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Interdisciplinary Toxicology

Soňa Jantová, Dominika Topoľská, Michaela Janošková, Miroslav Pánik, Viktor Milata
The new synthetically prepared quinolone derivative 7-ethyl 9-ethyl-6-oxo-6,9-dihydro[1,2,5]selenadiazolo [3,4-h]quinoline-7-carboxylate (E2h) showed in our previous study cytotoxic effects towards tumor cells and immunomodulatory activities on RAW 264.7 cell line murine macrophages. E2h may have a potential use as a novel chemotherapeutic agent with immunomodulatory properties and the ability to induce apoptotic death of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic activities of E2h on human non-cancer fibroblast BHNF-1 cells and reconstructed human epidermis EpiDerm™...
December 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Pravin Kumar, Devyani Swami, Hitendra N Karade, Manindar Singh, Anupma Tiwari, Kshetra Pal Singh
The available antidotal therapy against acute poisoning by organophosphates involves the use of atropine alone or in combination with one of the oximes, e.g. 2-PAM, Obidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6. Each of these oximes has some limitation, raising the question of the universal antidotal efficacy against poisoning by all OPs/nerve agents. In the present study, newly synthesized bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK-series) oximes were evaluated for their antidotal efficacy against DDVP intoxicated Swiss mice, in terms of the Protection Index (PI) and AChE reactivation in brain and serum...
December 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Ravindran Jayaraj, Pankajshan Megha, Puthur Sreedev
Organochlorine (OC) pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents...
December 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Mazyar Yazdani
Oxygen (O2) is an essential element for aerobic respiration. Atmospheric concentration of O2 is approximately 21%. Mammalian cells, however, are generally adapted to O2 levels much lower than atmospheric conditions. The pericellular levels of O2 must also be maintained within a fairly narrow range to meet the demands of cells. This applies equally to cells in vivo and cells in primary cultures. There has been growing interest in the performance of cell culture experiments under various O2 levels to study molecular and cellular responses...
December 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Sergei Jargin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Chandra Shakar Reddy Nalagoni, Pratap Reddy Karnati
Aluminum has no defined biological function and it is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the presence of fluoride causes more aluminum to accumulate in the brain, resulting in increased neuronal damage. In recent years, resveratrol through its ameliorative effects was found to be a neuroprotectant. This study reports the protective effects of resveratrol on combined aluminum and fluoride induced neuronal damage through oxidative stress in rats. Protective effects of resveratrol (30 mg/kg b...
June 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Temitayo Olabisi Ajibade, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Ebunoluwa Racheal Asenuga, Jeremiah Moyinoluwa Afolabi, Adeolu Alex Adedapo
Studies of the link between environmental pollutants and cardiovascular dysfunction, neglected for decades, have recently provided new insights into the pathology and consequences of these killers. In this study, rats were divided into four groups, each containing 10 rats. The rats in group one served as controls and were administered normal saline, whereas the rats in group two were orally gavaged with 3 mg/kg of diazinon (DZN) alone for twenty one consecutive days. The rats in groups 3 and 4 were administered respective 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg gallic acid (GA) in addition to DZN for twenty one consecutive days...
June 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Rina Rani Ray
Workers of tanneries, welding industries, factories manufacturing chromate containing paints are exposed to hexavalent chromium that increases the risk of developing serious adverse health effects. This review elucidates the mode of action of hexavalent chromium on blood and its adverse effects. Both leukocyte and erythrocyte counts of blood sharply decreased in Swiss mice after two weeks of intraperitoneal treatment with Cr (VI), with the erythrocytes transforming into echinocytes. The hexavalent chromium in the blood is readily reduced to trivalent form and the reductive capacity of erythrocytes is much greater than that of plasma...
June 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Harold I Zeliger
Virtually all human disease is induced by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, which is caused by toxic environmental exposure, the presence of disease, lifestyle choices, stress, chronic inflammation or combinations of these, is responsible for most disease. Oxidative stress from all sources is additive and it is the total oxidative stress from all sources that induces the onset of most disease. Oxidative stress leads to lipid peroxidation, which in turn produces Malondialdehyde. Serum malondialdehyde level is an additive parameter resulting from all sources of oxidative stress and, therefore, is a reliable indicator of total oxidative stress which can be used to predict the onset of disease in clinically asymptomatic individuals and to suggest the need for treatment that can prevent much human disease...
June 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Monireh Khordadmehr, Fereydoon Rezazadeh, Javad Ashrafi-Helan, Mir Mohsen Hosseini-Ghomi
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural phytotoxins found in thousands of plant species around the world. They are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife and humans. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. In the present study, PAs poisoning was investigated in a gazelle with hepatic encephalopathy associated with severe neurologic signs. The main clinical signs included head pressing, progressive depression and weakness, ataxia and reluctance to move, turn the head to the left and to paddle, hyperesthesia and decreased food intake...
March 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Luana Christine Comerlato, Marcia Vignoli Da Silva, José Ângelo Silveira Zuanazzi, Gilsane Lino Von Poser, Ana Luiza Ziulkoski
Cytotoxicity assays using cell cultures may be an alternative to assess biological toxicity of plant extracts with potential phytotherapeutic properties. This study compared three methods to prepare culture media for the exposure of Vero cells to plant extracts. Leaves of Glandularia selloi (Spreng.) Tronc. were used to prepare culture medium with aqueous extract, extract in culture medium and methanol extract. Toxicity was assessed using the MTT and neutral red (NR) assays. In general, alterations in the cellular functions were found in all extracts and assays...
March 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Shamaya L Whitby, Daniel A Hunter, Wilson Yau, Elizabeth W Howerth, Worlanyo E Gato
Adipocyte dysfunction may be a critical link between obesity and insulin resistance as a result of abnormal fat storage and mobilization. Adipocytes uniquely secrete adipokines and cytokines, such as leptin and TNFα, wich promote insulin sensitivity. Previously we reported insulin-signaling related altered gene expression in animals exposed to 2-Aminoanthracene (2AA). 2AA is an amino-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon used in manufacturing dyes, chemicals, inks, resins, and polyurethanes. The objective of this study was to examine the inflammation related effects of 2AA exposure from gestation to postnatal period on dams that ingested 2AA...
March 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Amit Raj Gupta, Sahadeb Dey, Mohini Saini, Devendra Swarup
Excessive fluoride intoxication plays an important role in the development of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain the toxic effect of excessive fluoride ingestion on the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in rat bone and its amelioration by supplementation with Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract. Forty albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups. The first group served as control and received only tap water. The second group received sodium fluoride (200 ppm) through drinking water...
March 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Jacob K Akintunde, Ganiyu Oboh
Limited studies have assessed the toxic effect of sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of leachate (mixture of metals) in mammalian kidney. The sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of mature male Wistar-strain albino rats (200-220 g) were given by oral administration with leachate from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling industry (EOMABRIL) for period of 7 and 60 days respectively, at different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). This was to evaluate its toxic effects on male renal functions using biomarkers of oxidative stress and nephro-cellular damage...
March 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Isaac J Asiedu-Gyekye, Abdulai Seidu Mahmood, Charles Awortwe, Alexander K Nyarko
Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is an antiseptic with antiviral and antibacterial properties used in a variety of products including wound care dressings, contact lens cleaning solutions, perioperative cleansing products, and swimming pool cleaners. There are regulatory concerns with regard to its safety in humans for water treatment. We decided to assess the safety of this chemical in Sprague-Dawley rats. PHMB was administered in a single dose by gavage via a stomach tube as per the manufacturer's instruction within a dose range of 2 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Ifeoluwa Temitayo Oyeyemi, Olaide Maruf Yekeen, Paul Olayinka Odusina, Taiwo Mary Ologun, Orezimena Michelle Ogbaide, Olayinka Israel Olaleye, Adekunle A Bakare
Spondias mombin (Linn), Nymphaea lotus (Linn) and Luffa cylindrica (Linn) (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill) are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Olufunsho Awodele, Adejuwon Adewale Adeneye, Sheriff Aboyade Aiyeola, Adokiye Senibo Benebo
There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Mostafa Khafaei, Shahram Samie, Seyed Javad Mowla, Akbar Ghorbani Alvanegh, Behnaz Mirzaei, Somaye Chavoshei, Ghamar Soltan Dorraj, Mostafa Esmailnejad, Mahmood Tavallaie, Mohammadreza Nourani
Sulfur mustard (SM) or mustard gas is a chemical alkylating agent that causes blisters in the skin (blister gas), burns the eyes and causes lung injury. Some major cellular pathways are involved in the damage caused by mustard gas such as NF-κb signaling, TGF-β signaling, WNT pathway, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (19-25 nucleotides) that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are found in two forms, extracellular and intracellular. Changes in the levels of extracellular microRNAs are directly associated with many diseases, it is thus common to study the level of extracellular microRNAs as a biomarker to determine the pathophysiologic status...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Chand D Basha, Rajarami G Reddy
Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb) caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca) supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water) from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6-21) of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Sun Li, Xiao-Lin Liu, Xie-Lai Zhou, Su-Jun Jiang, Hong Yuan
The toxic metal lead is a widespread environmental polutant that can adversely affect human health. However, the underlying mechanisms of lead-induced toxicity are still largely unknown. The mechanism of lead toxicity was presumed to involve cross reaction between Pb(2+) and Ca(2+) with calmodulin dependent systems. The aim of the present study was thus to identify differential expression of calmodulin-related genes in the spleen of lead-exposed mice. We performed microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
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