns cancer survivors face is fertility. Current treatment modalities often result in damage to the reproductive system. Different options have been proposed to preserve the fertility of affected women, and many attempts have been made to improve their chance of childbearing after therapy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and follicles before the onset of cancer treatment and then either transplantation of ovarian tissue or culture of ovarian tissue and individual follicles in vitro is a commonly cited approach...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708768/fibroblast-growth-factor-10-enhances-the-developmental-efficiency-of-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-by-accelerating-the-kinetics-of-cleavage-during-in-vitro-maturation
#16
Yeo-Jin Son, Seung-Eun Lee, Yun-Gwi Park, Sang-Gi Jeong, Min-Young Shin, Eun-Young Kim, Se-Pill Park
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is required for the generation of transgenic animals as disease models. During the in vitro development of SCNT embryos, the quality of matured oocytes is one of the major factors regulating the developmental potential of embryos. Time-lapse monitoring systems are new tools that assess the developmental capacity of embryos for use in embryo transfer. In this study, we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF 10) on the developmental potential of SCNT embryos...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688743/serial-culture-is-critical-for-in-vitro-development-of-parthenogenetic-embryos-in-the-golden-syrian-hamster
#17
Guangbin Zhou, Hengxi Wei, Xinrong Wang, Min Yang, Thomas D Bunch, Irina A Polejaeva, Kenneth L White, Zhongde Wang, Qinggang Meng
Unlike oocytes of many other mammalian species, parthenogenetically activated hamster oocytes have not been reported to develop beyond the two-cell stage. This study investigated the in vitro development into blastocysts of parthenogenetic embryos of Golden Syrian hamsters. We observed that hamster oocytes could easily be artificially activated (AA) by treatment with ionomycin plus 6-dimethylaminopurine + cycloheximide + cytochalasin B as assessed by embryo cleavage in HECM-9 (63.15%) or HECM-10 (63.82%). None of the cleaved embryos developed beyond the two-cell stage when cultured in either of the two media...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620445/induction-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-germ-lineage-using-retinoic-acid
#18
Haihui Liu, Mingtai Chen, Lulu Liu, Saisai Ren, Panpan Cheng, Hao Zhang
Accumulating evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to their multilineage differentiation potentials. Recent studies show that germ-like cells can also be derived from stem cells, such as human umbilical cord MSCs and human bone marrow MSCs in vitro. However, whether human adipose-derived MSCs (hAD-MSCs) can be induced into germ-like cells has never been reported. In this study, we isolated hAD-MSCs and confirmed that their characteristics were in accordance with that of MSCs established before...
April 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620444/cloning-of-buffalo-a-highly-valued-livestock-species-of-south-and-southeast-asia-any-achievements
#19
Naresh L Selokar, Monika Saini, Prabhat Palta, Manmohan S Chauhan, Radhey S Manik, Suresh K Singla
Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a major source of milk, meat, and draught power in many developing countries in Asia. Animal cloning holds a lot of potential for fast multiplication of elite buffaloes and conservation of their valuable germplasm. Although the progress of buffalo cloning has been slow in comparison to cattle or pig, several breakthroughs were reported in buffalo cloning such as the production of cloned calves from somatic cells isolated from over one-decade old frozen-thawed semen or from urine-derived cells...
April 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620443/mir-2861-behaves-as-a-biomarker-of-lung-cancer-stem-cells-and-regulates-the-hdac5-erk-system-genes
#20
Mengya Zhao, Lin Li, Jundong Zhou, Xueyuan Cui, Qingmei Tian, Yaqing Jin, Yimin Zhu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for cancer initiating, recurrence, and drug resistance. Discovery of novel biomarkers for CSCs is helpful for early diagnosis and prognosis. Lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) were closely related to the occurrence and development of lung cancer. In our study, the important role of miR-2861 in maintaining the stemness of LCSCs was investigated. The LCSC differentiation model was established through introducing serum into the medium of H460 spheres. miR-2861 expression was significantly higher in LCSCs no matter compared to the differentiation cells or normal cells...
April 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
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