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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225968/metabolic-differences-between-dogs-of-different-body-sizes
#1
Rondo P Middleton, Sebastien Lacroix, Marie-Pier Scott-Boyer, Nikola Dordevic, Adam D Kennedy, Amanda R Slusky, Jerome Carayol, Christina Petzinger-Germain, Alison Beloshapka, Jim Kaput
Introduction: The domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris, has been selectively bred to produce extreme diversity in phenotype and genotype. Dogs have an immense diversity in weight and height. Specific differences in metabolism have not been characterized in small dogs as compared to larger dogs. Objectives: This study aims to identify metabolic, clinical, and microbiota differences between small and larger dogs. Methods: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, clinical chemistry analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 16S pyrosequencing were used to characterize blood metabolic, clinical, and fecal microbiome systems, respectively...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204295/associations-of-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-with-body-fat-in-premenopausal-women
#2
Jonathan L Warren, Barbara A Gower, Gary R Hunter, Samuel T Windham, Douglas R Moellering, Gordon Fisher
Higher in vivo fatty acid (FA) oxidation rates have been reported in obese individuals compared to lean counterparts; however whether this reflects a shift in substrate-specific oxidative capacity at the level of the skeletal muscle mitochondria has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that in situ measures of skeletal muscle mitochondria FA oxidation would be positively associated with total body fat. Participants were 38 premenopausal women (BMI = 26.5 ± 4.3 kg/m2). Total and regional fat were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147582/assessment-of-weight-management-practices-among-adults-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#3
Amita Attlee, Nour Atmani, Viktor Stromtsov, Fatima Ali, Rim Tikarly, Sarah Ryad, Ghada Salah, Hayder Hasan, Reyad Obaid
With a rise in global incidence of overweight and obesity, the number of patients seeking weight management (WM) advice is likely to increase. Our aim was to explore the prevalence of WM practices and investigate association of WM goals with sociodemographic variables and practices among United Arab Emirates (UAE) adults. An exploratory, cross-sectional research was conducted on 1275 adult males and females, residing in UAE. A structured questionnaire was administered. WM goals to lose/maintain/gain weight were reported in 88...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085676/the-effects-of-morus-alba-and-acacia-catechu-on-quality-of-life-and-overall-function-in-adults-with-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#4
Douglas S Kalman, Susan J Hewlings
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of UP1306 on discomfort and function in adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design, 135 subjects received UP1306, a standardized, proprietary extract of Morus alba and Acacia catechu, glucosamine chondroitin, or placebo for 12 weeks. Discomfort, stiffness, and activities of daily living measured by the WOMAC questionnaire and VAS (pain/discomfort) were improved within all groups. Range of motion and distance walked were improved...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075529/effects-of-nutrient-fortified-milk-based-formula-on-the-nutritional-status-and-psychomotor-skills-of-preschool-children
#5
Mavil May C Cervo, Diane S Mendoza, Erniel B Barrios, Leonora N Panlasigui
This randomized, single-masked, controlled trial examined the effects of nutrient-fortified milk-based formula supplementation on nutritional status, nutrient intake, and psychomotor skills of selected preschool children with mean age of 4.10 ± 0.14 years. The study participants were divided equally into three major groups, normal, underweight, and severely underweight based on WHO-Child Growth Standards, and were further divided into two groups: fortified milk group who was given two glasses of fortified milk (50 g of powdered milk/serving) a day for twelve weeks in addition to their usual diet and the nonintervention group who was not given fortified milk and thus maintained their usual intake...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062571/heme-oxygenase-induction-suppresses-hepatic-hepcidin-and-rescues-ferroportin-and-ferritin-expression-in-obese-mice
#6
Nitin Puri, Yevgeniy Arefiev, Robert Chao, David Sacerdoti, Hibba Chaudry, Alexandra Nichols, Krithika Srikanthan, Athar Nawab, Dana Sharma, Vishal Hari Lakhani, Rebecca Klug, Komal Sodhi, Stephen J Peterson
Hepcidin, a phase II reactant secreted by hepatocytes, regulates cellular iron levels by increasing internalization of ferroportin-a transmembrane protein facilitating egress of cellular iron. Chronic low-grade inflammatory states, such as obesity, have been shown to increase oxidative stress and enhance hepcidin secretion from hepatocytes and macrophages. Heme-heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress response system which reduces oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of HO-1 induction on hepatic hepcidin levels and on iron homeostasis in hepatic tissues from lean and obese mice...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057119/determinants-of-acute-malnutrition-among-children-aged-6-59-months-in-public-health-facilities-of-pastoralist-community-afar-region-northeast-ethiopia-a-case-control-study
#7
Anwar Seid, Berhanu Seyoum, Firehiwot Mesfin
BACKGROUND: In low income countries, acute malnutrition continues to be the most important risk factor for illnesses and deaths. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months. METHODS: A facility based unmatched case control study was employed on 420 (140 cases and 280 controls) children aged 6-59 months with their caregivers between January 20 and February 20, 2014. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057118/multiclinic-observations-on-the-simplified-diet-in-pku
#8
REVIEW
Laurie Bernstein, Casey Burns, Melissa Sailer-Hammons, Angela Kurtz, Frances Rohr
Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism that historically has been treated with a strict phenylalanine-restricted diet where all foods are weighed and measured. This is cumbersome and difficult for patients and caregivers, especially patients with high phenylalanine blood concentrations who often have neurocognitive deficits. The Simplified Diet is an alternative approach that allows for increased flexibility, promotes healthy food choices, and is easier to manage than a traditional diet for PKU. This paper describes the implementation of the Simplified Diet and outlines education, counseling strategies, and challenges encountered by three metabolic clinics in the United States...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811937/association-between-salivary-leptin-levels-and-taste-perception-in-children
#9
Lénia Rodrigues, Rosa Espanca, Ana Rodrigues Costa, Célia Miguel Antunes, Clarinda Pomar, Fernando Capela-Silva, Cristina Conceição Pinheiro, Francisco Amado, Elsa Lamy
The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI) affects such relationship...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808588/appropriate-weaning-practice-and-associated-factors-among-infants-and-young-children-in-northwest-ethiopia
#10
Liknaw Bewket Zeleke, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew, Kelemeu Abebe Gelaw
BACKGROUND: The right nutrition from the start of a pregnancy to the child's second birthday has a profound impact on the future health, wellbeing, and success of a child. This can be achieved through proper maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and appropriate weaning practice. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at assessing appropriate weaning practice and associated factors among infants and young children aged 6-23 months in Feres Bet Town, Northwest Ethiopia...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808587/oral-administration-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-during-lactation-effects-on-hypothalamic-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-and-food-intake-in-adult-mice
#11
Carolina Aguirre, Valeska Castillo, Miguel Llanos
We have previously shown that administration of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) during lactation leads to overweight, increased body fat accumulation, and insulin resistance in adult mice. This study was designed to elucidate if these effects are due to increased food intake, stimulated by an augmented abundance and binding ability of the hypothalamic cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R). With this aim, male mice pups were treated with a daily oral dose of AEA during lactation. Adult mice were also treated with a single oral dose of AEA, to evaluate acute food intake during 4 h...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785485/retracted-ghanaians-might-be-at-risk-of-inadequate-dietary-intake-of-potassium
#12
Journal Of Nutrition And Metabolism
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/3150498.].
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781892/inflammatory-markers-are-positively-associated-with-serum-trans-fatty-acids-in-an-adult-american-population
#13
Mohsen Mazidi, Hong-Kai Gao, Andre Pascal Kengne
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The relationship between serum trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and systemic inflammation markers is unclear. We investigated the association of serum TFAs with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen in adult Americans. METHODS: The 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants with measured data on hs-CRP and fibrinogen were included. TFAs were measured via capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry using negative chemical ionization...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770110/do-insulin-replacement-and-omega3-protect-the-male-reproductive-function-of-the-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#14
Atefe Yaghoubi, Abbas Shahedi, Hakime Akbari, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani
Diabetes mellitus (DM), the most common metabolic disease, might affect different organs such as male reproductive system. Experiments have shown that n-3 fatty acids could improve male reproductive function. Present study was performed to examine the effects of omega3 on sperms and testicular parameters in diabetic mice. Adult NMRI male mice were randomly divided into intact and diabetic groups (n = 8). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals were divided into 4 groups of diabetic-saline (Dia-Sa), diabetic-insulin (Dia-Ins), diabetic-omega3 (Dia-omg3), and diabetic-insulin-omega3 (Dia-Ins-omg3)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698808/vitamins-k1-and-k2-the-emerging-group-of-vitamins-required-for-human-health
#15
REVIEW
Gerry Kurt Schwalfenberg
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2) along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626590/antiglycemic-effect-of-water-extractable-arabinoxylan-from-wheat-aleurone-and-bran
#16
Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Marta Izydorczyk, Trust Beta
The studies on the effects of arabinoxylan (AX) polysaccharides on postprandial glucose response have resulted in contrasting results owing to the diversity in AX structures. Four water extractable AX (WEAX) extracts obtained from wheat aleurone and bran were used to investigate (a) the effect of AX on activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, (b) influence of AX chemical composition on their inhibition potency, and (c) kinetics of enzyme inhibition. α-Amylase activity was not significantly affected by the presence WEAX fractions regardless of type or concentration...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546877/amino-acid-medical-foods-provide-a-high-dietary-acid-load-and-increase-urinary-excretion-of-renal-net-acid-calcium-and-magnesium-compared-with-glycomacropeptide-medical-foods-in-phenylketonuria
#17
Bridget M Stroup, Emily A Sawin, Sangita G Murali, Neil Binkley, Karen E Hansen, Denise M Ney
Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU). A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16-35 y) provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1-3 wks...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540084/body-composition-and-metabolic-syndrome-components-on-lipodystrophy-different-subtypes-associated-with-hiv
#18
Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, João Paulo Vieira Manechini, Sílvia Justina Papini
HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480079/prevalence-of-dietary-supplements-use-among-gymnasium-users
#19
Ayman H Jawadi, Abdulmalik M Addar, Abdulaziz S Alazzam, Fahad O Alrabieah, Abdullah S Al Alsheikh, Roaa R Amer, Al Anoud S Aldrees, Maha A Al Turki, Ali K Osman, Motasim Badri
Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465837/a-moderate-zinc-deficiency-does-not-alter-lipid-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-the-liver-of-weanling-rats-fed-diets-rich-in-cocoa-butter-or-safflower-oil
#20
Edgar Weigand, Jennifer Egenolf
The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
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