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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538707/self-esteem-and-academic-difficulties-in-preadolescents-and-adolescents-healed-from-paediatric-leukaemia
#1
Marta Tremolada, Livia Taverna, Sabrina Bonichini, Giuseppe Basso, Marta Pillon
Adolescents with cancer may demonstrate problems in their self-esteem and schooling. This study aims to screen the preadolescents and adolescents more at risk in their self-esteem perception and schooling difficulties post-five years from the end of therapy. Twenty-five paediatric ex-patients healed from leukaemia were recruited at the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic (University of Padua). The mean age of the children was 13.64 years (Standard Deviation (SD)) = 3.08, range = 10-19 years), most were treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (84%) and relatively equally distributed by gender...
May 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538690/dysregulation-of-mirna-expression-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-cafs-and-its-consequences-on-the-tumor-microenvironment
#2
REVIEW
Maren Schoepp, Anda Jana Ströse, Jörg Haier
The tumor microenvironment, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), has developed as an important target for understanding tumor progression, clinical prognosis and treatment responses of cancer. Cancer cells appear to transform normal fibroblasts (NF) into CAFs involving direct cell-cell communication and epigenetic regulations. This review summarizes the current understanding on miR involvement in cancer cell-tumor environment/stroma communication, transformation of NFs into CAFs, their involved targets and signaling pathways in these interactions; and clinical relevance of CAF-related miR expression profiles...
May 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531109/physical-activity-and-quality-of-life-in-cancer-survivors-a-meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-research
#3
REVIEW
Shaunna Burke, Amanda Wurz, Andrew Bradshaw, Stephanie Saunders, Malcolm A West, Jennifer Brunet
Qualitative research on the impact of physical activity on quality of life (QoL) in adults diagnosed with cancer is accumulating. However, the field of physical activity and cancer survivorship lack a synthesis of this research to reliably understand the implications for future research and practice. The aim of this meta-synthesis was to identify, appraise, and synthesize qualitative research on cancer survivors' perspectives of the impact of physical activity on their QoL. Seven electronic databases were searched for original studies published in English, and reference lists of relevant studies were hand-searched to identify additional studies...
May 20, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513565/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-cell-proliferation-signaling-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Ping Wee, Zhixiang Wang
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly upregulated in cancers such as in non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer. Various mechanisms mediate the upregulation of EGFR activity, including common mutations and truncations to its extracellular domain, such as in the EGFRvIII truncations, as well as to its kinase domain, such as the L858R and T790M mutations, or the exon 19 truncation...
May 17, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505072/a-feasibility-study-of-personalized-prescription-schemes-for-glioblastoma-patients-using-a-proliferation-and-invasion-glioma-model
#5
Minsun Kim, Jakob Kotas, Jason Rockhill, Mark Phillips
Purpose: This study investigates the feasibility of personalizing radiotherapy prescription schemes (treatment margins and fractional doses) for glioblastoma (GBM) patients and their potential benefits using a proliferation and invasion (PI) glioma model on phantoms. Methods and Materials: We propose a strategy to personalize radiotherapy prescription schemes by simulating the proliferation and invasion of the tumor in 2D according to the PI glioma model. We demonstrate the strategy and its potential benefits by presenting virtual cases, where the standard and personalized prescriptions were applied to the tumor...
May 13, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492495/immunotherapy-for-colorectal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Patrick M Boland, Wen Wee Ma
The recent success of anti-PD1 drugs in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with mismatch repair deficiency generated overwhelming enthusiasm for immunotherapy in the disease. However, patients with mismatch repair deficient colorectal cancer represent only a small subset of the metastatic population. Current research focuses on advancing immunotherapy to earlier stages of the disease including adjuvant and first-line metastatic settings, and on inducing sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy through a combinatorial approach...
May 11, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486397/targeting-intracellular-calcium-signaling-ca-2-i-to-overcome-acquired-multidrug-resistance-of-cancer-cells-a-mini-overview
#7
REVIEW
Dietrich Büsselberg, Ana-Maria Florea
Cancer is a main public health problem all over the world. It affects millions of humans no matter their age, gender, education, or social status. Although chemotherapy is the main strategy for the treatment of cancer, a major problem limiting its success is the intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Therefore, cancer drug resistance is a major impediment in medical oncology resulting in a failure of a successful cancer treatment. This mini-overview focuses on the interdependent relationship between intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) signaling and multidrug resistance of cancer cells, acquired upon treatment of tumors with anticancer drugs...
May 9, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486396/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-potential-of-micrornas-in-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Kentaro Inamura
Lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths resulting from cancer owing to late diagnosis and limited treatment intervention. MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by translational repression or target messenger RNA degradation. Accumulating evidence suggests various roles for microRNAs, including development and progression of lung cancers. Because microRNAs are degraded to a much lesser extent in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens and are present not only in tumor tissues but also in body fluids, there is an increased potential in microRNA analyses for cancer research...
May 9, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481306/mth1-as-a-chemotherapeutic-target-the-elephant-in-the-room
#9
REVIEW
Govindi J Samaranayake, Mai Huynh, Priyamvada Rai
Many tumors sustain elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which drive oncogenic signaling. However, ROS can also trigger anti-tumor responses, such as cell death or senescence, through induction of oxidative stress and concomitant DNA damage. To circumvent the adverse consequences of elevated ROS levels, many tumors develop adaptive responses, such as enhanced redox-protective or oxidatively-generated damage repair pathways. Targeting these enhanced oxidative stress-protective mechanisms is likely to be both therapeutically effective and highly specific to cancer, as normal cells are less reliant on such mechanisms...
May 8, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481292/inhibition-of-human-lung-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-survival-by-post-exercise-serum-is-associated-with-the-inhibition-of-akt-mtor-p70-s6k-and-erk1-2
#10
Nigel Kurgan, Evelyn Tsakiridis, Rozalia Kouvelioti, Jessy Moore, Panagiota Klentrou, Evangelia Tsiani
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all lung cancer cases, and for the most cancer-related deaths. The survival pathway of Akt, its downstream effectors, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70 S6K), and the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) pathways are activated in cancer leading to cell survival and growth. Thus, approaches that inhibit these signaling molecules may prove useful in the fight against lung cancer. Exercise is associated with health benefits and a limited number of studies indicate that serum from physically active individuals inhibit mammary and prostate cancer cell growth...
May 8, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481268/metformin-in-lung-cancer-review-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-animal-studies
#11
REVIEW
Michael Yousef, Evangelia Tsiani
Cancer cells display enhanced growth rates and a resistance to apoptosis. The ability of cancer cells to evade homeostasis and proliferate uncontrollably while avoiding programmed cell death/apoptosis is acquired through mutations to key signaling molecules, which regulate pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival and these mutations allow them to develop resistance to many chemotherapeutic agents, highlighting the need for development of new potent anti-cancer agents. Metformin has long been used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and has recently attracted attention as a potential agent to be used in the treatment of cancer...
May 6, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475121/hgf-met-signaling-in-cancer-invasion-the-impact-on-cytoskeleton-remodeling
#12
REVIEW
Chuan Xiang, Junxia Chen, Panfeng Fu
The invasion of cancer cells into surrounding tissue and the vasculature is essential for tumor metastasis. Increasing evidence indicates that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induces cancer cell migration and invasion. A broad spectrum of mechanisms underlies cancer cell migration and invasion. Cytoskeletal reorganization is of central importance in the development of the phenotype of cancer cells with invasive behavior. Through their roles in cell mechanics, intracellular trafficking, and signaling, cytoskeleton proteins participate in all essential events leading to cell migration...
May 5, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475115/androgen-receptor-could-be-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Tatsuo Kanda, Koji Takahashi, Masato Nakamura, Shingo Nakamoto, Shuang Wu, Yuki Haga, Reina Sasaki, Xia Jiang, Osamu Yokosuka
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a male-dominant disease with poor prognosis. Sorafenib is the only approved systemic chemotherapeutic drug for patients with advanced HCC. Previous studies have shown that androgen and androgen receptor (AR) are involved in human hepatocarcinogenesis and the development of HCC. Here, we discuss the recent data on AR and HCC, and the combination of sorafenib and inhibitors of AR for advanced-HCC patients. Androgen-dependent and androgen-independent AR activation exist in human hepatocarcinogenesis...
May 5, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452926/kras-tp53-cdkn2a-smad4-brca1-and-brca2-mutations-in-pancreatic-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Jonas Cicenas, Kotryna Kvederaviciute, Ingrida Meskinyte, Edita Meskinyte-Kausiliene, Aiste Skeberdyte, Jonas Cicenas
Pancreatic cancer is a disease that has a very high fatality rate and one of the highest mortality ratios among all major cancers, remaining the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developed countries. The major treatment of pancreatic cancer is surgery; however, only 15-20% of patients are candidates for it at the diagnosis of disease. On the other hand, survival in patients, who undergo surgery, is less than 30%. In most cancers, genome stability is disturbed and pancreatic cancer is not the exception...
April 28, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448462/targeting-the-atr-chk1-axis-in-cancer-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Stuart Rundle, Alice Bradbury, Yvette Drew, Nicola J Curtin
Targeting the DNA damage response (DDR) is a new therapeutic approach in cancer that shows great promise for tumour selectivity. Key components of the DDR are the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) and checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) kinases. This review article describes the role of ATR and its major downstream target, CHK1, in the DDR and why cancer cells are particularly reliant on the ATR-CHK1 pathway, providing the rationale for targeting these kinases, and validation of this hypothesis by genetic manipulation...
April 27, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445439/her2-in-breast-cancer-stemness-a-negative-feedback-loop-towards-trastuzumab-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Babak Nami, Zhixiang Wang
HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in approximately 20% of all breast cancers (BCs) is a poor prognosis factor and a precious target for BC therapy. Trastuzumab is approved by FDA to specifically target HER2 for treating HER2+ BC. However, about 60% of patients with HER2+ breast tumor develop de novo resistance to trastuzumab, partially due to the loss of expression of HER2 extracellular domain on their tumor cells. This is due to shedding/cleavage of HER2 by metalloproteinases (ADAMs and MMPs)...
April 26, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441771/hepatocyte-growth-factor-c-met-signaling-in-head-and-neck-cancer-and-implications-for-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Natalie J Rothenberger, Laura P Stabile
Aberrant signaling of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met pathway has been identified as a promoter of tumorigenesis in several tumor types including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Despite a relatively low c-Met mutation frequency, overexpression of HGF and its receptor c-Met has been observed in more than 80% of HNSCC tumors, with preclinical and clinical studies linking overexpression with cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and poor prognosis. c-Met is activated by HGF through a paracrine mechanism to promote cellular morphogenesis enabling cells to acquire mesenchymal phenotypes in part through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, contributing to metastasis...
April 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430163/long-non-coding-rnas-key-regulators-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-tumour-drug-resistance-and-cancer-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Richard Heery, Stephen P Finn, Sinead Cuffe, Steven G Gray
Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the adoption by epithelial cells of a mesenchymal-like phenotype, is a process co-opted by carcinoma cells in order to initiate invasion and metastasis. In addition, it is becoming clear that is instrumental to both the development of drug resistance by tumour cells and in the generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells. EMT is thus a pivotal process during tumour progression and poses a major barrier to the successful treatment of cancer. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) often utilize epigenetic programs to regulate both gene expression and chromatin structure...
April 21, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430130/timp1-promotes-cell-survival-by-activating-the-pdk1-signaling-pathway-in-melanoma
#19
Mariana Toricelli, Fabiana H M Melo, Aline Hunger, Daniela Zanatta, Bryan E Strauss, Miriam G Jasiulionis
High TIMP1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in melanoma, where it can bind to CD63 and β1 integrin, inducing PI3-kinase pathway and cell survival. Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3), generated under phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activation, enables the recruitment and activation of protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) at the membrane, resulting in the phosphorylation of a host of other proteins. Using a melanoma progression model, we evaluated the impact of Timp1 and AKT silencing, as well as PI3K, PDK1, and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors on aggressiveness characteristics...
April 21, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425953/cancer-chemotherapy-specific-to-acidic-nests
#20
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kobayashi
The realization of cancer therapeutics specific to cancer cells with less of an effect on normal tissues is our goal. Many trials have been carried out for this purpose, but this goal is still far from being realized. It was found more than 80 years ago that solid cancer nests are acidified, but in vitro studies under acidic conditions have not been extensively studied. Recently, in vitro experiments under acidic conditions were started and anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic areas have been identified. Many genes have been reported to be expressed at a high level under acidic conditions, and such genes may be potent targets for anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests...
April 20, 2017: Cancers
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