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Interdisciplinary Toxicology

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May 2018: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Arijit Chakraborty, Deotima Sarkar, Priyanki Dey, Amar K Chandra
Thiourea (thiophen-3-yl-acetic acid) is a well established antithyroid drug used for treating hyperactivity of the thyroid gland as it blocks the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in peripheral tissues. Human exposures to thiourea include contaminated drinking water and vegetables for its extensive use in fertilizers. Chronic thiourea exposure can cause thyroid dysfunction leading to redox imbalance. However, such effects on morphological, quantitative, functional and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) analysis of the adrenal gland are yet to be explored...
May 2018: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Sohini Singha Roy, Morium Begum, Sujay Ghosh
Alar (Daminozide) is a plant growth regulator which is widely used as a fruit preservative for apple and mango to prevent pre-harvest fruit drop, promote color development and to delay excessive ripening. The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the effect of Alar on several life history traits, adult morphology, Hsp70 protein expression and in vivo DNA damage in the brain of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster . We assessed the life history and morphological traits including fecundity, developmental time, pupation height, egg-to-adult viability and mean wing length, body length, arista length and sternopleural bristle number of the emerging flies...
May 2018: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Beáta Hubková, Oliver Rácz, Gabriel Bódy, Eugen Frišman, Mária Mareková
Toluene abuse is one of the most common addictions among marginalized Roma. The aim of the study was the comparison of urinary toluene metabolite levels in marginalized population of Eastern Slovakia as compared to the majority population, and to verify the validity of the answers, given in the questionnaires, regarding toluene abuse. The study was carried out as part of the HEPA-META project aiming to map the prevalence of health problems in marginalized Roma. The majority of people living outside the area of the segregated Roma communities comprised the control group...
May 2018: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Ana Reis-Mendes, Marisa Alves, Félix Carvalho, Fernando Remião, Maria Lourdes Bastos, Vera Marisa Costa
Pixantrone (PIX) is an anticancer drug approved for the treatment of multiple relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is an aza-anthracenedione synthesized to have the same anticancer activity as its predecessors, anthracyclines ( e.g. doxorubicin) and anthracenediones ( e.g . mitoxantrone), with lower cardiotoxicity. However, published data regarding its possible cardiotoxicity are scarce. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the potential cytotoxicity of PIX, at clinically relevant concentrations (0...
May 2018: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Earnest Oghenesuvwe Erhirhie, Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme, Emmanuel Emeka Ilodigwe
Safety assessment of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food and food ingredients, cosmetics, industrial products is very crucial prior to their approval for human uses. Since the commencement of toxicity testing (about 500 years ago, since 1520), significant advances have been made with respect to the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) alternative approaches. This review is focused on the update in acute systemic toxicity testing of chemicals. Merits and demerits of these advances were also highlighted. Traditional LD50 test methods are being suspended while new methods are developed and endorsed by the regulatory body...
May 2018: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Ingrid Brucknerová, Michal Dubovický, Eduard Ujházy
Despite modern approaches in molecular biology and genetics, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 50% of all congenital defects. One-half of the unidentified cases is referred to as "multifactorial". Detailed prenatal investigation of the fetus can discover the presence of congenital abnormality, which can worsen the process of postnatal adaptation. Retrospective analysis of newborns admitted to the Neonatal Department of Intensive Medicine (NDIM) in 2012-2016 with the aim to analyze how the process of postnatal adaptation can be changed by the presence of congenital abnormalities of lip and palate...
December 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Augustine Dick Essien, Godwin Christian Akuodor, Gloria Ahunna Ajoku, Anthony Uchenna Megwas, Donatus Onyebuchi Anele, Mercy Nwakaego Ezeunala, Alozie Ogwuegbu Okezie
The leaves of Salacia lehmbachii are used ethnomedically across Africa for the treatment of different diseases its antimicrobial activity as well as toxicological profile were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella typhi , Staphylococus aureus , Shigella species , Eschericha coli and Proteus mirabilis were compared with Gentamycin. Toxicological investigation was determined by administering 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the ethanol leaf extract to male Wistar rats for 21 days with distilled water as control...
December 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Nadia Fucci, Alessio Gili, Kyriaki Aroni, Mauro Bacci, Paola Carletti, Vincenzo Lorenzo Pascali, Cristiana Gambelunghe
Alcohol and illicit drug abuse are major public health problems worldwide. Since alcohol is the predominant substance of choice in polydrug abusers, monitoring its use, along with urinary drug screening in patients in rehabilitation programs, appeared to be crucial in identifying patients at risk of alcohol disorders leading to impaired quality of life. Ethyl β-D-6-glucuronide, a non-oxidative, non-volatile, stable and minor direct ethanol metabolite, has a 6h to 4 day window of detection in urine after the last alcohol intake...
December 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Nuray Nuriye Ulusu, Müslüm Gök, Arzu Ayşe Sayin Şakul, Nuray Ari, Milan Stefek, Çimen Karasu
The pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione-associated metabolism are the main antioxidant cellular defense systems. This study investigated the effects of the powerful antioxidant SMe1EC2 (2-ethoxycarbonyl-8-methoxy-2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b] indolinium dichloride) on pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in aged diabetic and aged matched control rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection in rats aged 13-15 months. Diabetic and control rats were divided into two subgroups, one untreated and one treated with SMe1EC2 (10 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 months...
December 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Saurabh Sarkar, Sumedha Roy
Pesticides are one of the major sources of environmental toxicity and contamination. This study reports potential of lepidopteran insecticide formulation, named Flubendiamide, in altering compound eye architecture and bristle pattern orientation for four consecutive generations (P, F1, F2 and F3) in a non-target diptera, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The concentrations of the insecticide formulation selected for treatment of Drosophila (50 and 100 μg/mL) were in accordance with practiced Indian field doses (50 μg/mL for rice and 100 μg/mL for cotton)...
December 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Zubeyir Elmazoglu, Volkan Ergin, Ergin Sahin, Handan Kayhan, Cimen Karasu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, often associated with oxidative stress-induced transcriptional changes in dopaminergic neurons. Phenolic antioxidants, oleuropein (OLE) and rutin (RUT) have attracted a great interest due to their potential to counteract oxidative protein aggregation and toxicity. This study aimed at examining the effects of OLE and RUT against 6-OHDA-induced stress response in rat pheochromocytoma cells. When differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to oxidative stress composer 6-OHDA (100 μM, 8 h), a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was observed along with a significant loss of cell viability and apoptotic nuclear changes...
December 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Alireza Shahriary, Mostafa Ghanei, Hossein Rahmani
Sulphur mustard (SM) is a powerful blister-causing alkylating chemical warfare agent used by Iraqi forces against Iran. One of the known complications of mustard gas inhalation is mustard lung which is discussed as a phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this complication, there are clinical symptoms close to COPD with common etiologies, such as in smokers. Based on information gradually obtained by conducting the studies on mustard lung patients, systemic symptoms along with pulmonary disorders have attracted the attention of researchers...
November 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Juliana Ivanova, Emilia Petrova, Kalina Kamenova, Yordanka Gluhcheva
Cadmium (Cd) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of meso -2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and the polyether ionophorous antibiotics monensin and salinomycin on Cd-induced neurodegenerative alterations in mice. The results show that subacute intoxication of mice with Cd (II) acetate (20 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 14 days) caused a significant accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in the brain. Treatment of Cd-exposed mice with DMSA (20 mg/kg BW for 14 days) significantly increased the Cd concentration in the brains compared to those of the Cd-treated group...
November 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Islam M Sadiqul, Saimon Mohiful Kabir, Zannatul Ferdous, Khan Mst Mansura, Rahman Md Khalilur
An in vivo study was carried out on the freshwater fish Barbonymus gonionotus to evaluate the genotoxic effects of the organophosphate quinalphos. The fish were exposed to sub-lethal doses of quinalphos (0%, 10%, 25%, and 50% of LC50 ) for a period of 30 days. Analysis of biochemical characteristics (protein and lipid contents of different organs), nuclear abnormalities of erythrocytes (NAE) and morphological abnormalities of erythrocytes (MAE) were performed on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at post-treatment intervals of 0 and 30 days...
November 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Ayyalasomayajula Neelima, Ajumeera Rajanna, Reddy G Bhanuprakash, C S Chetty, Challa Suresh
Lead (Pb) is a toxic pollutant known to cause several abnormalities related to the brain, including cognitive dysfunction, and it is ubiquitous in nature. β-amyloid peptides (AP) are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been reported that there is a connection between lead and amyloid peptides in exerting similar kinds of altered functions in the brain and long-term exposure to lead leads ultimately to increased beta amyloid formation in the brain, lethal to human brain cells. There is still a lack of information on the mechanism by which Pb affects AP formation, exerting combined toxicity in AD patients...
November 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Vladimír Knezl, Ružena Sotníková, Zuzana Brnoliaková, Tatiana Stankovičová, Viktor Bauer, Štefan Bezek
Metabolic syndrome belongs to the most important risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in cardiovascular system induced by high cholesterol and high fat diet (HCHF) in HTG rats and their influence by a pyridoindole antioxidant - SMe1EC2 (S). The effects of S were compared with those of atorvastatin (A). Male HTG rats were fed HCHF (1% cholesterol + 7.5% lard) for 4 weeks. S and A were administered p.o., 50 mg/kg b.w. Following experimental groups were used: Wistar rats (W), hypertriglyceridemic rats (HTG), HTG rats fed HCHF (CHOL), HTG+S (S-HTG), CHOL+S (S-CHOL), and CHOL+A (A-CHOL)...
November 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Štefan Bezek, Zuzana Brnoliaková, Ružena Sotníková, Vladimír Knezl, Ema Paulovičová, Jana Navarová, Viktor Bauer
Elevated plasma cholesterol, especially low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats (hHTG) were developed as a new inbred model for the study of relationships between blood pressure and metabolic abnormalities. The aim of this work was to determine the cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects of the novel pyridoindol derivative SMe1EC2, compared to the cholesterol-lowering drug atorvastatin, in rats fed either standard or high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFC; 1% cholesterol and 7...
November 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Ashim Kumar Basak, Tridip Chatterjee, Swapan Kumar Ghosh, Amit Chakravarty
The effects of four food additives, namely sodium nitrite (NaNO2 ), sodium nitrate (NaNO3 ), potassium nitrite (KNO2 ), and potassium nitrate (KNO3 ), on animal development were evaluated by using Drosophila melanogster, a model organism. Adult male and female flies were allowed to breed in culture medium, each containing one of 4 concentrations, i.e .10, 20, 30 or 40 mM of the above mentioned salts. The concentration of 40 mM, NaNO2 and KNO2 completely arrested the development of the flies. Of the different concentrations of the four salts tested, exposure of flies to 30 mM NaNO2 exhibited only significant delays in the initial appearances of third instar larvae, pupae and young adults, along with huge reduction in the number of pupae and young adults compared to controls...
October 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Blanka Švecová, Mojmír Mach
5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) is a thermal decomposition product of saccharides. There are two main ways for the formation of 5-HMF. First, 5-HMF is forming during Maillard reaction and second, during thermic dehydration of saccharides under acid conditions. Significant parameters of 5-HMF formation are temperature, time, pH, water activity, type of saccharide and amino acids. It is suspected that 5-HMF has genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. This chemical can be found in many food sources, e...
October 2017: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
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