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Cellular Reprogramming

Yihua Song, Peipei Cao, Zhifeng Gu, Jingwen Xiao, Min Lian, Dan Huang, Jing Xing, Ye Zhang, Xingmei Feng, Chenfei Wang
Abnormal odontoblast differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) caused by inflammation is closely related to the development of dental caries. Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is one of the members of neuropilin family. It can combine with disparate ligands involved in regulating cell differentiation. FYN belongs to the protein-tyrosine kinase family, which has been implicated in the control of cell growth, and the effect can be further strengthened by inflammatory factors. In our studies, we verified that NRP1 can form complexes with FYN and have the correlation changes in odontoblast differentiation of DPSCs...
February 27, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Parul Mehta, Ramakant Kaushik, Karn Pratap Singh, Ankur Sharma, Manoj Kumar Singh, Manmohan Singh Chauhan, Prabhat Palta, Suresh Kumar Singla, Radhey Sham Manik
The aim of the present study was to compare transgenic cells, containing human insulin gene kept under the control of mammary gland-specific buffalo beta-lactoglobulin promoter, and their counterparts, that is, nontransgenic cells, for examining their potential for the production of embryos following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The gene construct was delivered into buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFF) by nucleofection following which, the transfected cells were selected by culture in the presence of G418 for 3 weeks...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Ian Wilmut, Jane Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Bethany R Mordhorst, Stephanie L Murphy, Rence M Ross, Melissa S Samuel, Shirley Rojas Salazar, Tieming Ji, Susanta K Behura, Kevin D Wells, Jonathan A Green, Randall S Prather
The Warburg effect is a metabolic phenomenon characterized by increased glycolytic activity, decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and the production of lactate. This metabolic phenotype is characterized in rapidly proliferative cell types such as cancerous cells and embryonic stem cells. We hypothesized that a Warburg-like metabolism could be achieved in other cell types by treatment with pharmacological agents, which might, in turn, facilitate nuclear reprogramming. The aim of this study was to treat fibroblasts with CPI-613 and PS48 to induce a Warburg-like metabolic state...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Hila Naaman, Tatiana Rabinski, Avi Yizhak, Solly Mizrahi, Yonat Shemer Avni, Ran Taube, Bracha Rager, Yacov Weinstein, Glenn Rall, Jacob Gopas, Rivka Ofir
In this study, we found that the measles virus (MV) can infect human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Wild-type MV strains generally use human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) as a cellular receptor, while vaccine strains such as the Edmonston strain can use both CD150 and CD46 as receptors. It is not yet known how early in the embryonal differentiation stages these receptors are expressed. We established two hiPSCs (BGU-iPSCs and EMF-iPSCs) which express CD46 and CD150. Both cell types can be infected by MV to form persistent, noncytopathic cell lines that release infectious MV particles...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Huili Wang, Wei Cui, Chunhua Meng, Jun Zhang, Yinxia Li, Yong Qian, Guangdong Xing, Dongmin Zhao, Shaoxian Cao
An increasing number of studies have revealed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) mediated histone deacetylation is important for mammalian oocyte development. However, nonselective HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) were applied in most studies; the precise functions of specific HDAC classes during meiosis are poorly defined. In this study, the class IIa-specific HDACi MC1568 was used to reveal a crucial role of class IIa HDACs in the regulation of histone deacetylation during porcine oocyte meiosis. Besides, the functions of HDACs and histone acetyltransferases in regulating the balance of histone acetylation/deacetylation were also confirmed during oocyte maturation...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Hongran Wang, Shuying Zhao, Michelle Barton, Todd Rosengart, Austin J Cooney
p53 is a barrier to somatic cell reprogramming. Deletion or transient suppression of p53 increases the efficiency of reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Whether p53 represents an obstacle to a similar process transdifferentiation of somatic cells is unknown. However, it is predicted that inhibition of p53 would promote transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. In this study, the effect of p53 on the capacity of cardiogenic transdifferentiation is evaluated using p53 wild-type (p53+/+ ), p53 heterozygous mutant (p53+/- ), and p53 homozygous mutant (p53-/- ) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Jenin Victor Cortez, Gábor Vajta, Nilton Murga Valderrama, Gleni Segura Portocarrero, Jorge Maicelo Quintana
A major obstacle of widespread commercial application of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer is the low overall efficiency, that is, healthy calf-late pregnancy per transferred embryo rate. In this study, we report a series of experiments with a limited number of embryos created with handmade cloning (HMC) and transferred without or after open pulled straw vitrification. Embryo reconstruction was performed by using in vitro matured oocytes and adult ear skin fibroblasts. In two experiments, a total of 53 D7 blastocysts were developed from 188 reconstructed embryos...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Himanshu Agrawal, Naresh Lalaji Selokar, Monika Saini, Manoj Kumar Singh, Manmohan Singh Chauhan, Prabhat Palta, Suresh Kumar Singla, Radhey Sham Manik
Epigenetic reprogramming is an indispensable process during the course of mammalian development, but aberrant in cloned embryos. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of donor cell treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor m-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxymide (CBHA) on cloned embryo development and establish its optimal concentration. Different concentrations of CBHA (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 μM) were used to treat buffalo adult fibroblast cells for 24 hours and effect on cell proliferation, gene expression, and histone modifications was analyzed...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Yongjie Wan, Mingtian Deng, Guomin Zhang, Caifang Ren, Zifei Liu, Feng Wang
The H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) gene plays vital roles during development, but their expression and methylation status have not been elucidated in male cloned animals. In this study, we investigated the methylation status of imprinting control region (ICR) and differentially methylated region (DMR) of the H19/Igf2 locus in the sperm and testes of naturally reproduced Saanen dairy goats (NG, control), transgenic cloned dairy goats (CG), and the first generation of mating the CGs with the female NGs (FG)...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Ashraf Al Madhoun, Sarah Alkandari, Hamad Ali, Neus Carrio, Maher Atari, Milad S Bitar, Fahd Al-Mulla
The human umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly- and the bone marrow- mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs and BM-MSCs, respectively) and the newly identified dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells (DPPSCs) are new sources for stem cells with prospective use in cell regeneration and therapy. These cells are self-renewable, can be differentiated into several lineages, and can potentiate the immune responses. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions and directed differentiation using specific signaling regulators will enhance an efficient generation of mesoderm (MD) lineage independent from the origin or source of the stem cells...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Ying Luo, Yao Xu, Zhen-Yu Wang, Xi Li, Wei-Bing Xing, Tong-Cun Zhang
As a potential cure for diabetes, more and more attentions have been paid to organ transplants to replace insulin therapy. As a result, many researchers have explored out many programs to get insulin-producing cells (IPCs) to replace the defective β cells. Currently, more and more new induction methods are being proposed, and at the same time, more and more possible induction molecular mechanisms are being revealed. The purpose of this study was to explore whether and how the two factors pdx-1 and myocardin affected the differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) into IPCs...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Yonglong Guo, Quan Yu, Sanjana Mathew, Ruiling Lian, Yunxia Xue, Zekai Cui, Shanyi Li, Deliang Zhu, Yuting Han, Qiaolang Zeng, Shiwei Liu, Jiansu Chen
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells can be reprogrammed to provide an unlimited cell resource showing great potential in disease modeling and regenerative medicine. However, the traditional method for reprogramming cells into iPSCs using genome-integrating retro- or lenti-viruses remain an obstacle for its application in clinical settings. We tried the possibility to generate pre-iPSCs from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) by nongenetic reprogramming using recombinant cell-penetrating proteins OCT4/KLF4/SOX2 (PTD-OKS) and the cocktail of small molecules (VCFZ)...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
Dapeng Liao, Xiaojie Li, Yan Dong, Gang Sun
This study was aimed to investigate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the differentiation from periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to Schwann cells (SCs) and the possible mechanisms. FzB was applied to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of differentiated PDLSCs (dPDLSCs), and then immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Western blotting analysis were performed to detect SC marker genes and proteins such as S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and P75NTR...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
Xia Huang, Lili Song, Zhiyan Zhan, Haihui Gu, Haizhong Feng, Yanxin Li
Successful development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos depends on compatibilities between ooplasmic and nuclear components. However, the mechanisms by which the compatibilities are regulated are still unknown. In this study, using mouse Oct4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells as donors and rabbit oocytes as recipients, we show that Oct4 and other pluripotency related genes were reactivated in some of mouse-rabbit iSCNT embryos, which could also activate Oct4 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene expression...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
Xiaoyan Qiu, Nan Li, Xiong Xiao, Liang Zhang, Haihong You, Yuemin Li
To improve the cloning efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and to establish nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (NT-ESCs) reliably, it is necessary to produce high-quality blastocysts derived from mice SCNT embryos. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate an optimal method for mouse SCNT embryo production and NT-ESCs derivation by comparing the effects of two methods: the treatment of histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 after SCNT, embryo aggregation and their combination treatment...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
Daming Chi, Yaqiong Zeng, Mingzhu Xu, Linan Si, Xiao Qu, Honglin Liu, Juan Li
In this study, the distribution as well as the effect of autophagy on reprogramming in pig cloned embryos were observed immediately after somatic cell nuclear transfer. Results showed that the LC3 was at the highest level in cloned embryos at 2-cell stage, and it decreased with the development from 2-cell stage to blastocyst. Different to cloned embryos, the intensity of LC3 in parthenogenetic activation (PA) embryos was at the highest level at 4-cell stage. A markedly higher level of Bmp15, H1foo, and Dppa3 was shown in cloned embryos at 2-cell stage (p < 0...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from dental tissues received considerable interest in regenerative medicine, particularly in nerve regeneration owing to their embryonic origin and ease of harvest. Proliferation efficacy and differentiation capacity into diverse cell lineages propose dental MSCs as an in vitro tool for disease modeling. In this study, we investigated the spontaneous differentiation efficiency of dental MSCs obtained from human gingiva tissue (hGMSCs) into neural progenitor cells after extended passaging...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
Katari Venkatesh, L Vinod Kumar Reddy, Salar Abbas, Madhubanti Mullick, Erfath Thanjeem Begum Moghal, Janardhana Papayya Balakrishna, Dwaipayan Sen
Although neural stem cells (NSCs) have potential applications in treating neurological disorders, much still needs to be understood about the differentiation biology for their successful clinical translation. In this study, we aimed at deriving NSCs from human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) and explored the role of Notch signaling in the differentiation process. The hUCB-MSCs were characterized as per guidelines of the International Society of Cellular Therapy. NSCs were successfully generated from hUCB-MSCs by using epidermal and fibroblast growth factors under serum-free conditions...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
Stefan Wagner, Alison Cullum, David N Wells, Götz Laible
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), commonly referred to as cloning, results in the generation of offspring that, except for mitochondrial DNA, are genetically identical to the nuclear donor. We previously used a genetically modified bovine cell line as the donor for SCNT and obtained a calf, named Daisy, that was born without a tail. To determine whether the missing tail was a result of the genetic modification, we performed recloning experiments by using either cells from a sacrificed pregnancy of a second clone (Daisy's "twin" clone) or cells from tailless Daisy as donors for SCNT...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
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