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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461491/cancer-stem-cells-bone-and-tumor-microenvironment-key-players-in-bone-metastases
#1
REVIEW
Ilaria Roato, Riccardo Ferracini
Tumor mass is constituted by a heterogeneous group of cells, among which a key role is played by the cancer stem cells (CSCs), possessing high regenerative properties. CSCs directly metastasize to bone, since bone microenvironment represents a fertile environment that protects CSCs against the immune system, and maintains their properties and plasticity. CSCs can migrate from the primary tumor to the bone marrow (BM), due to their capacity to perform the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Once in BM, they can also perform the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, allowing them to proliferate and initiate bone lesions...
February 20, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463018/towards-a-clinical-decision-support-system-for-external-beam-radiation-oncology-prostate-cancer-patients-proton-vs-photon-radiotherapy-a-radiobiological-study-of-robustness-and-stability
#2
Seán Walsh, Erik Roelofs, Peter Kuess, Yvonka van Wijk, Ben Vanneste, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin, Bleddyn Jones, Dietmar Georg, Frank Verhaegen
We present a methodology which can be utilized to select proton or photon radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Four state-of-the-art competing treatment modalities were compared (by way of an in silico trial) for a cohort of 25 prostate cancer patients, with and without correction strategies for prostate displacements. Metrics measured from clinical image guidance systems were used. Three correction strategies were investigated; no-correction, extended-no-action-limit, and online-correction. Clinical efficacy was estimated via radiobiological models incorporating robustness (how probable a given treatment plan was delivered) and stability (the consistency between the probable best and worst delivered treatments at the 95% confidence limit)...
February 18, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463004/advanced-eus-guided-tissue-acquisition-methods-for-pancreatic-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Pujan Kandel, Michael B Wallace
Pancreas cancer is a lethal cancer as the majority patients are diagnosed at an advanced incurable stage. Despite improvements in diagnostic modalities and management strategies, including surgery and chemotherapies, the outcome of pancreas cancer remains poor. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an important imaging tool for pancreas cancer. For decades, resected pancreas cancer and other cancer specimens have been used to identify tissue biomarkers or genomics for precision therapy; however, only 20% of patients undergo surgery, and thus, this framework is not useful for unresectable pancreas cancer...
February 17, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462961/a-phase-i-ii-study-targeting-angiogenesis-using-bevacizumab-combined-with-chemotherapy-and-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-valproic-acid-in-advanced-sarcomas
#4
Varun Monga, Umang Swami, Munir Tanas, Aaron Bossler, Sarah L Mott, Brian J Smith, Mohammed Milhem
Epigenetic events and genetic alterations under the control of the tumor microenvironment potentially mediate tumor induced angiogenesis involved in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) metastasis. Addition of antiangiogenic agent, such as bevacizumab, to standard chemotherapy in treatment of sarcoma has been studied in clinical trials, but most of the findings have not supported its use. We hypothesized the existence of an epigenetically mediated "angiogenic switch", and the tumor microenvironment, prevents bevacizumab from truly blocking angiogenesis...
February 17, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462906/the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cancer
#5
EDITORIAL
Joëlle Roche
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs during normal embryonic development, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and wound healing.[...].
February 16, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462900/next-generation-immunotherapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-dna-vaccination-is-seeking-new-combo-partners
#6
REVIEW
Paola Cappello, Claudia Curcio, Giorgia Mandili, Cecilia Roux, Sara Bulfamante, Francesco Novelli
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) is an almost incurable radio- and chemo-resistant tumor, and its microenvironment is characterized by a strong desmoplastic reaction associated with a significant infiltration of T regulatory lymphocytes and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Tregs, MDSC). Investigating immunological targets has identified a number of metabolic and cytoskeletal related molecules, which are typically recognized by circulating antibodies. Among these molecules we have investigated alpha-enolase (ENO1), a glycolytic enzyme that also acts a plasminogen receptor...
February 16, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462851/alleviating-pancreatic-cancer-associated-pain-using-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-neurolysis
#7
REVIEW
Kosuke Minaga, Mamoru Takenaka, Ken Kamata, Tomoe Yoshikawa, Atsushi Nakai, Shunsuke Omoto, Takeshi Miyata, Kentaro Yamao, Hajime Imai, Hiroki Sakamoto, Masayuki Kitano, Masatoshi Kudo
The most common symptom in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is abdominal pain. This has traditionally been treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid analgesics. However, these treatments result in inadequate pain control or drug-related adverse effects in some patients. An alternative pain-relief modality is celiac plexus neurolysis, in which the celiac plexus is chemically ablated. This procedure was performed percutaneously or intraoperatively until 1996, when endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided celiac plexus neurolysis was first described...
February 15, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439493/beyond-brooding-on-oncometabolic-havoc-in-idh-mutant-gliomas-and-aml-current-and-future-therapeutic-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Hanumantha Rao Madala, Surendra R Punganuru, Viswanath Arutla, Subhasis Misra, T J Thomas, Kalkunte S Srivenugopal
Isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1,2), the key Krebs cycle enzymes that generate NADPH reducing equivalents, undergo heterozygous mutations in >70% of low- to mid-grade gliomas and ~20% of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) and gain an unusual new activity of reducing the α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) in a NADPH-consuming reaction. The oncometabolite D-2HG, which accumulates >35 mM, is widely accepted to drive a progressive oncogenesis besides exacerbating the already increased oxidative stress in these cancers...
February 11, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439461/early-diagnosis-to-improve-the-poor-prognosis-of-pancreatic-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Masataka Kikuyama, Terumi Kamisawa, Sawako Kuruma, Kazuro Chiba, Shinya Kawaguchi, Shuzo Terada, Tatsunori Satoh
Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis due to delayed diagnosis. Early diagnosis is the most important factor for improving prognosis. For early diagnosis of PC, patients with clinical manifestations suggestive of PC and high risk for developing PC need to be selected for examinations for PC. Signs suggestive of PC (e.g., symptoms, diabetes mellitus, acute pancreatitis, or abnormal results of blood examinations) should not be missed, and the details of risks for PC (e.g., familial history of PC, intraductal mucin producing neoplasm, chronic pancreatitis, hereditary pancreatitis, or life habit) should be understood...
February 11, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425173/bioapplications-of-cell-selex-generated-aptamers-in-cancer-diagnostics-therapeutics-theranostics-and-biomarker-discovery-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Xuehui Pang, Cheng Cui, Shuo Wan, Ying Jiang, Liangliang Zhang, Lian Xia, Long Li, Xiaowei Li, Weihong Tan
Currently, functional single-stranded oligonucleotide probes, termed aptamers, generated by an iterative technology, Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX), are utilized to selectively target molecules or cells with high affinity. Aptamers hold considerable promise as multifunctional molecules or conjugates for challenging nanotechnologies or bioapplications now and in the future. In this review, we first describe recent endeavors to select aptamers towards live cancer cells via cell-SELEX...
February 9, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425151/liver-transplantation-for-alcoholic-liver-disease-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Patrizia Burra, Alberto Zanetto, Giacomo Germani
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Genetic background plays also a significant role and specific patterns of gene mutations in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized...
February 9, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415512/linking-extracellular-matrix-agrin-to-the-hippo-pathway-in-liver-cancer-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Sayan Chakraborty, Wanjin Hong
In addition to the structural and scaffolding role, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is emerging as a hub for biomechanical signal transduction that is frequently relayed to intracellular sensors to regulate diverse cellular processes. At a macroscopic scale, matrix rigidity confers long-ranging effects contributing towards tissue fibrosis and cancer. The transcriptional co-activators YAP/TAZ, better known as the converging effectors of the Hippo pathway, are widely recognized for their new role as nuclear mechanosensors during organ homeostasis and cancer...
February 6, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415418/integrin-inhibitors-in-prostate-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Maylein C Juan-Rivera, Magaly Martínez-Ferrer
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the U.S. The development of chemotherapeutic agents that can bind PCa tumor cells with high specificity is critical in order to increase treatment effectiveness. Integrin receptors and their corresponding ligands have different expression patterns in PCa cells. They have been identified as promising targets to inhibit pathways involved in PCa progression. Currently, several compounds have proven to target specific integrins and their subunits in PCa cells...
February 6, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401744/elevated-polyamines-in-saliva-of-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Yasutsugu Asai, Takao Itoi, Masahiro Sugimoto, Atsushi Sofuni, Takayoshi Tsuchiya, Reina Tanaka, Ryosuke Tonozuka, Mitsuyoshi Honjo, Shuntaro Mukai, Mitsuru Fujita, Kenjiro Yamamoto, Yukitoshi Matsunami, Takashi Kurosawa, Yuichi Nagakawa, Miku Kaneko, Sana Ota, Shigeyuki Kawachi, Motohide Shimazu, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masaru Tomita, Makoto Sunamura
Detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) at a resectable stage is still difficult because of the lack of accurate detection tests. The development of accurate biomarkers in low or non-invasive biofluids is essential to enable frequent tests, which would help increase the opportunity of PC detection in early stages. Polyamines have been reported as possible biomarkers in urine and saliva samples in various cancers. Here, we analyzed salivary metabolites, including polyamines, using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry...
February 5, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401653/myc-regulates-%C3%AE-6-integrin-subunit-expression-and-splicing-under-its-pro-proliferative-itga6a-form-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#15
Jean-François Groulx, Salah Boudjadi, Jean-François Beaulieu
The α6 integrin subunit (ITGA6) pre-mRNA undergoes alternative splicing to form two splicing variants, named ITGA6A and ITGA6B. In primary human colorectal cancer cells, the levels of both ITGA6 and β4 integrin subunit (ITGB4) subunits of the α6β4 integrin are increased. We previously found that the upregulation of ITGA6 is a direct consequence of the increase of the pro-proliferative ITGA6A variant. However, the mechanisms that control ITGA6 expression and splicing into the ITGA6A variant over ITGA6B in colorectal cancer cells remain poorly understood...
February 3, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401647/phosphorylation-of-sox2-at-threonine-116-is-a-potential-marker-to-identify-a-subset-of-breast-cancer-cells-with-high-tumorigenecity-and-stem-like-features
#16
Nidhi Gupta, Keshav Gopal, Chengsheng Wu, Abdulraheem Alshareef, Alexandra Chow, Fang Wu, Peng Wang, Xiaoxia Ye, Gilbert Bigras, Raymond Lai
We have previously identified a novel phenotypic dichotomy in breast cancer (BC) based on the response to a SRR2 (Sox2 regulatory region 2) reporter, with reporter responsive (RR) cells being more tumorigenic/stem-like than reporter unresponsive (RU) cells. Since the expression level of Sox2 is comparable between the two cell subsets, we hypothesized that post-translational modifications of Sox2 contribute to their differential reporter response and phenotypic differences. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found Sox2 to be phosphorylated in RR but not RU cells...
February 3, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385093/regulation-of-cancer-stem-cell-metabolism-by-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-4-sfrp4
#17
Abhijeet Deshmukh, Frank Arfuso, Philip Newsholme, Arun Dharmarajan
Tumours contain a small number of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is through these that tumour regrowth originates at secondary sites, thus rendering CSCs an attractive target for treatment. Cancer cells adapt cellular metabolism for aggressive proliferation. Tumour cells use less efficient glycolysis for the production of ATP and increasing tumour mass, instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). CSCs show distinct metabolic shift and, depending on the cancer type, can be highly glycolytic or OXPHOS dependent...
January 31, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385739/precision-immuno-oncology-prospects-of-individualized-immunotherapy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Jiajia Zhang, Christopher L Wolfgang, Lei Zheng
Pancreatic cancer, most commonly referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), remains one of the most deadly diseases, with very few effective therapies available. Emerging as a new modality of modern cancer treatments, immunotherapy has shown promises for various cancer types. Over the past decades, the potential of immunotherapy in eliciting clinical benefits in pancreatic cancer have also been extensively explored. It has been demonstrated in preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials that cancer vaccines were effective in eliciting anti-tumor immune response, but few have led to a significant improvement in survival...
January 30, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385712/colorectal-cancer-and-alcohol-consumption-populations-to-molecules
#19
REVIEW
Marco Rossi, Muhammad Jahanzaib Anwar, Ahmad Usman, Ali Keshavarzian, Faraz Bishehsari
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, being the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the world. Several environmental and habitual factors have been associated with the CRC risk. Alcohol intake, a common and rising habit of modern society, is one of the major risk factors for development of CRC. Here, we will summarize the evidence linking alcohol with colon carcinogenesis and possible underlying mechanisms. Some epidemiologic studies suggest that even moderate drinking increases the CRC risk...
January 30, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382170/electrotransfer-of-different-control-plasmids-elicits-different-antitumor-effectiveness-in-b16-f10-melanoma
#20
Masa Bosnjak, Tanja Jesenko, Urska Kamensek, Gregor Sersa, Jaka Lavrencak, Loree Heller, Maja Cemazar
Several studies have shown that different control plasmids may cause antitumor action in different murine tumor models after gene electrotransfer (GET). Due to the differences in GET protocols, plasmid vectors, and experimental models, the observed antitumor effects were incomparable. Therefore, the current study was conducted comparing antitumor effectiveness of three different control plasmids using the same GET parameters. We followed cytotoxicity in vitro and the antitumor effect in vivo after GET of control plasmids pControl, pENTR/U6 scr and pVAX1 in B16...
January 29, 2018: Cancers
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