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Jaeyeon Kim, Eun Young Park, Olga Kim, Jeanne M Schilder, Donna M Coffey, Chi-Heum Cho, Robert C Bast
High-grade serous ovarian cancer, also known as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), is the most common and deadliest type of ovarian cancer. HGSC appears to arise from the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum. As most HGSC cases present with widespread peritoneal metastases, it is often not clear where HGSC truly originates. Traditionally, the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) was long believed to be the origin of HGSC. Since the late 1990s, the fallopian tube epithelium has emerged as a potential primary origin of HGSC...
November 12, 2018: Cancers
Yu-Shin Hung, Jen-Shi Chen, Yen-Yang Chen, Chang-Hsien Lu, Pei-Hung Chang, Wen-Chi Chou
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the association between pancreatic cancer and arterial thromboembolism (aTE). METHODS: A total of 838 consecutive patients receiving palliative chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer between 2010 and 2016 were retrospectively enrolled. The clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and survival outcome of aTE in patients with pancreatic cancer. RESULTS: aTE occurred in 42 (5...
November 12, 2018: Cancers
Ruurd Torensma
Current treatments for oligodendrogliomas are powerful but have a negative impact on the rest of the body. The bone marrow is damaged by the chemotherapeutics, but other parts of the body are also affected. In this paper, the current treatment method and its collateral damage is described. Therefore, therapies are needed that are more effective against the tumor while having less negative effects on the patient's quality of life. Some potential therapies include optimal removal of the tumor by fluorescent-guided surgery (FGS), intraoperative desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), better monitoring of the effects of therapy by pseudo-coloring shades of gray of MRI pictures, and using recent data from RNA sequencing of single cells and immunotherapy...
November 12, 2018: Cancers
Francesca Musumeci, Chiara Greco, Giancarlo Grossi, Alessio Molinari, Silvia Schenone
Ponatinib is a third line drug for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia patients, especially those that develop the gatekeeper mutation T315I, which is resistant to the first and the second line drugs imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib and bosutinib. The compound was first identified as a pan Bcr-Abl and Src kinase inhibitor. Further studies have indicated that it is a multitargeted inhibitor that is active on FGFRs, RET, AKT, ERK1/2, KIT, MEKK2 and other kinases. For this reason, the compound has been evaluated on several cancers in which these kinases play important roles, including thyroid, breast, ovary and lung cancer, neuroblastoma, rhabdoid tumours and in myeloproliferative disorders...
November 9, 2018: Cancers
Mario Luppi, Francesco Fabbiano, Giuseppe Visani, Giovanni Martinelli, Adriano Venditti
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex hematological disease characterized by genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Recent advances in the understanding of AML pathogenesis have paved the way for the development of new agents targeting specific molecules or mechanisms that contribute to finally move beyond the current standard of care, which is "3 + 7" regimen. In particular, new therapeutic options such as targeted therapies (midostaurin and enasidenib), monoclonal antibodies (gemtuzumab ozogamicin), and a novel liposomal formulation of cytarabine and daunorubicin (CPX-351) have been recently approved, and will be soon available for the treatment of adult patients with AML...
November 9, 2018: Cancers
Kumar Jayant, Mikael H Sodergren, Isabella Reccia, Tomokazu Kusano, Dimitris Zacharoulis, Duncan Spalding, Madhava Pai, Long R Jiao, Kai Wen Huang
Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer and third most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Presently, indications for liver resections for liver cancers are widening, but the response is varied owing to the multitude of factors including excess intraoperative bleeding, increased blood transfusion requirement, post-hepatectomy liver failure and morbidity. The advent of the radiofrequency energy-based bipolar device Habib™-4X has made bloodless hepatic resection possible. The radiofrequency-generated coagulative necrosis on normal liver parenchyma provides a firm underpinning for the bloodless liver resection...
November 8, 2018: Cancers
Jong Hyun Lee, Chulwon Kim, Seok-Geun Lee, Gautam Sethi, Kwang Seok Ahn
Natural medicinal plants are multi-targeted in nature and their anti-cancer activities are also complex and varied, thus requiring a more systematic analysis of their modes of action. Since the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is often deregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells and tissue specimens, its negative regulation can form the basis for identification of targeted therapy. In this report, we analyzed the possible anti-cancer effects of ophiopogonin D (OP-D) and the underlying mechanisms by which OP-D exerts its actions in NSCLC...
November 8, 2018: Cancers
Justyna Struzik, Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska
In recent years, oncolytic virotherapy became a promising therapeutic approach, leading to the introduction of a novel generation of anticancer drugs. However, despite evoking an antitumor response, introducing an oncolytic virus (OV) to the patient is still inefficient to overcome both tumor protective mechanisms and the limitation of viral replication by the host. In cancer treatment, nuclear factor (NF)-κB has been extensively studied among important therapeutic targets. The pleiotropic nature of NF-κB transcription factor includes its involvement in immunity and tumorigenesis...
November 8, 2018: Cancers
Alaa Zare, Alexandra Petrova, Mehdi Agoumi, Heather Armstrong, Gilbert Bigras, Katia Tonkin, Eytan Wine, Shairaz Baksh
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [...].
November 7, 2018: Cancers
Ranjit Manchanda, Faiza Gaba
The current clinical model for genetic testing is based on clinical-criteria/family-history (FH) and a pre-defined mutation probability threshold. It requires people to develop cancer before identifying unaffected individuals in the family to target prevention. This process is inefficient, resource intensive and misses >50% of individuals or mutation carriers at risk. Population genetic-testing can overcome these limitations. It is technically feasible to test populations on a large scale; genetic-testing costs are falling and acceptability and awareness are rising...
November 5, 2018: Cancers
Jennifer A Foltz, Jena E Moseman, Aarohi Thakkar, Nitin Chakravarti, Dean A Lee
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine that inhibits the anti-tumor responses of NK cells and T cells. However, the stimulation of natural killer (NK) cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines decreases NK cell sensitivity to TGFβ. Herein, we sought to determine if TGFβ imprinting (TGFβi) during NK cell activation and expansion would decrease NK cell sensitivity to TGFβ suppression. To this end, we demonstrate that the activation of NK cells during chronic IL-2 stimulation and TGFβi potently induces NK cell hypersecretion of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in response to tumor targets which persists for at least one month in vitro after the removal of TGFβ...
November 5, 2018: Cancers
Liqing Wu, Xiaolong Yang
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most prominent diseases in the world, and the treatments for BC have many limitations, such as resistance and a lack of reliable biomarkers. Currently the Hippo pathway is emerging as a tumor suppressor pathway with its four core components that regulate downstream transcriptional targets. In this review, we introduce the present targeted therapies of BC, and then discuss the roles of the Hippo pathway in BC. Finally, we summarize the evidence of the small molecule inhibitors that target the Hippo pathway, and then discuss the possibilities and future direction of the Hippo-targeted drugs for BC therapy...
November 5, 2018: Cancers
Teresa Bernadette Steinbichler, Madeleine Lichtenecker, Maria Anegg, Daniel Dejaco, Barbara Kofler, Volker Hans Schartinger, Maria-Therese Kasseroler, Britta Forthuber, Andrea Posch, Herbert Riechelmann
Background: Following first-line treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), persistent disease may require second-line treatment. Methods: All patients with HNC treated between 2008 and 2016 were included. Second-line treatment modalities and survival of patients were analyzed. Results: After first-line therapy, 175/741 patients had persistent disease. Of these, 112 were considered eligible for second-line treatment. Second-line treatment resulted in 50% complete response. Median overall survival of patients receiving second-line therapy was 24 (95% CI: 19 to 29) months; otherwise survival was 10 (9 to 11; p < 0...
November 3, 2018: Cancers
Alexander R Delaney, Lei Dong, Anthony Mascia, Wei Zou, Yongbin Zhang, Lingshu Yin, Sara Rosas, Jan Hrbacek, Antony J Lomax, Ben J Slotman, Max Dahele, Wilko F A R Verbakel
Background: Radiotherapy treatment planning as an increasingly automated and knowledge-based planning has been shown to match and sometimes improve upon manual clinical plans, with increased consistency and efficiency. In this study, we benchmarked a novel prototype knowledge-based intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) planning solution, against three international proton centers. Methods: A model library was constructed, comprising 50 head and neck cancer (HNC) manual IMPT plans from a single center. Three external-centers each provided seven manual benchmark IMPT plans...
November 2, 2018: Cancers
Hector J Diaz-Zabala, Ana P Ortiz, Lisa Garland, Kristine Jones, Cynthia M Perez, Edna Mora, Nelly Arroyo, Taras K Oleksyk, Miguel Echenique, Jaime L Matta, Michael Dean, Julie Dutil
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer diagnosis in women and is responsible for considerable mortality among the women of Puerto Rico. However, there are few studies in Puerto Rico on the genetic factors influencing risk. To determine the contribution of pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 , we sequenced these genes in 302 cases from two separate medical centers, who were not selected for age of onset or family history. We identified nine cases that are carriers of pathogenic germline mutation...
November 2, 2018: Cancers
Lucyna Matusewicz, Joanna Podkalicka, Aleksander F Sikorski
Lipophilic statins are promising candidates for breast cancer treatment. However, anticancer therapy requires much higher doses of statins than can be delivered orally, and such high doses are known to exert more adverse effects. The main objective of our study was to design a targeted, therapeutic liposomal carrier of simvastatin characterised by high stability and specificity towards breast cancer cells. We chose SKBR3, the cell line that showed the highest sensitivity for simvastatin and liposomal simvastatin treatment...
November 1, 2018: Cancers
Richard F Riedel, Robin L Jones, Antoine Italiano, Chet Bohac, Juliette C Thompson, Kerstin Mueller, Zaeem Khan, Seth M Pollack, Brian A Van Tine
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive malignancy which accounts for approximately 5⁻10% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. SS has pathologic and genomic characteristics that define it as a distinct subtype of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). STS subtypes continue to be recognized as distinct entities with specific characteristics, including differential chemo-sensitivity. The objective of this study was to conduct a descriptive review of current data on survival outcomes of systemic anti-cancer therapy specific to SS...
November 1, 2018: Cancers
Afroditi Nanou, Mateus Crespo, Penny Flohr, Johann S De Bono, Leon W M M Terstappen
To explore morphological features of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tdEVs), we developed a protocol for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of CTCs and tdEVs. CTCs and tdEVs were isolated by immunomagnetic enrichment based on their Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) expression or by physical separation through 5 μm microsieves from 7.5 mL of blood from Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) patients. Protocols were optimized using blood samples of healthy donors spiked with PC3 and LNCaP cell lines...
October 31, 2018: Cancers
Sarah Péricart, Marie Tosolini, Pauline Gravelle, Cédric Rossi, Alexandra Traverse-Glehen, Nadia Amara, Camille Franchet, Elodie Martin, Christine Bezombes, Guy Laurent, Pierre Brousset, Jean-Jacques Fournié, Camille Laurent
Therapeutic blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 shows promising results in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and in some diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, but biomarkers predicting such responses are still lacking. To this end, we recently developed a transcriptional scoring of immune escape (IE) in cancer biopsies. Using this method in DLBCL, we identified four stages of IE correlated with overall survival, but whether Hodgkin's lymphomas (HL) also display this partition was unknown. Thus, we explored the transcriptomic profiles of ~1000 HL and DLBCL using a comparative meta-analysis of their bulk microarrays...
October 31, 2018: Cancers
Radhia M'kacher, Monika Frenzel, Mustafa Al Jawhari, Steffen Junker, Corina Cuceu, Luc Morat, Anne-Laure Bauchet, Lev Stimmer, Aude Lenain, Nathalie Dechamps, William M Hempel, Geraldine Pottier, Leonhard Heidingsfelder, Eric Laplagne, Claire Borie, Noufissa Oudrhiri, Dima Jouni, Annelise Bennaceur-Griscelli, Bruno Colicchio, Alain Dieterlen, Theodore Girinsky, Raphael Boisgard, Jean Bourhis, Jacques Bosq, Thomas Mehrling, Eric Jeandidier, Patrice Carde
To identify the cells responsible for the initiation and maintenance of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cells, we have characterized a subpopulation of HL cells grown in vitro and in vivo with the aim of establishing a reliable and robust animal model for HL. To validate our model, we challenged the tumor cells in vivo by injecting the alkylating histone-deacetylase inhibitor, EDO-S101, a salvage regimen for HL patients, into xenografted mice. Methodology: Blood lymphocytes from 50 HL patients and seven HL cell lines were used...
October 31, 2018: Cancers
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