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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872757/sports-nutrition-knowledge-among-mid-major-division-i-university-student-athletes
#1
Ashley Andrews, Janet R Wojcik, Joni M Boyd, Charles J Bowers
Competitive athletes have goals to optimize performance and to maintain healthy body composition. Sports nutrition is a component of training programs often overlooked by student-athletes and their coaches. The purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes' sports nutrition knowledge across sex, class level, team, and completion of prior nutrition coursework. Participants included 123 mid-major Division I university student-athletes (47 females and 76 males) from baseball, softball, men's soccer, track and field, and tennis...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840740/serum-metabolomic-response-to-long-term-supplementation-with-all-rac-%C3%AE-tocopheryl-acetate-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Alison M Mondul, Steven C Moore, Stephanie J Weinstein, Anne M Evans, Edward D Karoly, Satu Männistö, Joshua N Sampson, Demetrius Albanes
Background. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a randomized controlled cancer prevention trial, showed a 32% reduction in prostate cancer incidence in response to vitamin E supplementation. Two other trials were not confirmatory, however. Objective. We compared the change in serum metabolome of the ATBC Study participants randomized to receive vitamin E to those who were not by randomly selecting 50 men from each of the intervention groups (50 mg/day all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (ATA), 20 mg/day β-carotene, both, placebo)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818793/transient-decrease-in-circulatory-testosterone-and-homocysteine-precedes-the-development-of-metabolic-syndrome-features-in-fructose-fed-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Anil Sakamuri, Sujatha Pitla, Uday Kumar Putcha, Sugeedha Jayapal, Sailaja Pothana, Sai Santosh Vadakattu, Nagabhushan Reddy Konapalli, Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri, Ahamed Ibrahim
Background. Increased fructose consumption is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Here we investigated the time course of development of MS features in high-fructose-fed Sprague Dawley rats along with circulatory testosterone and homocysteine levels. Methods. Rats were divided into control and experimental groups and fed with diets containing 54.5% starch and fructose, respectively, for 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Plasma testosterone and homocysteine levels were measured along with insulin, glucose, and lipids...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807480/a-high-protein-diet-has-no-harmful-effects-a-one-year-crossover-study-in-resistance-trained-males
#4
Jose Antonio, Anya Ellerbroek, Tobin Silver, Leonel Vargas, Armando Tamayo, Richard Buehn, Corey A Peacock
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a high protein diet over a one-year period. Fourteen healthy resistance-trained men completed the study (mean ± SD; age 26.3 ± 3.9 yr; height 178.5 ± 8.4 cm; and average years of training 8.9 ± 3.4 yr). In a randomized crossover design, subjects consumed their habitual or normal diet for 2 months and 4 months and alternated that with a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/d) for 2 months and 4 months. Thus, on average, each subject was on their normal diet for 6 months and a higher protein diet for 6 months...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774317/malnutrition-the-importance-of-identification-documentation-and-coding-in-the-acute-care-setting
#5
Jane Kellett, Greg Kyle, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Mark Naunton, Narelle Luff
Malnutrition is a significant issue in the hospital setting. This cross-sectional, observational study determined the prevalence of malnutrition amongst 189 adult inpatients in a teaching hospital using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool and compared data to control groups for coding of malnutrition to determine the estimated unclaimed financial reimbursement associated with this comorbidity. Fifty-three percent of inpatients were classified as malnourished. Significant associations were found between malnutrition and increasing age, decreasing body mass index, and increased length of stay...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774316/effect-of-treatment-with-salsalate-menhaden-oil-combination-of-salsalate-and-menhaden-oil-or-resolvin-d1-of-c57bl-6j-type-1-diabetic-mouse-on-neuropathic-endpoints
#6
Matthew S Yorek, Lawrence J Coppey, Hanna Shevalye, Alexander Obrosov, Randy H Kardon, Mark A Yorek
Aims. In this study a streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of salsalate, menhaden oil, the combination of salsalate and menhaden oil, or resolvin D1 on neuropathic endpoints. Materials and Methods. Changes in body weight, blood glucose, serum markers for triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and resolvin D1, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities and thermal sensitivity were assessed, as well as performing in vivo confocal microscopy of subepithelial corneal nerves and immunohistochemistry of nerves in the cornea and foot pad...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738523/exercising-in-the-fasted-state-reduced-24-hour-energy-intake-in-active-male-adults
#7
Jessica L Bachman, Ronald W Deitrick, Angela R Hillman
The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703806/schoolchildren-with-learning-difficulties-have-low-iron-status-and-high-anemia-prevalence
#8
F P N Arcanjo, C P C Arcanjo, P R Santos
Background. In developing countries there is high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia, which reduces cognitive performance, work performance, and endurance; it also causes learning difficulties and negative impact on development for infant population. Methods. The study concerns a case-control study; data was collected from an appropriate sample consisting of schoolchildren aged 8 years. The sample was divided into two subgroups: those with deficient initial reading skills (DIRS) (case) and those without (control)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630772/novel-form-of-curcumin-improves-endothelial-function-in-young-healthy-individuals-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#9
Jonathan M Oliver, Lee Stoner, David S Rowlands, Aaron R Caldwell, Elizabeth Sanders, Andreas Kreutzer, Joel B Mitchell, Martin Purpura, Ralf Jäger
Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595018/nutrition-from-bench-to-bedside
#10
EDITORIAL
Naim A Khan, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Aziz Hichami, Najat Mokhtar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429803/effects-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-mixture-on-glycemic-control-and-inflammatory-status-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#11
Sadegh Jafarnejad, Sadaf Saremi, Farzan Jafarnejad, Arman Arab
Objective. This trial aims to examine the effects of a Probiotic Mixture (VSL#3) on glycemic status and inflammatory markers, in women with GDM. Materials and Methods. Over a period of 8 weeks, 82 women with gestational diabetes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 41) which were given VSL#3 capsule or to a control group which were given placebo capsule (n = 41). Fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, Interferon gamma, and interleukin-10 were measured before and after the intervention...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429802/effects-of-dietary-strawberry-supplementation-on-antioxidant-biomarkers-in-obese-adults-with-above-optimal-serum-lipids
#12
Arpita Basu, Stacy Morris, Angel Nguyen, Nancy M Betts, Dongxu Fu, Timothy J Lyons
Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413547/increased-gustatory-response-score-in-obesity-and-association-levels-with-il-6-and-leptin
#13
Nesrine Remla, Zeyneb Hadjidj, Kamel Ghezzaz, Soraya Moulessehoul, Mourad Aribi
Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the circulating IL-6 and leptin levels with taste alteration in young obese patients. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in thirty obese patients and thirty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. Circulating levels of IL-6 and leptin were significantly increased in obese patients than in controls. However, catalase and ORAC levels were significantly decreased in obese patients compared to controls. Additionally, obese participants had high scores for the detection of fats (gustatory response scores [GRS]; p < 0...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379184/relationships-between-wasting-and-stunting-and-their-concurrent-occurrence-in-ghanaian-preschool-children
#14
Mahama Saaka, Sylvester Zackaria Galaa
Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0-59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age Z-score...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313881/omega-3-fatty-acids-possible-neuroprotective-mechanisms-in-the-model-of-global-ischemia-in-rats
#15
Maria Elizabeth Pereira Nobre, Alyne Oliveira Correia, Francisco Nilson Maciel Mendonça, Luiz Ricardo Araújo Uchoa, Jessica Tamara Nunes Vasconcelos, Carlos Ney Alencar de Araújo, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Rafaelly Maria Pinheiro Siqueira, Gilberto Dos Santos Cerqueira, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Ricardo Mário Arida, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
Background. Omega-3 (ω3) administration was shown to protect against hypoxic-ischemic injury. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective effects of ω3, in a model of global ischemia. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to carotid occlusion (30 min), followed by reperfusion. The groups were SO, untreated ischemic and ischemic treated rats with ω3 (5 and 10 mg/kg, 7 days). The SO and untreated ischemic animals were orally treated with 1% cremophor and, 1 h after the last administration, they were behaviorally tested and euthanized for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and NE determinations), histological (Fluoro jade staining), and immunohistochemical (TNF-alpha, COX-2 and iNOS) evaluations...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313880/capsaicinoids-modulating-cardiometabolic-syndrome-risk-factors-current-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Vijaya Juturu
Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313879/vitamin-d3-suppresses-class-ii-invariant-chain-peptide-expression-on-activated-b-lymphocytes-a-plausible-mechanism-for-downregulation-of-acute-inflammatory-conditions
#17
Omar K Danner, Leslie R Matthews, Sharon Francis, Veena N Rao, Cassie P Harvey, Richard P Tobin, Ken L Wilson, Ernest Alema-Mensah, M Karen Newell Rogers, Ed W Childs
Class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of B cell function after nonspecific polyclonal expansion. Several studies have shown vitamin D3 helps regulate the immune response. We hypothesized that activated vitamin D3 suppresses CLIP expression on activated B-cells after nonspecific activation or priming of C57BL/6 mice with CpG. This study showed activated vitamin D3 actively reduced CLIP expression and decreased the number of CLIP(+) B-lymphocytes in a dose and formulation dependent fashion...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313878/role-of-t-cell-polarization-and-inflammation-and-their-modulation-by-n-3-fatty-acids-in-gestational-diabetes-and-macrosomia
#18
REVIEW
A Hichami, O Grissa, I Mrizak, C Benammar, N A Khan
Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313877/the-use-of-glycomacropeptide-in-dietary-management-of-phenylketonuria
#19
Osama K Zaki, Lamia El-Wakeel, Yasmin Ebeid, Hanan S Ez Elarab, Aisha Moustafa, Nayera Abdulazim, Hala Karara, Ahmed Elghawaby
Dietary therapy is the most common therapy applied in treatment of Phenylketonuria (PKU) with restriction of intake of most natural proteins that are rich in Phenylalanine (Phe). Recently, it has been claimed that caseinoglycomacropeptide (GMP), derived of whey, may be used to replace the amino acid formulae (AAF). The Aim of Work. To study the feasibility of use of GMP for partial replacement of artificial formula in treatment of children with PKU. Methods. Ten patients with PKU were included in the study...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293884/higher-caloric-refeeding-is-safe-in-hospitalised-adolescent-patients-with-restrictive-eating-disorders
#20
Elizabeth K Parker, Sahrish S Faruquie, Gail Anderson, Linette Gomes, Andrew Kennedy, Christine M Wearne, Michael R Kohn, Simon D Clarke
Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured "rapid refeeding" program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
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