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Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Xianrui Yang, Li Li, Li Xiao, Donghui Zhang
Adult stem cells are excellent cell resource for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been discovered and well known in various application. Here, we reviewed the history of dental pulp stem cell study and the detail experimental method including isolation, culture, cryopreservation, and the differentiation strategy to different cell lineage. Moreover, we discussed the future potential application of the combination of tissue engineering and of DPSC differentiation. This review will help the new learner to quickly get into the DPSC filed...
December 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Caixia Jin, Qingjian Ou, Zongyi Li, Juan Wang, Jieping Zhang, Haibin Tian, Jing-Ying Xu, Furong Gao, Lixia Lu, Guo-Tong Xu
BACKGROUND: Millions of people are affected with retinal diseases that eventually cause blindness, and retinal progenitor cell (RPC) transplantation is a promising therapeutic avenue. However, RPC expansion and the underlying regulation mechanisms remain elusive. METHODS: Adult mouse neural RPCs (mNRPCs) were isolated and amplified with the combination of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor CHIR99021. The progenitor characteristics were evaluated with RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry (ICC), western blot, flow cytometry, and transcriptome analysis prior to transplantation...
December 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ruoyu Wu, Jihao Ruan, Yongjin Sun, Mengyu Liu, Zhuang Sha, Cunyi Fan, Qingkai Wu
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to investigate the role and specific molecular mechanism of HIF1A-AS2/miR-665/IL6 axis in regulating osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. METHODS: RNAs' expression profile in normal/osteogenic differentiation-induced ASCs (osteogenic group) was from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The analysis was carried out using Bioconductor of R. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes dataset were applied to identify up- and downregulated signaling pathways...
December 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Wen-Ching Shen, Yu-Hsiang Chou, Hsiang-Po Huang, Jenn-Feng Sheen, Shih-Chieh Hung, Hsin-Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. AKI is a serious and costly medical condition. Effective therapy for AKI is an unmet clinical need, and molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between an injured kidney and distant organs remain unclear. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies should be developed. METHODS: We directed the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into endothelial progenitor cells (iEPCs), which were then applied for treating mouse AKI...
December 10, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Nunthawan Nowwarote, Waleerat Sukarawan, Prasit Pavasant, Brian L Foster, Thanaphum Osathanon
BACKGROUND: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulates maintenance of stemness and modulation of osteo/odontogenic differentiation and mineralization in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). Mineralization in the bones and teeth is in part controlled by pericellular levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi ), a component of hydroxyapatite, and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi ), an inhibitor of mineralization. The progressive ankylosis protein (gene ANKH; protein ANKH) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1/ENPP1) increase PPi and inhibit mineralization, while tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL; TNAP) is a critical pro-mineralization enzyme that hydrolyzes PPi ...
December 10, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ioannis Christodoulou, Maria Goulielmaki, Marina Devetzi, Mihalis Panagiotidis, Georgios Koliakos, Vassilis Zoumpourlis
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) comprise a heterogeneous population of rapidly proliferating cells that can be isolated from adult (e.g., bone marrow, adipose tissue) as well as fetal (e.g., umbilical cord) tissues (termed bone marrow (BM)-, adipose tissue (AT)-, and umbilical cord (UC)-MSC, respectively) and are capable of differentiation into a wide range of non-hematopoietic cell types. An additional, unique attribute of MSC is their ability to home to tumor sites and to interact with the local supportive microenvironment which rapidly conceptualized into MSC-based experimental cancer cytotherapy at the turn of the century...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Nao Komatsu, Mikihito Kajiya, Souta Motoike, Manabu Takewaki, Susumu Horikoshi, Tomoyuki Iwata, Kazuhisa Ouhara, Katsuhiro Takeda, Shinji Matsuda, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Hidemi Kurihara
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) floating culture clumps of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)/extracellular matrix (ECM) complexes (C-MSCs) consist of cells and self-produced ECM. Previous studies have demonstrated that C-MSCs can be transplanted into bony lesions without an artificial scaffold to induce bone regeneration. Moreover, osteoinductive medium (OIM)-treated C-MSCs (OIM-C-MSCs) have shown rapid and increased new bone formation in vivo. To apply OIM-C-MSCs for novel bone regenerative cell therapy, their cellular properties at the molecular level must be elucidated...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Mengge Wang, Hongtao Wang, Yuqi Wen, Xiaoyuan Chen, Xin Liu, Jie Gao, Pei Su, Yuanfu Xu, Wen Zhou, Lihong Shi, Jiaxi Zhou
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable progress in the development of methods for hematopoietic differentiation, efficient generation of transplantable hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and other genuine functional blood cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is still unsuccessful. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying hematopoietic differentiation of hESCs is highly demanded. METHODS: In this study, by using whole-genome gene profiling, we identified Myeloid Ectopic Viral Integration Site 2 homolog (MEIS2) as a potential regulator of hESC early hematopoietic differentiation...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Se Won Yi, Hye Jin Kim, Hyun Jyung Oh, Heejun Shin, Jung Sun Lee, Ji Sun Park, Keun-Hong Park
BACKGROUND: During differentiation of stem cells, it is recognized that molecular mechanisms of transcription factors manage stem cells towards the intended lineage. In this study, using microarray-based technology, gene expression profiling was examined during the process of chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). To induce chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs, the cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) was coupled with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX)...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Lihong Wang, Xianjing Han, Guojing Qu, Le Su, Baoxiang Zhao, Junying Miao
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are gradually getting attention because of its multi-directional differentiation potential, hematopoietic support, and promotion of stem cell implantation. However, cultured BMSCs in vitro possess a very limited proliferation potential, and the presence of stem cell aging has substantially restricted the effect together with the efficiency in clinical treatment. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the connection between cellular aging and lysosomal acidification as new reports indicated that vacuolar H+ -ATPase (v-ATPase) activity was altered and lysosomal pH was dysregulated in the process of cellular aging...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Liping Guan, Xiaoyi Li, Jiali Wei, Zhihui Liang, Jing Yang, Xiufang Weng, Xiongwen Wu
BACKGROUND: As the implantation and long-term existence of tumor-specific T cells in host are the prerequisite for adoptive immunotherapy, memory stem T cells (TSCM ) with self-renewal and differentiation capacity show the greatest potential to implant and long-term exhibit function in vivo, compared with other T cells of differentiation stages. Hence, tumor-specific TSCM have become potential candidate for adoptive T cell therapy of cancer. Here, we reported a protocol to generate allogeneic antigen-specific CD8+ TSCM cells from human PBLs...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Lian Ru Gao, Ning Kun Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yu Chen, Li Wang, Ying Zhu, Hai Hong Tang
BACKGROUND: Apelin plays a key beneficial role in energy metabolism by increasing glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity; however, apelin has a short half-life because it is rapidly cleared from the circulation limiting its therapeutic benefit. The aim of this study is to create a new approach to treat type 2 diabetes by inducing prolonged expression of apelin in Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs). METHODS: A type 2 diabetic rat model was given a high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yong Fan, Beatrice Xuan Ho, Jeremy Kah Sheng Pang, Nicole Min Qian Pek, Jin Hui Hor, Shi-Yan Ng, Boon-Seng Soh
BACKGROUND: The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of second heart field (SHF Isl1+) that gives rise to the anterior heart field (AHF) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) for the formation of the right ventricle, outflow tract (OFT), and a portion of the inflow tract (IFT). During early cardiogenesis, these AHF CPCs reside within the pharyngeal mesoderm (PM) that provides a microenvironment for them to receive signals that direct their cell fates. Here, N-cadherin, which is weakly expressed by CPCs, plays a significant role by promoting the adhesion of CPCs within the AHF, regulating β-catenin levels in the cytoplasm to maintain high Wnt signaling and cardioproliferation while also preventing the premature differentiation of CPCs...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xiaoli Li, Guoliang An, Yan Wang, Di Liang, Zhonghui Zhu, Lin Tian
BACKGROUND: Silicosis is a common occupational disease, characterized by silicotic nodules and diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrated an anti-fibrotic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in silica-induced lung fibrosis. In the present study, we sought to clarify the homing ability of BMSCs and the specific mechanisms for their effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: The biodistribution of BMSCs was identified by near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging in vivo and in vitro...
December 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yosuke Tanaka, Soichiro Sonoda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Sara Murata, Kento Nishida, Shion Hama, Yukari Kyumoto-Nakamura, Norihisa Uehara, Kazuaki Nonaka, Toshio Kukita, Takayoshi Yamaza
BACKGROUND: Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) are a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the apical papilla of the developing tooth root apex of human teeth. Because of their osteogenic/dentinogenic capacity, SCAP are considered as a source for bone and dentin regeneration. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanism of osteogenic/dentinogenic differentiation of SCAP. Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway participates in regulating the differentiation of various cell types, such as MSCs...
November 29, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Soumia Brakta, Aymara Mas, Ayman Al-Hendy
BACKGROUND: Myometrium, the muscular wall of the uterus, is an active organ markedly remodeled during a woman's reproductive life, especially during pregnancy. Different studies using the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and side population methods in murine and human myometrium have suggested the presence of somatic stem cells in this tissue because of its remarkable regenerative capacity. Recently, our group has developed a surface-marker (Stro1/CD44)-specific approach to isolate and characterize myometrial somatic stem cells (SSCs) from humans and rats...
November 29, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Paul Neybecker, Christel Henrionnet, Elise Pape, Didier Mainard, Laurent Galois, Damien Loeuille, Pierre Gillet, Astrid Pinzano
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in synovial fluid (SF) and can easily be harvested during arthrocentesis or arthroscopy. However, SF-MSC characterization and chondrogenicity in collagen sponges have been poorly documented as well as their hypothetical in vivo chondroprotective properties with intra-articular injections during experimental osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: SF-MSCs were isolated from human SF aspirates in patients suffering from advanced OA undergoing total knee joint replacements...
November 28, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Lauren Scarfe, Arthur Taylor, Jack Sharkey, Rachel Harwood, Michael Barrow, Joan Comenge, Lydia Beeken, Cai Astley, Ilaria Santeramo, Claire Hutchinson, Lorenzo Ressel, Jon Smythe, Eric Austin, Raphael Levy, Matthew J Rosseinsky, Dave J Adams, Harish Poptani, Brian K Park, Patricia Murray, Bettina Wilm
BACKGROUND: Cell-based regenerative medicine therapies are now frequently tested in clinical trials. In many conditions, cell therapies are administered systemically, but there is little understanding of their fate, and adverse events are often under-reported. Currently, it is only possible to assess safety and fate of cell therapies in preclinical studies, specifically by monitoring animals longitudinally using multi-modal imaging approaches. Here, using a suite of in vivo imaging modalities to explore the fate of a range of human and murine cells, we investigate how route of administration, cell type and host immune status affect the fate of administered cells...
November 28, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Dingyu Wu, Zhenxing Wang, Jinbing Wang, Yingnan Geng, Zhanzhao Zhang, Yu Li, Qiannan Li, Zhiwei Zheng, Yilin Cao, Zhi-Yong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Bone tissue engineering is not widely used in clinical treatment. Two main reasons hide behind this: (1) the seed cells are difficult to obtain and (2) the process of tissue engineering bone construction is too complex and its efficiency is still relatively low. It is foreseeable that in the near future, the problem of seed cell sources could be solved completely in tissue engineering bone repair. As for the complex process and low efficiency of tissue engineering bone construction, usually two strategies would be considered: (1) the construction strategy based on injectable bone tissue and (2) the construction strategy based on osteogenic cell sheets...
November 28, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jiang Du, Xinxing Zhu, Rui Guo, Zhihao Xu, Fang Fang Cheng, Qing Liu, Fen Yang, Lihong Guan, Yanli Liu, Juntang Lin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells (MenSCs) emerge as an ideal source for cell-based treatment in regenerative medicine and immunotherapy. However, the major obstacle is the low survival rate in tissues and the limited expansion number. Autophagy is an intracellular metabolic self-degradative process which plays important roles in normal cellular division and survival, and the present study aimed to explore the related mechanisms between autophagy and survival of MenSCs in vitro and in vivo...
November 28, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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