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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

Yumiko Yamada, Masumi Endou, Shunichi Morikawa, Jun Shima, Noriko Komatshzaki
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus paracasei NFRI 7415 on kidney and bone in mice fed an ethanol-containing diet with stress. Eight-week-old Cril  :  CD1 mice were fed a control diet (CD), an alcohol diet (AD) (35.8% of total energy from ethanol), or an alcohol diet containing 20% heat-killed Lb. paracasei NFRI 7415 (107  CFU/g) (LD) for 4 weeks. Mice in the AD and LD groups also underwent restraint stress for two weeks from 13 days. The mice were placed in a 50 mL plastic tube, which had a small hole drilled around its base to allow ventilation, and restrained for 1 h every day...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Vincent J Miller, Frederick A Villamena, Jeff S Volek
Impaired mitochondrial function often results in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Moderate levels of mitochondrial ROS, however, can protect against chronic disease by inducing upregulation of mitochondrial capacity and endogenous antioxidant defense. This phenomenon, referred to as mitohormesis, is induced through increased reliance on mitochondrial respiration, which can occur through diet or exercise...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Kirsten K Ahring, Allan M Lund, Erik Jensen, Thomas G Jensen, Karen Brøndum-Nielsen, Michael Pedersen, Allan Bardow, Jens Juul Holst, Jens F Rehfeld, Lisbeth B Møller
Introduction: Management of phenylketonuria (PKU) is achieved through low-phenylalanine (Phe) diet, supplemented with low-protein food and mixture of free-synthetic (FS) amino acid (AA). Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) is a natural peptide released in whey during cheese-making and does not contain Phe. Lacprodan® CGMP-20 used in this study contained a small amount of Phe due to minor presence of other proteins/peptides. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare absorption of CGMP-20 to FSAA with the aim of evaluating short-term effects on plasma AAs as well as biomarkers related to food intake...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Annelene Govindsamy, Strinivasen Naidoo, Marlon E Cerf
Programming with an insult or stimulus during critical developmental life stages shapes metabolic disease through divergent mechanisms. Cardiovascular disease increasingly contributes to global morbidity and mortality, and the heart as an insulin-sensitive organ may become insulin resistant, which manifests as micro- and/or macrovascular complications due to diabetic complications. Cardiogenesis is a sequential process during which the heart develops into a mature organ and is regulated by several cardiac-specific transcription factors...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Bridget M Stroup, Denise M Ney, Sangita G Murali, Frances Rohr, Sally T Gleason, Sandra C van Calcar, Harvey L Levy
Background: Nutrient status in phenylketonuria (PKU) requires surveillance due to the restrictive low-Phe diet in combination with amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) or glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Micronutrient profiles of medical foods are diverse, and optimal micronutrient supplementation in PKU has not been established. Methods: In a crossover design, 30 participants with PKU were randomized to consume AA-MF and Glytactin™ GMP-MF in combination with a low-Phe diet for 3 weeks each...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
S Oussedik-Lehtihet, C Haouichat, N Hammoumraoui, E Ducros, C Gouhier-Kodas, S Lancrenon, H Djoudi
Purpose: As the vitamin D status of Algerian postmenopausal women was poorly described, this cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of low vitamin D status in a sample population. Secondarily, predictive factors of this hypovitaminosis D were explored. Methods: All the 336 selected women ≥ 45 years from Douera were interviewed to get anthropometric and lifestyle data, reproductive and medical history, medications, and calcium/vitamin D intakes. A blood sample was collected to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Noel Kansiime, Daniel Atwine, Simpson Nuwamanya, Fred Bagenda
Background: Undernutrition among children less than 5 years is still a public health concern in most developing countries. Fathers play a critical role in providing support in improving maternal and child health. There is little studied on male involvement and its measurement in child nutrition; therefore, this paper explores the level of male involvement in child feeding and its association with the nutritional status of the children less than 5 years of age. Methods: A cross sectional study among 346 households, 3 focus group discussions, and 4 key informant interviews were conducted in one rural district in Uganda...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Orla Purcell, Aoife Coughlan, Tim Grant, Jenny McNulty, Anne Clark, Deirdre Deverell, Philip Mayne, Joanne Hughes, Ahmad Monavari, Ina Knerr, Ellen Crushell
A low methionine diet is the mainstay of treatment for pyridoxine nonresponsive homocystinuria (HCU). There are various guidelines for recommended protein intakes for HCU and clinical practice varies. Poor growth has been associated with low cystine levels. This retrospective review of 48 Irish pyridoxine nonresponsive HCU patients assessed weight, height, body mass index (BMI), protein intake, and metabolic control up to 18 years at nine set time points. Patients diagnosed through newborn screening (NBS) were compared to late diagnosed (LD) patients...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Deneke Tosheno, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew, Thilagavathi Thangavel, Shimelash Bitew Workie
Background: Undernutrition in early childhood has irreversible and long-lasting implications. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing risk factors of child undernutrition. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 households with mothers to children pairs aged 6-59 months selected by a multistage systematic random sampling method. Child anthropometric measurements on weight were recorded using standardized and calibrated weighing scales...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Jenny Hadrévi, Karen Søgaard, Jeanette Reffstrup Christensen
Socioeconomic factors affect choice of diet, that is, dietary fiber intake. Underreporting of food consumption in diet surveys has been reported higher in low-income, low-education groups compared to high-income, high-education groups. This paper examines in a socioeconomic homogenous low-income low-education group of females the relation between dietary fiber intake and overweight and scrutinizes if the level of underreporting is equally large in normal-weight and overweight groups. Thirty-four female health care workers classified as either normal-weight ( N = 18) or obese ( N = 16) based on BMI, fat percentage, and waist circumference participated...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Rondo P Middleton, Sebastien Lacroix, Marie-Pier Scott-Boyer, Nikola Dordevic, Adam D Kennedy, Amanda R Slusky, Jerome Carayol, Christina Petzinger-Germain, Alison Beloshapka, Jim Kaput
Introduction: The domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris , has been selectively bred to produce extreme diversity in phenotype and genotype. Dogs have an immense diversity in weight and height. Specific differences in metabolism have not been characterized in small dogs as compared to larger dogs. Objectives: This study aims to identify metabolic, clinical, and microbiota differences between small and larger dogs. Methods: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, clinical chemistry analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 16S pyrosequencing were used to characterize blood metabolic, clinical, and fecal microbiome systems, respectively...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Jonathan L Warren, Barbara A Gower, Gary R Hunter, Samuel T Windham, Douglas R Moellering, Gordon Fisher
Higher in vivo fatty acid (FA) oxidation rates have been reported in obese individuals compared to lean counterparts; however whether this reflects a shift in substrate-specific oxidative capacity at the level of the skeletal muscle mitochondria has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that in situ measures of skeletal muscle mitochondria FA oxidation would be positively associated with total body fat. Participants were 38 premenopausal women (BMI = 26.5 ± 4.3 kg/m2 ). Total and regional fat were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Amita Attlee, Nour Atmani, Viktor Stromtsov, Fatima Ali, Rim Tikarly, Sarah Ryad, Ghada Salah, Hayder Hasan, Reyad Obaid
With a rise in global incidence of overweight and obesity, the number of patients seeking weight management (WM) advice is likely to increase. Our aim was to explore the prevalence of WM practices and investigate association of WM goals with sociodemographic variables and practices among United Arab Emirates (UAE) adults. An exploratory, cross-sectional research was conducted on 1275 adult males and females, residing in UAE. A structured questionnaire was administered. WM goals to lose/maintain/gain weight were reported in 88...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Douglas S Kalman, Susan J Hewlings
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of UP1306 on discomfort and function in adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design, 135 subjects received UP1306, a standardized, proprietary extract of Morus alba and Acacia catechu , glucosamine chondroitin, or placebo for 12 weeks. Discomfort, stiffness, and activities of daily living measured by the WOMAC questionnaire and VAS (pain/discomfort) were improved within all groups. Range of motion and distance walked were improved...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Mavil May C Cervo, Diane S Mendoza, Erniel B Barrios, Leonora N Panlasigui
This randomized, single-masked, controlled trial examined the effects of nutrient-fortified milk-based formula supplementation on nutritional status, nutrient intake, and psychomotor skills of selected preschool children with mean age of 4.10 ± 0.14 years. The study participants were divided equally into three major groups, normal, underweight, and severely underweight based on WHO-Child Growth Standards, and were further divided into two groups: fortified milk group who was given two glasses of fortified milk (50 g of powdered milk/serving) a day for twelve weeks in addition to their usual diet and the nonintervention group who was not given fortified milk and thus maintained their usual intake...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Nitin Puri, Yevgeniy Arefiev, Robert Chao, David Sacerdoti, Hibba Chaudry, Alexandra Nichols, Krithika Srikanthan, Athar Nawab, Dana Sharma, Vishal Hari Lakhani, Rebecca Klug, Komal Sodhi, Stephen J Peterson
Hepcidin, a phase II reactant secreted by hepatocytes, regulates cellular iron levels by increasing internalization of ferroportin-a transmembrane protein facilitating egress of cellular iron. Chronic low-grade inflammatory states, such as obesity, have been shown to increase oxidative stress and enhance hepcidin secretion from hepatocytes and macrophages. Heme-heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress response system which reduces oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of HO-1 induction on hepatic hepcidin levels and on iron homeostasis in hepatic tissues from lean and obese mice...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Anwar Seid, Berhanu Seyoum, Firehiwot Mesfin
BACKGROUND: In low income countries, acute malnutrition continues to be the most important risk factor for illnesses and deaths. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: A facility based unmatched case control study was employed on 420 (140 cases and 280 controls) children aged 6-59 months with their caregivers between January 20 and February 20, 2014. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Laurie Bernstein, Casey Burns, Melissa Sailer-Hammons, Angela Kurtz, Frances Rohr
Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism that historically has been treated with a strict phenylalanine-restricted diet where all foods are weighed and measured. This is cumbersome and difficult for patients and caregivers, especially patients with high phenylalanine blood concentrations who often have neurocognitive deficits. The Simplified Diet is an alternative approach that allows for increased flexibility, promotes healthy food choices, and is easier to manage than a traditional diet for PKU. This paper describes the implementation of the Simplified Diet and outlines education, counseling strategies, and challenges encountered by three metabolic clinics in the United States...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Lénia Rodrigues, Rosa Espanca, Ana Rodrigues Costa, Célia Miguel Antunes, Clarinda Pomar, Fernando Capela-Silva, Cristina Conceição Pinheiro, Francisco Amado, Elsa Lamy
The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI) affects such relationship...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Liknaw Bewket Zeleke, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew, Kelemeu Abebe Gelaw
BACKGROUND: The right nutrition from the start of a pregnancy to the child's second birthday has a profound impact on the future health, wellbeing, and success of a child. This can be achieved through proper maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and appropriate weaning practice. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at assessing appropriate weaning practice and associated factors among infants and young children aged 6-23 months in Feres Bet Town, Northwest Ethiopia...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
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