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Journal of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168051/effects-of-a-twelve-week-weight-reduction-exercise-programme-on-selected-spatiotemporal-gait-parameters-of-obese-individuals
#1
Joseph A Jegede, Babatunde O A Adegoke, Oladapo M Olagbegi
Objectives. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of twelve-week weight reduction exercises on selected spatiotemporal gait parameters of obese individuals and compare with their normal weight counterparts. Methods. Sixty participants (30 obese and 30 of normal weight) started but only 58 participants (obese = 30, normal weight = 28) completed the quasi-experimental study. Only obese group had 12 weeks of weight reduction exercise training but both groups had their walking speed (WS), cadence (CD), step length (SL), step width (SW), and stride length (SDL) measured at baseline and at the end of weeks 4, 8, and 12 of the study...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116151/objective-estimates-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-among-young-adults
#2
Jessica L Unick, Wei Lang, Deborah F Tate, Dale S Bond, Mark A Espeland, Rena R Wing
Background. This study examines factors associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in young adults (18-35 years) and compares objective and subjective assessment measures of PA and SB. Methods. 595 young adults (27.7 ± 4.4 years; 25.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) enrolled in the Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) trial. Hours/day spent in SB (<1.5 METs) and minutes/week spent in bout-related moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA; ≥3 METs and ≥10 min) were assessed using self-report and objective measures...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116150/acute-exercise-and-appetite-regulating-hormones-in-overweight-and-obese-individuals-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Jessica Anne Douglas, Kevin Deighton, Jan Maria Atkinson, Vahid Sari-Sarraf, David John Stensel, Greg Atkinson
In lean individuals, acute aerobic exercise is reported to transiently suppress sensations of appetite, suppress blood concentrations of acylated ghrelin (AG), and increase glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide-YY (PYY). Findings in overweight/obese individuals have yet to be synthesised. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we quantified the effects that acute exercise has on AG and total PYY and GLP-1 in overweight/obese individuals. The potential for body mass index (BMI) to act as a moderator for AG was also explored...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116149/recommendations-and-improvements-for-the-evaluation-of-integrated-community-wide-interventions-approaches
#4
Tessa M van Koperen, Carry M Renders, Eline J M Spierings, Anna-Marie Hendriks, Marjan J Westerman, Jacob C Seidell, Albertine J Schuit
Background. Integrated community-wide intervention approaches (ICIAs) are implemented to prevent childhood obesity. Programme evaluation improves these ICIAs, but professionals involved often struggle with performance. Evaluation tools have been developed to support Dutch professionals involved in ICIAs. It is unclear how useful these tools are to intended users. We therefore researched the facilitators of and barriers to ICIA programme evaluation as perceived by professionals and their experiences of the evaluation tools...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116148/ferritin-is-a-marker-of-inflammation-rather-than-iron-deficiency-in-overweight-and-obese-people
#5
Abidullah Khan, Wazir Muhammad Khan, Maimoona Ayub, Mohammad Humayun, Mohammad Haroon
Background. In clinical practice, serum ferritin is used as a screening tool to detect iron deficiency. However, its reliability in obesity has been questioned. Objectives. To investigate the role of ferritin in overweight and obese people, either as a marker of inflammation or iron deficiency. Methods. On the basis of body mass index (BMI), 150 participants were divided into three equal groups: A: BMI 18.5-25 kg/m(2), B: BMI 25-30 kg/m(2), and C: BMI > 30 kg/m(2). Serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin (Hb) were measured for each participant and analyzed through SPSS version 16...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101379/the-effect-of-eighteen-month-metformin-treatment-in-obese-adolescents-comparison-of-results-obtained-in-daily-practice-with-results-from-a-clinical-trial
#6
Marloes P van der Aa, Vera Hoving, Ewoudt M W van de Garde, Antonius de Boer, Catherijne A J Knibbe, Marja M J van der Vorst
Background. In a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) in obese adolescents, 18 month-treatment with metformin versus placebo was reported to lead to stabilisation of the BMI. This study aimed to compare the effect of metformin on BMI in obese adolescents in daily practice versus results obtained in an RCT. Methods. Obese adolescents treated off label with metformin in daily practice in an outpatient clinic with a follow-up of ≥18 months were identified. Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at baseline and at 18 months...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070419/lifestyle-modification-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-obesity
#7
EDITORIAL
Shirley Telles, Bangalore N Gangadhar, Kavita D Chandwani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050279/leptin-leptin-soluble-receptor-and-the-free-leptin-index-following-a-diet-and-physical-activity-lifestyle-intervention-in-obese-males-and-females
#8
Jeffrey E Herrick, Gino S Panza, Jared M Gollie
Leptin (LEP) is associated with appetite regulation and metabolism. Concentration is linear with adiposity, suggesting LEP resistance. LEP circulates freely and bound with its soluble receptor (sOB-r); the ratio is the free leptin index (FLI), an index of leptin resistance; lower FLI suggests reduced biological action. Purpose. The aim was to determine the effect of changes in adipose tissue distribution on LEP, sOB-r, and FLI following 6 months (6 M) of a diet/exercise weight loss program (WLP). In addition, we aim to identify predictors of the FLI...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994885/impaired-visual-motor-coordination-in-obese-adults
#9
David Gaul, Arimin Mat, Donal O'Shea, Johann Issartel
Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965894/bariatric-surgery-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-infertility
#10
REVIEW
James Butterworth, Jean Deguara, Cynthia-Michelle Borg
Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of female infertility. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are key pathophysiological mechanisms behind PCOS. Women suffering from this syndrome and infertility often seek bariatric surgery hoping that they would be able to conceive postoperatively. Objective. At present, there is no consensus on the role of bariatric surgery in the management of PCOS-associated infertility within the medical community, making it difficult to give specific advice to these women, so a review of the literature was necessary...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885339/establishing-waist-to-height-ratio-standards-from-criterion-referenced-bmi-using-roc-curves-in-low-income-children
#11
Ryan D Burns, Timothy A Brusseau, Yi Fang, You Fu, James C Hannon
The purpose of this study was to establish health-related waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-points associating with FITNESSGRAM's body mass index (BMI) criterion-referenced standards in low-income children. A secondary aim was to examine the classification agreement between the derived WHtR cut-points and various cardiometabolic blood markers using current recommendations. Participants were 219 children from low-income schools (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.6 years). Waist circumference, height, weight, and cardiometabolic blood markers were collected in a fasting state before school hours...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830087/an-anthropometric-risk-index-based-on-combining-height-weight-waist-and-hip-measurements
#12
Nir Y Krakauer, Jesse C Krakauer
Body mass index (BMI) can be considered an application of a power law model to express body weight independently of height. Based on the same power law principle, we previously introduced a body shape index (ABSI) to be independent of BMI and height. Here, we develop a new hip index (HI) whose normalized value is independent of height, BMI, and ABSI. Similar to BMI, HI demonstrates a U-shaped relationship to mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) population. We further develop a new anthropometric risk index (ARI) by adding log hazard ratios from separate nonlinear regressions of the four indicators, height, BMI, ABSI, and HI, against NHANES III mortality hazard...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777796/objectively-quantified-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-predicting-visceral-adiposity-and-liver-fat
#13
Shelley E Keating, Helen M Parker, Toby G Pavey, Michael K Baker, Ian D Caterson, Jacob George, Nathan A Johnson
Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777795/limited-effects-of-endurance-or-interval-training-on-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-systemic-inflammation-in-sedentary-middle-aged-men
#14
Joshua H F Cooper, Blake E G Collins, David R Adams, Robert A Robergs, Cheyne E Donges
Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether "active" or "passive" recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m(2)) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk(-1) ET (n = 15; 50-60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4-10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14)...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774315/cardiovascular-endurance-body-mass-index-physical-activity-screen-time-and-carotenoid-intake-of-children-nhanes-national-youth-fitness-survey
#15
Joan A Vaccaro, Fatma G Huffman
Background. Approximately 17% of children aged 6-11 years were classified as obese in the United States. Obesity adversely affects physical functioning and leads to reduced quality of life. Heart function for overweight and obese children has not been reported. Methods. Data for this study were from NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) conducted in conjunction with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2012. This study used data from children aged 6-12 (N = 732) that had the cardiorespiratory endurance measure, body mass index for age and sex, and dietary data (N = 682)...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774314/breastfeeding-practices-among-native-hawaiians-and-pacific-islanders
#16
Ingrid K Richards Adams, Chizimuzo T C Okoli, Akilah Dulin Keita, Ana Maria Linares, Keiko Tanaka, Joshua R Polanin, Annie Koempel
Background. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of obesity in the early and adult years. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) experience high rates of obesity which is often obfuscated with aggregated data. Using disaggregated data, we examined breastfeeding practices among NHPI. Methods. Seven databases and reference lists were searched. Two independent researchers extracted relevant studies based on predetermined criteria. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects, inverse-various weighted models...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747100/altered-left-ventricular-ion-channel-transcriptome-in-a-high-fat-fed-rat-model-of-obesity-insight-into-obesity-induced-arrhythmogenesis
#17
Reza Ashrafi, Marianne Yon, Lucy Pickavance, Joseph Yanni Gerges, Gershan Davis, John Wilding, Kun Jian, Henggui Zhang, George Hart, Mark Boyett
Introduction. Obesity is increasingly common and is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to see whether in obesity there is proarrhythmic gene expression of ventricular ion channels and related molecules. Methods and Results. Rats were fed on a high-fat diet and compared to control rats on a normal diet (n = 8). After 8 weeks, rats on the high-fat diet showed significantly greater weight gain and higher adiposity. Left ventricle samples were removed at 8 weeks and mRNA expression of ion channels and other molecules was measured using qPCR...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747099/positioning-of-weight-bias-moving-towards-social-justice
#18
Sarah Nutter, Shelly Russell-Mayhew, Angela S Alberga, Nancy Arthur, Anusha Kassan, Darren E Lund, Monica Sesma-Vazquez, Emily Williams
Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725885/influence-of-nutrition-claims-on-appetite-sensations-according-to-sex-weight-status-and-restrained-eating
#19
Geneviève Painchaud Guérard, Simone Lemieux, Éric Doucet, Sonia Pomerleau, Véronique Provencher
Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three ("healthy" versus "diet" (i.e., satiating) versus "hedonic") by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18-65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721990/disparities-in-risk-factors-associated-with-obesity-between-zanzibar-and-tanzania-mainland-among-women-of-reproductive-age-based-on-the-2010-tdhs
#20
Edwin Paul, Abdalla H Mtumwa, Julius Edward Ntwenya, Said A H Vuai
The occurrence of overweight and obesity has serious health implications. The 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data set was reanalysed to compare the prevalences of overweight and obesity between Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar and to determine how demographic factors can predict overweight and obesity across the United Republic of Tanzania. About 7.92% of the Tanzanian women of reproductive age were obese, 15% were overweight, and 11.5% were underweight. Women from Mainland Tanzania (6.56%) were significantly less likely (AOR = 0...
2016: Journal of Obesity
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