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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886124/advances-in-cancer-immunotherapy-in-solid-tumors
#1
REVIEW
Smitha Menon, Sarah Shin, Grace Dy
Immunotherapy is heralded as one of the most important advances in oncology. Until recently, only limited immunotherapeutic options were available in selected immunogenic cancers like melanoma and renal cell carcinomas. Nowadays, there is an improved understanding that anti-tumor immunity is controlled by a delicate balance in the tumor microenvironment between immune stimulatory and immune inhibitory pathways. Either by blocking the inhibitory pathways or stimulating the activating pathways that regulate cytotoxic lymphocytes, anti-tumor immunity can be enhanced leading to durable anti-tumor responses...
November 24, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854287/caregiving-and-its-resulting-effects-the-care-study-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-caregiving-on-caregivers-of-patients-with-advanced-cancer-in-singapore
#2
Cheryl Kai Ting Chua, Jun Tian Wu, Yin Yee Wong, Limin Qu, Yung Ying Tan, Patricia Soek Hui Neo, Grace Suyin Pang
Informal caregivers (IC) are key to enabling home deaths, where preferred, at the end-of-life. Significant morbidity from advanced cancer can make caregiving burdensome. However, knowledge about the nature of the caregiving burden for caregivers in Singapore is limited. Hence, the key objective in this study was to examine the impact of the caregiving burden on quality of life (QOL), mental health and work capacity among local ICs. Eligible English-speaking ICs of hospitalized advanced cancer patients were recruited through non-random sampling...
November 15, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854273/a-music-therapist-shares-stories-of-patients-with-cancer
#3
Kathy Jo Gutgsell
n/a.
November 15, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834845/the-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-axl-in-cancer-progression
#4
REVIEW
Erinn B Rankin, Amato J Giaccia
The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Recent studies have revealed a central role of AXL signaling in tumor proliferation, survival, stem cell phenotype, metastasis, and resistance to cancer therapy. Moreover, AXL is expressed within cellular components of the tumor microenvironment where AXL signaling contributes to the immunosuppressive and protumorigenic phenotypes. A variety of AXL inhibitors have been developed and are efficacious in preclinical studies...
November 9, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834816/targeting-the-tam-receptors-in-leukemia
#5
REVIEW
Madeline G Huey, Katherine A Minson, H Shelton Earp, Deborah DeRyckere, Douglas K Graham
Targeted inhibition of members of the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases has recently been investigated as a novel strategy for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The physiologic functions of the TAM receptors in innate immune control, natural killer (NK) cell differentiation, efferocytosis, clearance of apoptotic debris, and hemostasis have previously been described and more recent data implicate TAM kinases as important regulators of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The TAM receptors are aberrantly or ectopically expressed in many hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma...
November 8, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834803/advance-care-planning-in-glioblastoma-patients
#6
REVIEW
Lara Fritz, Linda Dirven, Jaap C Reijneveld, Johan A F Koekkoek, Anne M Stiggelbout, H Roeline W Pasman, Martin J B Taphoorn
Despite multimodal treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, glioblastoma is an incurable disease with a poor prognosis. During the disease course, glioblastoma patients may experience progressive neurological deficits, symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as drowsiness and headache, incontinence, seizures and progressive cognitive dysfunction. These patients not only have cancer, but also a progressive brain disease. This may seriously interfere with their ability to make their own decisions regarding treatment...
November 8, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827906/t%C3%AE-riii-expression-in-human-breast-cancer-stroma-and-the-role-of-soluble-t%C3%AE-riii-in-breast-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#7
Bojana Jovanović, Michael W Pickup, Anna Chytil, Agnieszka E Gorska, Kimberly C Johnson, Harold L Moses, Philip Owens
The TGF-β pathway plays a major role in tumor progression through regulation of epithelial and stromal cell signaling. Dysfunction of the pathway can lead to carcinoma progression and metastasis. To gain insight into the stromal role of the TGF-β pathway in breast cancer, we performed laser capture microdissection (LCM) from breast cancer patients and reduction mammoplasty patients. Microdissected tumor stroma and normal breast stroma were examined for gene expression. Expression of the TGF-β type III receptor (TGFBR3) was greatly decreased in the tumor stroma compared to control healthy breast tissue...
November 4, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792127/identifying-cancer-driver-genes-using-replication-incompetent-retroviral-vectors
#8
REVIEW
Victor M Bii, Grant D Trobridge
Identifying novel genes that drive tumor metastasis and drug resistance has significant potential to improve patient outcomes. High-throughput sequencing approaches have identified cancer genes, but distinguishing driver genes from passengers remains challenging. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have emerged as a powerful tool to identify cancer genes. Unlike replicating retroviruses and transposons, replication-incompetent retroviral vectors lack additional mutagenesis events that can complicate the identification of driver mutations from passenger mutations...
October 25, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782094/photodynamic-therapy-and-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Liezel L Griffin, John T Lear
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease (BD) and actinic keratosis (AK). A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate) PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance...
October 22, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775650/the-role-of-tam-family-receptors-in-immune-cell-function-implications-for-cancer-therapy
#10
Magdalena Paolino, Josef M Penninger
The TAM receptor protein tyrosine kinases-Tyro3, Axl, and Mer-are essential regulators of immune homeostasis. Guided by their cognate ligands Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1), these receptors ensure the resolution of inflammation by dampening the activation of innate cells as well as by restoring tissue function through promotion of tissue repair and clearance of apoptotic cells. Their central role as negative immune regulators is highlighted by the fact that deregulation of TAM signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775600/modulation-of-the-anti-tumor-efficacy-of-photodynamic-therapy-by-nitric-oxide
#11
Albert W Girotti
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes is a free radical molecule involved in a wide variety of normophysiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Included in the latter category are cancer promotion, progression, and resistance to therapeutic intervention. Animal tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) studies several years ago revealed that endogenous NO can reduce PDT efficacy and that NOS inhibitors can alleviate this. Until relatively recently, little else was known about this anti-PDT effect of NO, including: (a) the underlying mechanisms; (b) type(s) of NOS involved; and (c) whether active NO was generated in vascular cells, tumor cells, or both...
October 20, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775564/functional-roles-of-e6-and-e7-oncoproteins-in-hpv-induced-malignancies-at-diverse-anatomical-sites
#12
Vjekoslav Tomaić
Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at various anatomical sites, especially anogenital and head-and-neck cancers. Of these the most important is cervical cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in many parts of the world. Beta HPV types infect cutaneous epithelia and may contribute towards the initiation of non-melanoma skin cancers...
October 19, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754452/mreg-activity-in-tumor-response-to-photodynamic-therapy-and-photodynamic-therapy-generated-cancer-vaccines
#13
Mladen Korbelik, Judith Banáth, Wei Zhang
Myeloid regulatory cells (Mregs) are, together with regulatory T cells (Tregs), a dominant effector population responsible for restriction of the duration and strength of antitumor immune response. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and cancer vaccines generated by PDT are modalities whose effectiveness in tumor destruction is closely dependent on the associated antitumor immune response. The present study investigated whether the immunodepletion of granulocytic Mregs in host mice by anti-GR1 antibody would improve the response of tumors to PDT or PDT vaccines in these animals...
October 15, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754424/hypericin-in-the-dark-foe-or-ally-in-photodynamic-therapy
#14
Veronika Huntosova, Katarina Stroffekova
Photosensitizers (PSs) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) are, in most cases, administered systemically with preferential accumulation in malignant tissues; however, exposure of non-malignant tissues to PS may also be clinically relevant, when PS molecules affect the pro-apoptotic cascade without illumination. Hypericin (Hyp) as PS and its derivatives have long been studied, regarding their photodynamic and photocytotoxic characteristics. Hyp and its derivatives have displayed light-activated antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in many tumor cell lines without cytotoxicity in the dark...
October 14, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754368/antioxidant-activity-during-tumor-progression-a-necessity-for-the-survival-of-cancer-cells
#15
Mark A Hawk, Chelsea McCallister, Zachary T Schafer
Antioxidant defenses encompass a variety of distinct compounds and enzymes that are linked together through their capacity to neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the relationship between ROS and tumorigenesis is clearly complex and context dependent, a number of recent studies have suggested that neutralizing ROS can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis in multiple cancer types through distinct mechanisms. These studies therefore infer that antioxidant activity may be necessary to support the viability and/or the invasive capacity of cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis...
October 13, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782066/boosting-tumor-specific-immunity-using-pdt
#16
REVIEW
Nicole Maeding, Thomas Verwanger, Barbara Krammer
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment with a long-standing history. It employs the application of nontoxic components, namely a light-sensitive photosensitizer and visible light, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS lead to tumor cell destruction, which is accompanied by the induction of an acute inflammatory response. This inflammatory process sends a danger signal to the innate immune system, which results in activation of specific cell types and release of additional inflammatory mediators...
October 6, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782043/photodynamic-therapy-for-non-melanoma-skin-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Diana K Cohen, Peter K Lee
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is traditionally treated with surgical excision. Nonsurgical methods such as cryotherapy and topical chemotherapeutics, amongst other treatments, are other options. Actinic keratosis (AKs) are considered precancerous lesions that eventually may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers an effective treatment for AKs, and is also effective for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Nodular BCC and Bowen's disease (SCC in situ) have shown acceptable response rates with PDT, although recurrence rates are higher for these two NMSC subtypes...
October 4, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669307/photodynamic-therapy-in-gynecologic-malignancies-a-review-of-the-roswell-park-cancer-institute-experience
#18
REVIEW
Paul C Mayor, Shashikant Lele
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality used in the management of solid tumor malignancies that employs the use of a photosensitizing agent, a light source and oxygen in order to illicit a direct cytotoxic effect. Its use in gynecologic malignancies is somewhat novel and has been used for palliative and curative intent. At the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, the use of PDT in the management of gynecologic cancers began in the mid 1980s and since that time 35 patients have received PDT as a treatment for recurrent or metastatic cutaneous and vulvar, vaginal, anal, and cervical recurrences...
September 23, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669306/novel-immunotherapeutic-approaches-for-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Darrin V Bann, Daniel G Deschler, Neerav Goyal
The immune system plays a key role in preventing tumor formation by recognizing and destroying malignant cells. For over a century, researchers have attempted to harness the immune response as a cancer treatment, although this approach has only recently achieved clinical success. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, betel nut use, and human papillomavirus infection. Unfortunately, worldwide mortality from HNSCC remains high, partially due to limits on therapy secondary to the significant morbidity associated with current treatments...
September 22, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657129/technical-considerations-for-the-generation-of-adoptively-transferred-t-cells-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Anthony Visioni, Joseph Skitzki
A significant function of the immune system is the surveillance and elimination of aberrant cells that give rise to cancer. Even when tumors are well established and metastatic, immune-mediated spontaneous regressions have been documented. While there are have been various forms of immunotherapy, one of the most widely studied for almost 40 years is adoptive cellular immunotherapy, but its success has yet to be fully realized. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is a therapeutic modality that has intrigued physicians and researchers for its many theoretical benefits...
September 20, 2016: Cancers
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