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EvoDevo

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933139/the-neuromuscular-system-of-pycnophyes-kielensis-kinorhyncha-allomalorhagida-investigated-by-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#1
Andreas Altenburger
BACKGROUND: Kinorhynchs are ecdysozoan animals with a phylogenetic position close to priapulids and loriciferans. To understand the nature of segmentation within Kinorhyncha and to infer a probable ancestry of segmentation within the last common ancestor of Ecdysozoa, the musculature and the nervous system of the allomalorhagid kinorhynch Pycnophyes kielensis were investigated by use of immunohistochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstruction software. RESULTS: The kinorhynch body plan comprises 11 trunk segments...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895889/amino-acid-transporters-implicated-in-endocytosis-of-buchnera-during-symbiont-transmission-in-the-pea-aphid
#2
Hsiao-Ling Lu, Chun-Che Chang, Alex C C Wilson
BACKGROUND: Many insects host their obligate, maternally transmitted symbiotic bacteria in specialized cells called bacteriocytes. One of the best-studied insect nutritional endosymbioses is that of the aphid and its endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola. Aphids and Buchnera are metabolically and developmentally integrated, but the molecular mechanisms underlying Buchnera transmission and coordination with aphid development remain largely unknown. Previous work using electron microscopy to study aphid asexual embryogenesis has revealed that Buchnera transmission involves exocytosis from a maternal bacteriocyte followed by endocytotic uptake by a blastula...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757221/conservation-and-divergence-of-bhlh-genes-in-the-calcisponge-sycon-ciliatum
#3
Sofia A V Fortunato, Michel Vervoort, Marcin Adamski, Maja Adamska
BACKGROUND: Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) genes encode a large family of eukaryotic transcription factors, categorized into six high-order groups: pan-eukaryotic group B involved in regulation of cell cycle, metabolism, and development; holozoan-specific groups C and F involved in development and maintenance of homeostasis; and metazoan-specific groups A, D and E including well-studied genes, such as Atonal, Twist and Hairy, with diverse developmental roles including control of morphogenesis and specification of neurons...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708756/plasticity-and-regeneration-of-gonads-in-the-annelid-pristina-leidyi
#4
B Duygu Özpolat, Emily S Sloane, Eduardo E Zattara, Alexandra E Bely
BACKGROUND: Gonads are specialized gamete-producing structures that, despite their functional importance, are generated by diverse mechanisms across groups of animals and can be among the most plastic organs of the body. Annelids, the segmented worms, are a group in which gonads have been documented to be plastic and to be able to regenerate, but little is known about what factors influence gonad development or how these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583126/fibronectin-contributes-to-notochord-intercalation-in-the-invertebrate-chordate-ciona-intestinalis
#5
Fernando Segade, Christina Cota, Amber Famiglietti, Anna Cha, Brad Davidson
BACKGROUND: Genomic analysis has upended chordate phylogeny, placing the tunicates as the sister group to the vertebrates. This taxonomic rearrangement raises questions about the emergence of a tunicate/vertebrate ancestor. RESULTS: Characterization of developmental genes uniquely shared by tunicates and vertebrates is one promising approach for deciphering developmental shifts underlying acquisition of novel, ancestral traits. The matrix glycoprotein Fibronectin (FN) has long been considered a vertebrate-specific gene, playing a major instructive role in vertebrate embryonic development...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583125/molecular-regionalization-in-the-compact-brain-of-the-meiofaunal-annelid-dinophilus-gyrociliatus-dinophilidae
#6
Alexandra Kerbl, José M Martín-Durán, Katrine Worsaae, Andreas Hejnol
BACKGROUND: Annelida is a morphologically diverse animal group that exhibits a remarkable variety in nervous system architecture (e.g., number and location of longitudinal cords, architecture of the brain). Despite this heterogeneity of neural arrangements, the molecular profiles related to central nervous system patterning seem to be conserved even between distantly related annelids. In particular, comparative molecular studies on brain and anterior neural region patterning genes have focused so far mainly on indirect-developing macrofaunal taxa...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525057/neuronal-fate-specification-by-the-dbx1-transcription-factor-is-linked-to-the-evolutionary-acquisition-of-a-novel-functional-domain
#7
Sonia Karaz, Maximilien Courgeon, Hélène Lepetit, Eugenia Bruno, Raimondo Pannone, Andrea Tarallo, France Thouzé, Pierre Kerner, Michel Vervoort, Frédéric Causeret, Alessandra Pierani, Giuseppe D'Onofrio
BACKGROUND: Dbx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor involved in neuronal fate specification belonging to a widely conserved family among bilaterians. In mammals, Dbx1 was proposed to act as a transcriptional repressor by interacting with the Groucho corepressors to allow the specification of neurons involved in essential biological functions such as locomotion or breathing. RESULTS: Sequence alignments of Dbx1 proteins from different species allowed us to identify two conserved domains related to the Groucho-dependent Engrailed repressor domain (RD), as well as a newly described domain composed of clusterized acidic residues at the C-terminus (Cter) which is present in tetrapods but also several invertebrates...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489613/developmental-expression-of-germline-and-sex-determination-related-genes-in-the-ctenophore-mnemiopsis-leidyi
#8
Adam M Reitzel, Kevin Pang, Mark Q Martindale
BACKGROUND: An essential developmental pathway in sexually reproducing animals is the specification of germ cells and the differentiation of mature gametes, sperm and oocytes. The "germline" genes vasa, nanos and piwi are commonly identified in primordial germ cells, suggesting a molecular signature for the germline throughout animals. However, these genes are also expressed in a diverse set of somatic stem cells throughout the animal kingdom leaving open significant questions for whether they are required for germline specification...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489612/the-developmental-and-genetic-bases-of-apetaly-in-bocconia-frutescens-chelidonieae-papaveraceae
#9
Cristina Arango-Ocampo, Favio González, Juan Fernando Alzate, Natalia Pabón-Mora
BACKGROUND: Bocconia and Macleaya are the only genera of the poppy family (Papaveraceae) lacking petals; however, the developmental and genetic processes underlying such evolutionary shift have not yet been studied. RESULTS: We studied floral development in two species of petal-less poppies Bocconia frutescens and Macleaya cordata as well as in the closely related petal-bearing Stylophorum diphyllum. We generated a floral transcriptome of B. frutescens to identify MADS-box ABCE floral organ identity genes expressed during early floral development...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489611/the-phenotypic-plasticity-of-developmental-modules
#10
Aabha I Sharma, Katherine O Yanes, Luyang Jin, Sarah L Garvey, Sartu M Taha, Yuichiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Organisms develop and evolve in a modular fashion, but how individual modules interact with the environment remains poorly understood. Phenotypically plastic traits are often under selection, and studies are needed to address how traits respond to the environment in a modular fashion. In this study, tissue-specific plasticity of melanic spots was examined in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. RESULTS: Although the size of the abdominal melanic bands varied according to rearing temperatures, wing melanic bands were more robust...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482374/in-silico-evo-devo-reconstructing-stages-in-the-evolution-of-animal-segmentation
#11
Renske M A Vroomans, Paulien Hogeweg, Kirsten H W J Ten Tusscher
BACKGROUND: The evolution of animal segmentation is a major research focus within the field of evolutionary-developmental biology. Most studied segmented animals generate their segments in a repetitive, anterior-to-posterior fashion coordinated with the extension of the body axis from a posterior growth zone. In the current study we ask which selection pressures and ordering of evolutionary events may have contributed to the evolution of this specific segmentation mode. RESULTS: To answer this question we extend a previous in silico simulation model of the evolution of segmentation by allowing the tissue growth pattern to freely evolve...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413529/conserved-expression-of-vertebrate-microvillar-gene-homologs-in-choanocytes-of-freshwater-sponges
#12
Jesús F Peña, Alexandre Alié, Daniel J Richter, Lingyu Wang, Noriko Funayama, Scott A Nichols
BACKGROUND: The microvillus is a versatile organelle that serves important functions in disparate animal cell types. However, from a molecular perspective, the microvillus has been well studied in only a few, predominantly vertebrate, contexts. Little is known about how differences in microvillar structure contribute to differences in function, and how these differences evolved. We sequenced the transcriptome of the freshwater sponge, Ephydatia muelleri, and examined the expression of vertebrate microvillar gene homologs in choanocytes-the only microvilli-bearing cell type present in sponges...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239263/morphogenesis-and-morphometric-scaling-of-lung-airway-development-follows-phylogeny-in-chicken-quail-and-duck-embryos
#13
Daniel Tzou, James W Spurlin, Amira L Pavlovich, Carolyn R Stewart, Jason P Gleghorn, Celeste M Nelson
BACKGROUND: New branches within the embryonic chicken lung form via apical constriction, in which epithelial cells in the primary bronchus become trapezoidal in shape. These branches form at precise locations along the primary bronchus that scale relative to the size of the organ. Here, we examined the extent to which this scaling relationship and branching mechanism are conserved within lungs of three species of birds. FINDINGS: Analyzing the development of embryonic lungs from chicken, quail, and duck, as well as lungs explanted and cultured ex vivo, revealed that the patterns of branching are remarkably conserved...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168931/composition-and-genomic-organization-of-arthropod-hox-clusters
#14
Ryan M Pace, Miodrag Grbić, Lisa M Nagy
BACKGROUND: The ancestral arthropod is believed to have had a clustered arrangement of ten Hox genes. Within arthropods, Hox gene mutations result in transformation of segment identities. Despite the fact that variation in segment number/character was common in the diversification of arthropods, few examples of Hox gene gains/losses have been correlated with morphological evolution. Furthermore, a full appreciation of the variation in the genomic arrangement of Hox genes in extant arthropods has not been recognized, as genome sequences from each major arthropod clade have not been reported until recently...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076904/formation-of-body-appendages-during-caudal-regeneration-in-platynereis-dumerilii-adaptation-of-conserved-molecular-toolsets
#15
Jan Grimmel, Adriaan W C Dorresteijn, Andreas C Fröbius
BACKGROUND: Platynereis and other polychaete annelids with homonomous segmentation are regarded to closely resemble ancestral forms of bilateria. The head region comprises the prostomium, the peristomium, a variable number of cephalized body segments and several appendages, like cirri, antennae and palps. The trunk of such polychaetes shows numerous, nearly identical segments. Each segment bears a parapodium with species-specific morphology on either side. The posterior end of the trunk features a segment proliferation zone and a terminal pygidium with the anus and anal cirri...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073614/temporally-and-spatially-dynamic-germ-cell-niches-in-botryllus-schlosseri-revealed-by-expression-of-a-tgf-beta-family-ligand-and-vasa
#16
Adam D Langenbacher, Anthony W De Tomaso
BACKGROUND: Germ cells are specified during early development and are responsible for generating gametes in the adult. After germ cells are specified, they typically migrate to a particular niche in the organism where they reside for the remainder of its lifetime. For some model organisms, the specification and migration of germ cells have been extensively studied, but how these events occur in animals that reproduce both sexually and asexually is not well understood. RESULTS: We have identified a novel TGF-β family member in Botryllus schlosseri, tgfβ-f, and found that it is expressed by follicle cell progenitors and the differentiated follicle and support cells surrounding the maturing gametes...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042288/elaboration-of-bilateral-symmetry-across-knautia-macedonica-capitula-related-to-changes-in-ventral-petal-expression-of-cycloidea-like-genes
#17
Brent A Berger, Veronica Thompson, Aedric Lim, Vincent Ricigliano, Dianella G Howarth
BACKGROUND: Shifts in floral form across angiosperms, particularly from radially symmetrical to bilaterally symmetrical flowers, are often associated with shifts in speciation rates and changes in pollination syndrome. Growing evidence across both rosids and asterids indicates that CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like transcription factors from the TCP gene family play a role in establishing the dorsoventral pattern of flower symmetry, which affects the development of both the corolla and androecium...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034770/hox-gene-complement-and-expression-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#18
Ko W Currie, David D R Brown, Shujun Zhu, ChangJiang Xu, Veronique Voisin, Gary D Bader, Bret J Pearson
BACKGROUND: Freshwater planarians are well known for their regenerative abilities. Less well known is how planarians maintain spatial patterning in long-lived adult animals or how they re-pattern tissues during regeneration. HOX genes are good candidates to regulate planarian spatial patterning, yet the full complement or genomic clustering of planarian HOX genes has not yet been described, primarily because only a few have been detectable by in situ hybridization, and none have given morphological phenotypes when knocked down by RNAi...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958337/the-ontogeny-of-choanocyte-chambers-during-metamorphosis-in-the-demosponge-amphimedon-queenslandica
#19
Shunsuke Sogabe, Nagayasu Nakanishi, Bernard M Degnan
BACKGROUND: The aquiferous body plan of poriferans revolves around internal chambers comprised of choanocytes, a cell type structurally similar to choanoflagellates. These choanocyte chambers perform a range of physiological and developmental functions, including the capture of food and the generation of stem cells. Despite the increasing interest for choanocytes as sponge stem cells, there is limited knowledge on the development of choanocyte chambers. Using a combination of cell lineage tracing, antibody staining and EdU labeling, here we examine the development of choanocytes and the chambers they comprise during metamorphosis in the marine demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925212/developmental-changes-and-novelties-in-ceratophryid-frogs
#20
REVIEW
Marissa Fabrezi, Silvia Inés Quinzio, Javier Goldberg, Julio César Cruz, Mariana Chuliver Pereyra, Richard J Wassersug
The Neotropical frog genera Ceratophrys, Chacophrys and Lepidobatrachus form the monophyletic family Ceratophryidae. Although in- and out-group relationships are not fully resolved, the monophyly of the three genera is well supported by both morphological and molecular data. Much is known about the morphology of the ceratophryids, but there is little comparative information on how modification of a common ancestral developmental pathway played a role in shaping their particular body plans. Herein, we review morphological variation during ceratophryid ontogeny in order to explore the role of development in their evolution...
2016: EvoDevo
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