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Cellular Reprogramming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388030/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#1
Yu-Hua Yang, Ru-Zhi Zhang, Sai Cheng, Bin Xu, Ting Tian, Hai-Xia Shi, Li Xiao, Ren-He Chen
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) play an important role in cell replacement therapy. Several studies have shown that keratinocytes are promising reprogrammed cells. We easily and efficiently enriched epidermal stem cells by attaching them for a limited time in culture dishes. Individual epidermal cells enriched in stem cells, which showed strong immunostaining for K15, were obtained and generated iPSCs within 10 days after transfection with lentiviruses encoding 4 transcription factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and NANOG)...
November 2, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325654/effects-of-prdm14-silencing-on-parthenogenetically-activated-porcine-embryos
#2
Hui Cheng, Yutian Wang, Jian Zhang, Sheng Zhang, Xiaoling Ma, Xinglan An, Xiaxia Man, Xueming Zhang, Ziyi Li, Bo Tang
PRDM14, a member of the PRDM family protein, plays an important role in the regulation of epigenetic reprogramming. Knockdown of Prdm14 in germ cells can lead to female and male subfertility, and the function of PRDM14 appears to be conserved across mammalian species. Thus, we analyzed the expression of Prdm14 in parthenogenetic embryos at all stages of preimplantation and then evaluated the effect of Prdm14 downregulation on porcine parthenogenetic embryonic development. We found that Prdm14 transcripts are highly expressed in the metaphase II (MII) oocyte, and their level gradually increased from the 2-cell to 8-cell stage and slightly declined at the blastocyst stage during the development of parthenogenetic porcine embryos...
October 16, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307322/genetically-engineered-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-hiv-based-lentiviral-vectors-as-gene-therapy-for-autoimmune-diseases
#3
Masoumeh Rostami, Kamran Haidari, Majid Shahbazi
The immunomodulatory and self-renewable features of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) mark their importance in regenerative medicine. Interleukin (IL)-23 as a proinflammatory cytokine suppresses T regulatory cells and promotes the response of T helper 17 and T helper 1 cells. This pathway initiates inflammation and immunosuppression in several autoimmune diseases. The current study aimed at producing recombinant IL-23 decoy receptor (RIL-23R) using hAD-MSCs as a good candidate for ex vivo cell-based gene therapy purposes to reduce inflammation in autoimmune diseases...
October 9, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277824/attempting-to-convert-primed-porcine-embryonic-stem-cells-into-a-naive-state-through-the-overexpression-of-reprogramming-factors
#4
Tae-Yeong Park, Kwang-Hwan Choi, Dong-Kyung Lee, Jong-Nam Oh, Seung-Hun Kim, Chang-Kyu Lee
Establishing pig embryonic stem cells (pESCs) remains a challenge due to differences in the genetic backgrounds of mouse, human, and pig. Therefore, pig-specific pluripotency markers and cellular signaling must be identified. In this study, doxycycline (DOX)-inducible vectors carrying Oct4, sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2), Nanog, Kruppel-like family 4 (Klf4), or Myc, which are known reprogramming factors, were transduced into pESCs. And pluripotency genes were analyzed in one or two reprogramming factor-expressed pESCs...
October 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277823/the-forkhead-box-c1-a-novel-negative-regulator-of-osteogenesis-plays-a-crucial-role-in-odontogenic-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#5
Jingwen Xiao, Peipei Cao, Chenfei Wang, Dan Huang, Min Lian, Yihua Song, Weiwei Yin, Ke Zheng, Zhifeng Gu, Yongchun Gu, Guijuan Feng, Xingmei Feng
The forkhead box C1 (Foxc1) protein, a member of the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor family, is required in stem cell developmental processes. Recently, multiple studies have indicated the crucial role of Foxc1 in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, but the precise effects and mechanisms on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluate the role of Foxc1 on the odontogenic differentiation and proliferation of DPSCs. Our results show that Foxc1 decreases time dependently in odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs...
October 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30207795/generation-of-functional-myocytes-from-equine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Karin R Amilon, Yennifer Cortes-Araya, Benjamin Moore, Seungmee Lee, Simon Lillico, Amandine Breton, Cristina L Esteves, F Xavier Donadeu
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have revolutionized human biomedicine through their use in disease modeling and therapy. In comparison, little progress has been made toward the application of iPSCs in veterinary species. In that regard, skeletal myocytes from iPSCs would have great potential for understanding muscle function and disease in the equine athlete. In this study, we generated skeletal myotubes by transducing equine iPSC-derived mesenchymal derivatives with an inducible lentiviral vector coding for the human sequence of the myogenic factor, MyoD...
October 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204498/fgf2-signaling-plays-an-important-role-in-maintaining-pluripotent-state-of-pig-embryonic-germ-cells
#7
Kwang-Hwan Choi, Dong-Kyung Lee, Jong-Nam Oh, Hye-Young Son, Chang-Kyu Lee
Germ cells are alternative sources for deriving pluripotent stem cells. Because embryonic germ cells (EGCs) possess physiological and developmental features similar to those of embryonic stem cells, pig EGCs are considered a potential tool for generating transgenic animals for agricultural usage. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to establish and characterize pig EGCs from fetal gonads. EGC lines were derived from the genital ridges of porcine fetuses in media containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and stem cell factor...
October 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204478/a-rapid-and-highly-efficient-method-for-the-isolation-purification-and-passaging-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Xiugong Gao, Robert L Sprando, Jeffrey J Yourick
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold considerable promise for future biomedical applications. However, the generation, isolation, and establishment of an iPSC line still presents many challenges. In this study, we describe a simple yet highly efficient two-step method for the isolation, purification, and passaging of human iPSC lines that utilizes commercially available reagents. The first step adapts iPSCs to single cell culture and passage, promoting survival and self-renewal; the second step enables the isolation and purification of bona fide iPSCs from a mixed population using column-based positive selection of cells expressing pluripotency markers such as TRA-1-60...
October 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204474/umbilical-mononuclear-cells-and-fibroblast-interaction-downregulate-the-expression-of-cell-cycle-negative-control-genes
#9
Daniel Rodrigo Marinowic, Gabriele Zanirati, Pamella Nunes Azevedo, Eduardo Vieira De Souza, Fernanda Bruzzo, Samara Pedroso da Silva, Eliete Biasotto Heuser, Denise Cantarelli Machado, Jaderson Costa Da Costa
The human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is an excellent source of adult stem cells, having the benefit of being younger than the bone marrow stem cells. The role of stem cells in the lesion repair mechanism is still being studied. We evaluated the capability of HUCB to interfere into the fibroblast dedifferentiation plasticity through cocultivation. Direct and indirect cocultures were maintained for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Coculture viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The messenger RNA was extracted, and the expression of p16 and p21 genes was estimated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089028/porcine-fetal-derived-fibroblasts-alter-gene-expression-and-mitochondria-to-compensate-for-hypoxic-stress-during-culture
#10
Bethany R Mordhorst, Stephanie L Murphy, Martin Schauflinger, Shirley Rojas Salazar, Tieming Ji, Susanta K Behura, Kevin D Wells, Jonathan A Green, Randall S Prather
The Warburg effect is characterized by decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increased glycolytic flux in adequate oxygen. The preimplantation embryo has been described to have characteristics of the Warburg effect, including similar changes in gene expression and mitochondria, which are more rudimentary in appearance. We hypothesized hypoxia would facilitate anaerobic glycolysis in fibroblasts thereby promoting gene expression and media metabolite production reflecting the Warburg effect hallmarks in early embryos...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089027/wedelolactone-enhances-odontoblast-differentiation-by-promoting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-and-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#11
Chenfei Wang, Yihua Song, Zhifeng Gu, Min Lian, Dan Huang, Xiaohui Lu, Xingmei Feng, Qi Lu
Wedelolactone is a multitarget natural plant compound with many pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiosteoporosis. In this study, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were treated with or without wedelolactone. We found that wedelolactone stimulated odontoblast differentiation and mineralization. At the molecular level, wedelolactone directly promoted the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and thereafter stimulated the expression of odontoblast-related marker genes containing dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2)...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089026/evaluation-of-novel-mouse-specific-germ-cell-gene-expression-in-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-germ-cell-like-cells-in-vitro-with-retinoic-acid-treatment
#12
Maryam Gholamitabar Tabari, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Mohammad Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Ali Asghar Ahmadi, Mehdi Amirikia
We designed a study to induce differentiation of Oct4-GFP (expression of Green Fluorescent Protein of oct4) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by embryoid body (EB) culture system into germ cells (GCs) using retinoic acid (RA) and evaluated the expression level of (Fkbp6, Mov10l1, 4930432K21Rik, and Tex13) in differentiated cells. The expression levels of four GC-related genes, Oct4, Mvh, Scp3, and Stra8, was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR). Immunostaining and flow cytometry were used as additional tests to confirm q-RT-PCR findings...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989446/osthole-delays-tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-induced-premature-senescence-in-neural-stem-cells
#13
Yingjia Yao, Xicai Liang, Yue Shi, Ying Lin, Jingxian Yang
In our previous study, we found that osthole could promote the ability of proliferation and differentiation in normal neural stem cells (NSCs) under normal condition. Then, we used tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) to establish the model of senescence NSCs to detect the effects of osthole. Interestingly, the immunofluorescence results showed that osthole (100 μM) could enhance the ability of proliferation and differentiation, and CCK-8 assay results showed that osthole could also enhance the cell viabilities...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989433/oral-mucosa-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-patients-with-ectrodactyly-ectodermal-dysplasia-clefting-syndrome
#14
Marta Trevisan, Gualtiero Alvisi, Vanessa Barbaro, Luisa Barzon, Paolo Raffa, Angelo Migliorati, Giovanna Desole, Silvia Ruzittu, Giulia Masi, Enzo Di Iorio, Giorgio Palù
Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal dysplasia-Clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare monogenic disease with autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the TP63 gene, leading to progressive corneal keratinocyte loss, limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), and eventually blindness. Currently, there is no treatment available to cure or slow down the keratinocyte loss. Human oral mucosal epithelial stem cells (hOMESCs), which are a mixed population of keratinocyte precursor stem cells, are used as source of autologous tissue for treatment of bilateral LSCD...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989428/effect-of-dna-and-histone-methyl-transferase-inhibitors-on-outcomes-of-buffalo-bovine-interspecies-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#15
Husamaldeen Alsalim, Farnoosh Jafarpour, Nima Tanhaei Vash, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Amir Niasari-Naslaji
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) derived embryos suffer from abnormal epigenetic reprogramming, which handicaps pre- and postimplantation development. It was hypothesized that epigenetic modifiers, including zebularine (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors) and BIX-01294 (histone methyltransferase inhibitors), could decrease the respective levels of 5-methylcytosine and H3K9me2 in reconstructed oocytes (RO). Accordingly, we investigated whether treating RO with zebularine and BIX-01294 for 16 hours after activation could improve developmental competence and quality of buffalo-bovine interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) embryos...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851497/establishment-of-a-somatic-cell-bank-for-indian-buffalo-breeds-and-assessing-the-suitability-of-the-cryopreserved-cells-for-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#16
Naresh L Selokar, Papori Sharma, Ananth Krishna, Deepak Kumar, Dharmendra Kumar, Monika Saini, Arpna Sharma, Kennady Vijayalakshmy, Prem Singh Yadav
Biobanks of cryopreserved gametes and embryos of domestic animals have been utilized to spread desired genotypes and to conserve the animal germplasm of endangered breeds. In principle, somatic cells can be used for the same purposes, and for reviving of animals, the somatic cells must be suitable for animal cloning techniques, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer. In the present study, we derived and cryopreserved somatic cells from three breeds of riverine and swamp-like type buffaloes and established a somatic cell bank...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851496/cloning-a-sleeping-beauty-awaiting-the-kiss
#17
Gábor Vajta
The first 20 years of somatic cell nuclear transfer can hardly be described as a success story. Controversially, many factors leading to the fiasco are not intrinsic features of the technique itself. Misunderstandings and baseless accusations alongside with unsupported fears and administrative barriers hampered cloners to overcome the initial challenging period with obvious difficulties that are common features of a radically new approach. In spite of some promising results of mostly sporadic and small-scale experiments, the future of cloning is still uncertain...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782192/the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-ci994-improves-nuclear-reprogramming-and-in-vitro-developmental-potential-of-cloned-pig-embryos
#18
Long Jin, Qing Guo, Guang-Lei Zhang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Qi-Rong Luo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
Epigenetic reprogramming and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning efficiency were recently enhanced using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis). In this study, we investigated the time effect of CI994, an HDACi, on the blastocyst formation rate, acetylation levels of H3K9 and H4K12, DNA methylation levels of anti-5-methylcytosine (5mC), and some mRNA expression of pluripotency-related genes in pig SCNT embryos. Treatment with 10 μM CI994 for 24 hours significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of SCNT embryos in comparison with the untreated group (p < 0...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782191/lipid-protein-and-microrna-composition-within-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes
#19
Hao Deng, Chun Sun, Yingxin Sun, Huhu Li, Lin Yang, Danbin Wu, Qing Gao, Xijuan Jiang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were regarded as one of the most promising type of seed cells in tissue engineering due to its easy accessibility and multipotent feature of being able to differentiate into adipocyte, osteoblast, cardiomyocytes, and neurons. For years, MSCs have been applied in treating cardiovascular disease, reconstructing kidney injury, and remodeling immune system with remarkable achievements. Basic researches revealed that its clinic effects are not only due to their pluripotent ability but also through their paracrine function that they synthesize and secrete a broad spectrum of growth factors and cytokines...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782184/the-growth-of-preantral-follicles-and-the-impact-of-different-supplementations-and-circumstances-a-review-study-with-focus-on-bovine-and-human-preantral-follicles
#20
Zahra Rajabi, Zunair Khokhar, Hossein Yazdekhasti
One of the most important concerns cancer survivors face is fertility. Current treatment modalities often result in damage to the reproductive system. Different options have been proposed to preserve the fertility of affected women, and many attempts have been made to improve their chance of childbearing after therapy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and follicles before the onset of cancer treatment and then either transplantation of ovarian tissue or culture of ovarian tissue and individual follicles in vitro is a commonly cited approach...
June 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
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