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Journal of Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885339/establishing-waist-to-height-ratio-standards-from-criterion-referenced-bmi-using-roc-curves-in-low-income-children
#1
Ryan D Burns, Timothy A Brusseau, Yi Fang, You Fu, James C Hannon
The purpose of this study was to establish health-related waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-points associating with FITNESSGRAM's body mass index (BMI) criterion-referenced standards in low-income children. A secondary aim was to examine the classification agreement between the derived WHtR cut-points and various cardiometabolic blood markers using current recommendations. Participants were 219 children from low-income schools (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.6 years). Waist circumference, height, weight, and cardiometabolic blood markers were collected in a fasting state before school hours...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830087/an-anthropometric-risk-index-based-on-combining-height-weight-waist-and-hip-measurements
#2
Nir Y Krakauer, Jesse C Krakauer
Body mass index (BMI) can be considered an application of a power law model to express body weight independently of height. Based on the same power law principle, we previously introduced a body shape index (ABSI) to be independent of BMI and height. Here, we develop a new hip index (HI) whose normalized value is independent of height, BMI, and ABSI. Similar to BMI, HI demonstrates a U-shaped relationship to mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) population. We further develop a new anthropometric risk index (ARI) by adding log hazard ratios from separate nonlinear regressions of the four indicators, height, BMI, ABSI, and HI, against NHANES III mortality hazard...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777796/objectively-quantified-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-predicting-visceral-adiposity-and-liver-fat
#3
Shelley E Keating, Helen M Parker, Toby G Pavey, Michael K Baker, Ian D Caterson, Jacob George, Nathan A Johnson
Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777795/limited-effects-of-endurance-or-interval-training-on-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-systemic-inflammation-in-sedentary-middle-aged-men
#4
Joshua H F Cooper, Blake E G Collins, David R Adams, Robert A Robergs, Cheyne E Donges
Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether "active" or "passive" recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m(2)) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk(-1) ET (n = 15; 50-60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4-10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14)...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774315/cardiovascular-endurance-body-mass-index-physical-activity-screen-time-and-carotenoid-intake-of-children-nhanes-national-youth-fitness-survey
#5
Joan A Vaccaro, Fatma G Huffman
Background. Approximately 17% of children aged 6-11 years were classified as obese in the United States. Obesity adversely affects physical functioning and leads to reduced quality of life. Heart function for overweight and obese children has not been reported. Methods. Data for this study were from NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) conducted in conjunction with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2012. This study used data from children aged 6-12 (N = 732) that had the cardiorespiratory endurance measure, body mass index for age and sex, and dietary data (N = 682)...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774314/breastfeeding-practices-among-native-hawaiians-and-pacific-islanders
#6
Ingrid K Richards Adams, Chizimuzo T C Okoli, Akilah Dulin Keita, Ana Maria Linares, Keiko Tanaka, Joshua R Polanin, Annie Koempel
Background. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of obesity in the early and adult years. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) experience high rates of obesity which is often obfuscated with aggregated data. Using disaggregated data, we examined breastfeeding practices among NHPI. Methods. Seven databases and reference lists were searched. Two independent researchers extracted relevant studies based on predetermined criteria. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects, inverse-various weighted models...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747100/altered-left-ventricular-ion-channel-transcriptome-in-a-high-fat-fed-rat-model-of-obesity-insight-into-obesity-induced-arrhythmogenesis
#7
Reza Ashrafi, Marianne Yon, Lucy Pickavance, Joseph Yanni Gerges, Gershan Davis, John Wilding, Kun Jian, Henggui Zhang, George Hart, Mark Boyett
Introduction. Obesity is increasingly common and is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to see whether in obesity there is proarrhythmic gene expression of ventricular ion channels and related molecules. Methods and Results. Rats were fed on a high-fat diet and compared to control rats on a normal diet (n = 8). After 8 weeks, rats on the high-fat diet showed significantly greater weight gain and higher adiposity. Left ventricle samples were removed at 8 weeks and mRNA expression of ion channels and other molecules was measured using qPCR...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747099/positioning-of-weight-bias-moving-towards-social-justice
#8
Sarah Nutter, Shelly Russell-Mayhew, Angela S Alberga, Nancy Arthur, Anusha Kassan, Darren E Lund, Monica Sesma-Vazquez, Emily Williams
Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725885/influence-of-nutrition-claims-on-appetite-sensations-according-to-sex-weight-status-and-restrained-eating
#9
Geneviève Painchaud Guérard, Simone Lemieux, Éric Doucet, Sonia Pomerleau, Véronique Provencher
Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three ("healthy" versus "diet" (i.e., satiating) versus "hedonic") by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18-65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721990/disparities-in-risk-factors-associated-with-obesity-between-zanzibar-and-tanzania-mainland-among-women-of-reproductive-age-based-on-the-2010-tdhs
#10
Edwin Paul, Abdalla H Mtumwa, Julius Edward Ntwenya, Said A H Vuai
The occurrence of overweight and obesity has serious health implications. The 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data set was reanalysed to compare the prevalences of overweight and obesity between Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar and to determine how demographic factors can predict overweight and obesity across the United Republic of Tanzania. About 7.92% of the Tanzanian women of reproductive age were obese, 15% were overweight, and 11.5% were underweight. Women from Mainland Tanzania (6.56%) were significantly less likely (AOR = 0...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703805/role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-aetiology-of-obesity-proposed-mechanisms-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Muhammad Jaffar Khan, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Christine Ann Edwards, M Guftar Shaikh
The aetiology of obesity has been attributed to several factors (environmental, dietary, lifestyle, host, and genetic factors); however none of these fully explain the increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide. Gut microbiota located at the interface of host and environment in the gut are a new area of research being explored to explain the excess accumulation of energy in obese individuals and may be a potential target for therapeutic manipulation to reduce host energy storage. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the role of gut microbiota in the aetiology of obesity such as short chain fatty acid production, stimulation of hormones, chronic low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein and bile acid metabolism, and increased endocannabinoid receptor system tone...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699065/appetite-suppression-and-antiobesity-effect-of-a-botanical-composition-composed-of-morus-alba-yerba-mate-and-magnolia-officinalis
#12
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635257/design-of-a-digital-based-multicomponent-nutrition-guidance-system-for-prevention-of-early-childhood-obesity
#13
Keriann H Uesugi, Anne M Dattilo, Maureen M Black, Jose M Saavedra
Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516900/receptivity-to-bariatric-surgery-in-qualified-patients
#14
Michael Fung, Sean Wharton, Alison Macpherson, Jennifer L Kuk
Objectives. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective intervention for weight loss and diabetes management. Despite this, many patients qualified for bariatric surgery are not interested in undergoing the procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing receptivity to bariatric surgery among those who qualify for the procedure. Methods. Patients attending a publicly funded weight management clinic who qualified for bariatric surgery were asked to complete an elective questionnaire between February 2013 and April 2014...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493797/community-engaged-lifestyle-modification-research-engaging-diabetic-and-prediabetic-african-american-women-in-community-based-interventions
#15
Starla Hairston Blanks, Henrie Treadwell, Anya Bazzell, Whitney Graves, Olivia Osaji, Juanita Dean, James T McLawhorn, Jareese Lee Stroud
Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462468/let-s-wiggle-with-5-2-1-0-curriculum-development-for-training-childcare-providers-to-promote-activity-in-childcare-settings
#16
Debra M Vinci, Melicia C Whitt-Glover, Christopher K Wirth, Caroline Kraus, Alexandra P Venezia
Overweight and obesity are increasing in preschool children in the US. Policy, systems, and environmental change interventions in childcare settings can improve obesity-related behaviors. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot an intervention to train childcare providers to promote physical activity (PA) in childcare classrooms. An evidence scan, key informant (n = 34) and focus group (n = 20) interviews with childcare directors and staff, and environmental self-assessment of childcare facilities (n = 22) informed the design of the training curriculum...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433356/race-or-resource-bmi-race-and-other-social-factors-as-risk-factors-for-interlimb-differences-among-overweight-breast-cancer-survivors-with-lymphedema
#17
Lorraine T Dean, Anagha Kumar, Taehoon Kim, Matthew Herling, Justin C Brown, Zi Zhang, Margaret Evangelisti, Renata Hackley, Jiyoung Kim, Andrea Cheville, Andrea B Troxel, J Sanford Schwartz, Kathryn H Schmitz
Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD). Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI < 50) Black (n = 102) or White (n = 194) breast cancer survivors (>6 months from treatment) in the WISER Survivor trial...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429801/maternal-feeding-styles-and-food-parenting-practices-as-predictors-of-longitudinal-changes-in-weight-status-in-hispanic-preschoolers-from-low-income-families
#18
Sheryl O Hughes, Thomas G Power, Teresia M O'Connor, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Tzu-An Chen
Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429800/reducing-societal-obesity-establishing-a-separate-exercise-model-through-studies-of-group-behavior
#19
REVIEW
J S Puterbaugh
The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413546/changes-in-weight-loss-health-behaviors-and-intentions-among-400-participants-who-dropped-out-from-an-insurance-sponsored-community-based-weight-management-program
#20
Sam J Zizzi, Jana Lima Fogaca, Tammy Sheehy, Myia Welsh, Christiaan Abildso
The majority of weight management research is based on data from randomized controlled studies conducted in clinical settings. As these findings are translated into community-based settings, additional research is needed to understand patterns of lifestyle change and dropout. The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for and consequences associated with dropout (or removal) from an insurance-funded weight management program. Using a mixed methods approach with objectively measured changes in body weight and attendance along with quantitative and qualitative survey data, patterns of intention and behavior change were explored...
2016: Journal of Obesity
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