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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626590/antiglycemic-effect-of-water-extractable-arabinoxylan-from-wheat-aleurone-and-bran
#1
Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Marta Izydorczyk, Trust Beta
The studies on the effects of arabinoxylan (AX) polysaccharides on postprandial glucose response have resulted in contrasting results owing to the diversity in AX structures. Four water extractable AX (WEAX) extracts obtained from wheat aleurone and bran were used to investigate (a) the effect of AX on activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, (b) influence of AX chemical composition on their inhibition potency, and (c) kinetics of enzyme inhibition. α-Amylase activity was not significantly affected by the presence WEAX fractions regardless of type or concentration...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546877/amino-acid-medical-foods-provide-a-high-dietary-acid-load-and-increase-urinary-excretion-of-renal-net-acid-calcium-and-magnesium-compared-with-glycomacropeptide-medical-foods-in-phenylketonuria
#2
Bridget M Stroup, Emily A Sawin, Sangita G Murali, Neil Binkley, Karen E Hansen, Denise M Ney
Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU). A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16-35 y) provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1-3 wks...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540084/body-composition-and-metabolic-syndrome-components-on-lipodystrophy-different-subtypes-associated-with-hiv
#3
Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, João Paulo Vieira Manechini, Sílvia Justina Papini
HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480079/prevalence-of-dietary-supplements-use-among-gymnasium-users
#4
Ayman H Jawadi, Abdulmalik M Addar, Abdulaziz S Alazzam, Fahad O Alrabieah, Abdullah S Al Alsheikh, Roaa R Amer, Al Anoud S Aldrees, Maha A Al Turki, Ali K Osman, Motasim Badri
Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465837/a-moderate-zinc-deficiency-does-not-alter-lipid-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-the-liver-of-weanling-rats-fed-diets-rich-in-cocoa-butter-or-safflower-oil
#5
Edgar Weigand, Jennifer Egenolf
The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421144/prevalence-of-sarcopenic-obesity-in-adults-with-class-ii-iii-obesity-using-different-diagnostic-criteria
#6
Carlene A Johnson Stoklossa, Arya M Sharma, Mary Forhan, Mario Siervo, Raj S Padwal, Carla M Prado
Background/Objective. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is a hidden condition of reduced lean soft tissue (LST) in context of excess adiposity. SO is most commonly reported in older adults and both its risk and prevalence increase with age. A variety of body composition indices and cut points have been used to define this condition, leading to conflicting prevalence and risk prediction. Here, we investigate variability in the prevalence of SO in an adult sample of individuals with class II/III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) using different diagnostic criteria...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421143/the-dual-burden-of-malnutrition-and-associated-dietary-and-lifestyle-habits-among-lebanese-school-age-children-living-in-orphanages-in-north-lebanon
#7
Germine El-Kassas, Fouad Ziade
Childhood is a crucial period affecting physical and intellectual development. Although children living in orphanages are among the most vulnerable groups at risk of malnutrition, there is scarcity of data concerning their nutritional status in Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including a sample of 153 institutionalized children aged 5-14 years from all orphanages in Tripoli. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric, clinical, and dietary tools. Interpretation of anthropometric data showed that 13...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392941/insulin-resistance-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Mihaela Vladu, Diana Clenciu, Ion Cristian Efrem, Mircea-Cătalin Forțofoiu, Anca Amzolini, Simona Tudorică Micu, Maria Moţa, Maria Forțofoiu
Background and Aims. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease which can evolve towards devastating micro- and macrovascular complications. DM is the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Insulin resistance plays an important role in the natural history of type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of CKD in T1DM and the correlation with insulin resistance (IR) in patients with CKD. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted over a period of three years (2010-2013) and included patients with DM registered in the Clinical Centre of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases of Dolj county...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386479/bedside-ultrasound-measurement-of-rectus-femoris-a-tutorial-for-the-nutrition-support-clinician
#9
Carlos Alfredo Galindo Martín, Enrique Monares Zepeda, Octavio Augusto Lescas Méndez
Intensive care unit acquired weakness is a long-term consequence after critical illness; it has been related to muscle atrophy and can be considered as one of the main nutritional support challenges at the intensive care unit. Measuring muscle mass by image techniques has become a new area of research for the nutritional support field, extending our knowledge about muscle wasting and the impact of nutritional approaches in the critical care setting, although currently there is no universally accepted technique to perform muscle measurements by ultrasound...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357138/growth-of-infants-with-intestinal-failure-or-feeding-intolerance-does-not-follow-standard-growth-curves
#10
Danielle L Morton, Keli M Hawthorne, Carolyn E Moore
Objective. Infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance are nutritionally compromised and are at risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The aim of the study was to evaluate growth velocities of infants with intestinal failure and feeding intolerance for the first three months of age and to determine growth percentiles at birth and at 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA). Methods. A chart review of infants followed by the Texas Children's Hospital Intestinal Rehabilitation Team was conducted from April 2012 to October 2014...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357137/diet-induced-obesity-is-associated-with-an-impaired-nk-cell-function-and-an-increased-colon-cancer-incidence
#11
Ina Bähr, Vincent Goritz, Henriette Doberstein, Grit Gesine Ruth Hiller, Philip Rosenstock, Janine Jahn, Ole Pörtner, Tobias Berreis, Thomas Mueller, Julia Spielmann, Heike Kielstein
Obesity is associated with an increased colon cancer incidence, but underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Previous studies showed altered Natural killer (NK) cell functions in obese individuals. Therefore, we studied the impact of an impaired NK cell functionality on the increased colon cancer risk in obesity. In vitro investigations demonstrated a decreased IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxicity of human NK cells against colon tumor cells after NK cell preincubation with the adipokine leptin. In addition, leptin incubation decreased the expression of activating NK cell receptors...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299204/the-coadministration-of-unoxidized-and-oxidized-desi-ghee-ameliorates-the-toxic-effects-of-thermally-oxidized-ghee-in-rabbits
#12
Alam Zeb, Islam Uddin
Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG) and normal ghee (NG) were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286674/the-effect-of-exercise-intensity-on-total-pyy-and-glp-1-in-healthy-females-a-pilot-study
#13
Jillian R Hallworth, Jennifer L Copeland, Jon Doan, Tom J Hazell
We compared the acute response of anorexigenic signals (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to submaximal and supramaximal exercise. Nine females completed three sessions: (1) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min; 65%  VO2max); (2) sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 sec "all-out" cycling sprints with 4 min recovery); or (3) control (CTRL; no exercise). PYY and GLP-1 were measured via blood samples drawn before, immediately after, and 90 min after exercise. Perceptions of hunger were rated using a visual analogue scale at all blood sampling time points...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265467/vitamin-d-status-and-its-association-with-parathyroid-hormone-concentration-in-brazilians
#14
Juliana Sálvio Martins, Magda de Oliveira Palhares, Octávio Cury Mayrink Teixeira, Mariana Gontijo Ramos
Vitamins are organic compounds that play a vital role in the control of metabolic processes. The D complex is considered a nutrient with a hormonal action and has an important participation in the constant maintenance of serum and extracellular calcium levels. The present study aims to analyze the results of 105.588 vitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements obtained from a database from a clinical analysis laboratory in Brazil, between the years of 2011 and 2013. The values of 25(OH)D were correlated with age, gender, and values of PTH...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243471/a-single-dose-of-beetroot-gel-rich-in-nitrate-does-not-improve-performance-but-lowers-blood-glucose-in-physically-active-individuals
#15
Julia Vasconcellos, Diego Henrique Silvestre, Diego Dos Santos Baião, João Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, Thiago Silveira Alvares, Vânia M Flosi Paschoalin
Background. Beetroot consumption has been proposed to improve exercise performance, since the nitrate content of this food is able to stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide. Objective. The acute effect of 100 g of a beetroot gel containing ~10 mmol of nitrate was tested on the nitric oxide synthesis, on metabolic and biochemical parameters, and on performance in physically active individuals. Methods. Through a double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, 25 healthy runners ingested a single dose of beetroot and placebo gels...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239492/performance-of-clarias-gariepinus-fed-dried-brewer-s-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-slurry-in-replacement-for-soybean-meal
#16
Shola Gabriel Solomon, Gabriel Arome Ataguba, Gabriel Enemona Itodo
Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203456/concurrent-beet-juice-and-carbohydrate-ingestion-influence-on-glucose-tolerance-in-obese-and-nonobese-adults
#17
Joseph W Beals, Scott E Binns, Janelle L Davis, Gregory R Giordano, Anna L Klochak, Hunter L Paris, Melani M Schweder, Garrett L Peltonen, Rebecca L Scalzo, Christopher Bell
Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) increases NO formation, via NO3(-) reduction to nitrite (NO2(-)) by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice) ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index: 26.3 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) (mean ± SE)) and 10 obese adults (34...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168052/dietary-diversity-is-not-associated-with-haematological-status-of-pregnant-women-resident-in-rural-areas-of-northern-ghana
#18
Mahama Saaka, Jeremiah Oladele, Asamoah Larbi, Irmgard Hoeschle-Zeledon
Background. Information regarding how dietary diversity is related to haematological status of the pregnant women in rural areas of Northern Ghana is limited. This study therefore evaluated maternal dietary intake and how it relates to the nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Northern Ghana. Methods. This study was cross-sectional in design involving 400 pregnant women. Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and anaemia status were used to assess the nutritional status of pregnant women...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133545/plasma-and-aorta-biochemistry-and-mmps-activities-in-female-rabbit-fed-methionine-enriched-diet-and-their-offspring
#19
Khira Othmani Mecif, Souhila Aouichat Bouguerra, Yasmina Benazzoug
This study investigated whether a high Met diet influences biochemical parameters, MMPs activities in plasma, and biochemical and histological remodeling in aorta, in both pregnant female rabbits and their offspring. Four female rabbit groups are constituted (each n = 8), nonpregnant control (NPC), pregnant control (PC) that received normal commercial chow, nonpregnant Met (NPMet), and pregnant Met (PMet) that received the same diet supplemented with 0,35% L-methionine (w/w) for 3 months (500 mg/d). All pregnant females realize 3 successive pregnancies...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116152/the-effects-of-compliance-with-nutritional-counselling-on-body-composition-parameters-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-under-radiotherapy
#20
D Hopanci Bicakli, O Ozkaya Akagunduz, R Meseri Dalak, M Esassolak, R Uslu, M Uyar
Background. Radiotherapy (RT) has been associated with increased risk of malnutrition in cancer patients, particularly in those with head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of compliance of patients with individual dietary counselling on body composition parameters in HNC patients under RT. Material and Methods. Sixty-nine consecutive patients (mean age: 61.0 ± 13.8) were prospectively followed. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed to determine body composition parameters before, in the middle of, and at the end of RT...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
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