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Interdisciplinary Toxicology

Isaac J Asiedu-Gyekye, Abdulai Seidu Mahmood, Charles Awortwe, Alexander K Nyarko
Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is an antiseptic with antiviral and antibacterial properties used in a variety of products including wound care dressings, contact lens cleaning solutions, perioperative cleansing products, and swimming pool cleaners. There are regulatory concerns with regard to its safety in humans for water treatment. We decided to assess the safety of this chemical in Sprague-Dawley rats. PHMB was administered in a single dose by gavage via a stomach tube as per the manufacturer's instruction within a dose range of 2 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Ifeoluwa Temitayo Oyeyemi, Olaide Maruf Yekeen, Paul Olayinka Odusina, Taiwo Mary Ologun, Orezimena Michelle Ogbaide, Olayinka Israel Olaleye, Adekunle A Bakare
Spondias mombin (Linn), Nymphaea lotus (Linn) and Luffa cylindrica (Linn) (syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill) are plants traditionally used as food ingredients and in the management of diseases, including cancer, in Nigeria. Despite the therapeutic potentials attributed to these plants, reports on their genotoxicity are scanty. In this study, the genotoxicity of the aqueous and hydro-methanol extract of these plants was evaluated using mouse bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Antigenotoxicity was assessed by the bone marrow micronucleus test...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Olufunsho Awodele, Adejuwon Adewale Adeneye, Sheriff Aboyade Aiyeola, Adokiye Senibo Benebo
There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Mostafa Khafaei, Shahram Samie, Seyed Javad Mowla, Akbar Ghorbani Alvanegh, Behnaz Mirzaei, Somaye Chavoshei, Ghamar Soltan Dorraj, Mostafa Esmailnejad, Mahmood Tavallaie, Mohammadreza Nourani
Sulfur mustard (SM) or mustard gas is a chemical alkylating agent that causes blisters in the skin (blister gas), burns the eyes and causes lung injury. Some major cellular pathways are involved in the damage caused by mustard gas such as NF-κb signaling, TGF-β signaling, WNT pathway, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (19-25 nucleotides) that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are found in two forms, extracellular and intracellular. Changes in the levels of extracellular microRNAs are directly associated with many diseases, it is thus common to study the level of extracellular microRNAs as a biomarker to determine the pathophysiologic status...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Chand D Basha, Rajarami G Reddy
Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb) caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca) supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water) from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6-21) of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Sun Li, Xiao-Lin Liu, Xie-Lai Zhou, Su-Jun Jiang, Hong Yuan
The toxic metal lead is a widespread environmental polutant that can adversely affect human health. However, the underlying mechanisms of lead-induced toxicity are still largely unknown. The mechanism of lead toxicity was presumed to involve cross reaction between Pb(2+) and Ca(2+) with calmodulin dependent systems. The aim of the present study was thus to identify differential expression of calmodulin-related genes in the spleen of lead-exposed mice. We performed microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Saeed Samarghandian, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad, Mahmoud M Shabestari, Farahzad Jabbari Azad, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Fereshteh Bafandeh
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control). The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and also serum Cd contents...
September 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Lukman Adewale Alli
This study was designed to assess the blood levels of cadmium and lead in some occupationally exposed individuals and compare the values with non-exposed individuals, with the aim of increasing the awareness of health risk caused by these heavy metals. A total of 120 subjects (64 occupationally exposed and 56 non-exposed subjects) with the age range of 15-40 years were studied in cross-sectional study conducted between September 2012 and February 2013 in Gwagwalada area of Abuja, Nigeria. Blood cadmium and lead were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS)...
September 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Ayodele J Akinyemi, Ganiyu Oboh, Adedayo O Ademiluyi
Evidence has shown that ingestion of heavy metals can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxic potential of salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo); salt A (made by burning palm kernel shaft then soaked in water overnight and the extract from the resulting residue is used as the salt substitute) and salt B (an unrefined salt mined from a local site at Ilobu town, Osun-State, Nigeria) by assessing their effect on some key enzymes linked with neurodegenerative disease [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities] as well as on malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the rat brain...
September 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Andrey A Skalny, Alexey A Tinkov, Yulia S Medvedeva, Irina B Alchinova, Mikhail Yu Karganov, Olga P Ajsuvakova, Anatoly V Skalny, Alexandr A Nikonorov
The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair) were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D...
September 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
R B Suresh Kumar, Biswakanth Kar, Narayan Dolai, Indrajit Karmakar, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Pallab K Haldar
Streblus asper Lour (Moraceae), commonly known as Siamee Rough Brush in English is widely distributed in subtropical Asia and traditionally used for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract from Streblus asper bark (EASA) was evaluated for antitumor effect against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of DAL cells in mice, EASA was administered intraperitoneally at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 9 consecutive days...
September 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Yacine Bouguezza, Bachra Khettal, Lydia Tir, Souad Boudrioua
Nigella damascena seed is characterized by the presence of the major alkaloid, damascenine and its related metabolites. To our knowledge, no detailed subchronic toxicological assessment of damascenine (DA) has been reported. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of DA in vivo after sub-chronic intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in mice and in vitro following human erythrocyte hemolysis. In vivo, a total of 48 adult male and female Swiss albino mice were used in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mice received intraperitoneally two doses of DA (20 and 100 mg/kg) for 28 days...
September 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Petr N Menshanov, Andrey E Akulov
In vivo study of cerebral metabolism in neonatal animals by high-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an important tool for deciphering the developmental origins of adult diseases. Up to date, all in vivo spectrum acquisition procedures have been performed in neonatal rodents under anesthesia. However, it is still unknown if the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane, which is commonly used in magnetic resonance imaging studies, could affect metabolite levels in the brain of neonatal rats. Moreover, the unanesthetized MRS preparation that uses neonatal rodent pups is still lacking...
September 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Ankita Bhattacharjee, Shilpi Kumari Prasad, Swagata Pal, Bithin Maji, Alak Kumar Syamal, Arnab Banerjee, Sandip Mukherjee
Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/ day) with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day) or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day) alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene...
June 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Abhijeet Lakhera, Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Divya Bansal, Nazneen Dubey
Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats...
June 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Olufunsho Awodele, Kennedy Iliya Amagon, John Agbo, Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
Bridelia ferruginea is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa and has traditionally been used to treat diabetes, arthritis and boils. Despite all these uses, extensive toxicological evaluation has not been carried out. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological effects of the stem bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea in rats. The lethal dose (LD50) was determined using probit analysis and graded doses of the extract (250-4000 mg/kg) were administered to the animals via oral and intraperitoneal routes and observed for mortality, behavioral changes and signs of toxicity...
June 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Prem Rajak, Moumita Dutta, Sumedha Roy
Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1(st) instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3(rd) instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count...
June 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja, Lawrence Ulu Ogbonnaya, Henry Uro-Chukwu, Johnson Akuma Obuna, Emeka Ogiji, Simon Uchenna Ezenkwa
Zinc (an essential trace element) and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity) have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443) aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs), consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods...
June 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Brian S Hooker, Paul G King, Lisa K Sykes, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
A hypothesis testing, case-control study evaluated automated medical records for exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) administered at specific intervals in the first six-months-of-life among cases diagnosed with a tic disorder (TD) or cerebral degeneration (CD) (an outcome not biologically plausibly linked to TM exposure) in comparison to controls; both cases and controls were continuously enrolled from birth (born from 1991-2000) within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database...
June 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Mahesh Chand Meena, Sachin Mittal, Yashoda Rani
Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers...
June 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
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