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EvoDevo

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225770/sex-determination-mode-does-not-affect-body-or-genital-development-of-the-central-bearded-dragon-pogona-vitticeps
#1
Sarah L Whiteley, Clare E Holleley, Wendy A Ruscoe, Meghan Castelli, Darryl L Whitehead, Juan Lei, Arthur Georges, Vera Weisbecker
Background: The development of male- or female-specific phenotypes in squamates is typically controlled by either temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) or chromosome-based genetic sex determination (GSD). However, while sex determination is a major switch in individual phenotypic development, it is unknownhow evolutionary transitions between GSD and TSD might impact on the evolution of squamate phenotypes, particularly the fast-evolving and diverse genitalia. Here, we take the unique opportunity of studying the impact of both sex determination mechanisms on the embryological development of the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214009/the-role-of-hoxa11-and-hoxa13-in-the-evolution-of-novel-fin-morphologies-in-a-representative-batoid-leucoraja-erinacea
#2
Shannon N Barry, Karen D Crow
Background: Batoids exhibit unique body plans with derived fin morphologies, such as the anteriorly expanded pectoral fins that fuse to the head, or distally extended anterior pelvic fin lobes used for a modified swimming technique utilized by skates (Rajidae). The little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), exhibits both of these unique fin morphologies. These fin modifications are not present in a typical shark body plan, and little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying their development...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214008/comparing-growth-in-surface-and-cave-morphs-of-the-species-astyanax-mexicanus-insights-from-scales
#3
Victor Simon, Romain Elleboode, Kélig Mahé, Laurent Legendre, Patricia Ornelas-Garcia, Luis Espinasa, Sylvie Rétaux
Background: Life in the darkness of caves is accompanied, throughout phyla, by striking phenotypic changes including the loss or severe reduction in eyes and pigmentation. On the other hand, cave animals have undergone constructive changes, thought to be adaptive, to survive in this extreme environment. The present study addresses the question of the evolution of growth in caves, taking advantage of the comparison between the river-dwelling and the cave-dwelling morphs of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209492/aquilegia-b-gene-homologs-promote-petaloidy-of-the-sepals-and-maintenance-of-the-c-domain-boundary
#4
Bharti Sharma, Elena M Kramer
The model Aquilegia coerulea x "Origami" possesses several interesting floral features, including petaloid sepals that are morphologically distinct from the true petals and a broad domain containing many whorls of stamens. We undertook the current study in an effort to understand the former trait, but additionally uncovered data that inform on the latter. The Aquilegia B gene homolog AqPI is shown to contribute to the production of anthocyanin in the first whorl sepals, although it has no major role in their morphology...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201343/the-evolutionary-origin-of-digit-patterning
#5
REVIEW
Thomas A Stewart, Ramray Bhat, Stuart A Newman
The evolution of tetrapod limbs from paired fins has long been of interest to both evolutionary and developmental biologists. Several recent investigative tracks have converged to restructure hypotheses in this area. First, there is now general agreement that the limb skeleton is patterned by one or more Turing-type reaction-diffusion, or reaction-diffusion-adhesion, mechanism that involves the dynamical breaking of spatial symmetry. Second, experimental studies in finned vertebrates, such as catshark and zebrafish, have disclosed unexpected correspondence between the development of digits and the development of both the endoskeleton and the dermal skeleton of fins...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158889/non-canonical-dorsoventral-patterning-in-the-moth-midge-clogmia-albipunctata
#6
Karl R Wotton, Anna Alcaine-Colet, Johannes Jaeger, Eva Jiménez-Guri
Background: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are of central importance for dorsal-ventral (DV) axis specification. They are core components of a signalling cascade that includes the BMP ligand decapentaplegic (DPP) and its antagonist short gastrulation (SOG) in Drosophila melanogaster. These components are very ancient, with orthologs involved in DV patterning in both protostomes and deuterostomes. Despite such strong conservation, recent comparative work in insects has revealed interesting differences in the way the patterning function of the DV system is achieved in different species...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090082/the-trochoblasts-in-the-pilidium-larva-break-an-ancient-spiralian-constraint-to-enable-continuous-larval-growth-and-maximally-indirect-development
#7
George von Dassow, Svetlana A Maslakova
BACKGROUND: Nemertean embryos undergo equal spiral cleavage, and prior fate-mapping studies showed that some also exhibit key aspects of spiralian lineage-based fate specification, including specification of the primary trochoblasts, which differentiate early as the core of the prototroch of the spiralian trochophore larva. Yet it remains unclear how the nemertean pilidium larva, a long-lived planktotroph that grows substantially as it builds a juvenile body from isolated rudiments, develops within the constraints of spiral cleavage...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075435/formation-and-subdivision-of-the-head-field-in-the-centipede-strigamia-maritima-as-revealed-by-the-expression-of-head-gap-gene-orthologues-and-hedgehog-dynamics
#8
Vera S Hunnekuhl, Michael Akam
BACKGROUND: There have been few studies of head patterning in non-insect arthropods, and even in the insects, much is not yet understood. In the fly Drosophila three head gap genes, orthodenticle (otd), buttonhead (btd) and empty spiracles (ems) are essential for patterning the head. However, they do not act through the same pair-rule genes that pattern the trunk from the mandibular segment backwards. Instead they act through the downstream factors collier (col) and cap'n'collar (cnc), and presumably other unknown factors...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075434/heterochronic-developmental-shifts-underlie-floral-diversity-within-jaltomata-solanaceae
#9
Jamie L Kostyun, Jill C Preston, Leonie C Moyle
BACKGROUND: Heterochronic shifts during mid- to late stages of organismal development have been proposed as key mechanisms generating phenotypic diversity. To determine whether late heterochronic shifts underlie derived floral morphologies within Jaltomata (Solanaceae)-a genus whose species have extensive and recently evolved floral diversity-we compared floral development of four diverse species (including an ambiguously ancestral or secondarily derived rotate, two putatively independently evolved campanulate, and a tubular morph) to the ancestral rotate floral form, as well as to an outgroup that shares this ancestral floral morphology...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075433/differences-in-the-genetic-control-of-early-egg-development-and-reproduction-between-c-elegans-and-its-parthenogenetic-relative-d-coronatus
#10
Christopher Kraus, Philipp H Schiffer, Hiroshi Kagoshima, Hideaki Hiraki, Theresa Vogt, Michael Kroiher, Yuji Kohara, Einhard Schierenberg
BACKGROUND: The free-living nematode Diploscapter coronatus is the closest known relative of Caenorhabditis elegans with parthenogenetic reproduction. It shows several developmental idiosyncracies, for example concerning the mode of reproduction, embryonic axis formation and early cleavage pattern (Lahl et al. in Int J Dev Biol 50:393-397, 2006). Our recent genome analysis (Hiraki et al. in BMC Genomics 18:478, 2017) provides a solid foundation to better understand the molecular basis of developmental idiosyncrasies in this species in an evolutionary context by comparison with selected other nematodes...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075432/establishment-of-molecular-genetic-approaches-to-study-gene-expression-and-function-in-an-invasive-hemipteran-halyomorpha-halys
#11
Yong Lu, Mengyao Chen, Katie Reding, Leslie Pick
Hemiptera is a large clade of insects understudied in terms of developmental biology. Halyomorpha halys, the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB, referred to throughout as H. halys), is an invasive hemipteran pest of the mid-Atlantic region of the USA that has rapidly spread to other regions in recent years, devastating a wide range of crops using a piercing and sucking mechanism. Its phylogenetic position, polyphagous habits, and rapid spread in the USA suggested that H. halys would be an ideal system to broaden our knowledge of developmental mechanisms in insects...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878874/paxa-but-not-paxc-is-required-for-cnidocyte-development-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#12
Leslie S Babonis, Mark Q Martindale
BACKGROUND: Pax genes are a family of conserved transcription factors that regulate many aspects of developmental morphogenesis, notably the development of ectodermal sensory structures including eyes. Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, has numerous Pax orthologs, many of which are expressed early during embryogenesis. The function of Pax genes in this eyeless cnidarian is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we show that PaxA, but not PaxC, plays a critical role in the development of cnidocytes in N...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770040/establishment-of-lateral-organ-asymmetries-in-the-invertebrate-chordate-ciona-intestinalis
#13
Karl Palmquist, Brad Davidson
BACKGROUND: The evolutionary emergence and diversification of the chordates appear to involve dramatic changes in organ morphogenesis along the left/right axis. However, the ancestral chordate mechanism for establishing lateral asymmetry remains ambiguous. Additionally, links between the initial establishment of lateral asymmetry and subsequent asymmetries in organ morphogenesis are poorly characterized. RESULTS: To explore asymmetric organ morphogenesis during chordate evolution, we have begun to characterize left/right patterning of the heart and endodermal organs in an invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729899/evolutionary-loss-of-melanogenesis-in-the-tunicate-molgula-occulta
#14
Claudia Racioppi, Maria Carmen Valoroso, Ugo Coppola, Elijah K Lowe, C Titus Brown, Billie J Swalla, Lionel Christiaen, Alberto Stolfi, Filomena Ristoratore
BACKGROUND: Analyzing close species with diverse developmental modes is instrumental for investigating the evolutionary significance of physiological, anatomical and behavioral features at a molecular level. Many examples of trait loss are known in metazoan populations living in dark environments. Tunicates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates and typically present a lifecycle with distinct motile larval and sessile adult stages. The nervous system of the motile larva contains melanized cells associated with geotactic and light-sensing organs...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588759/crispr-based-gene-replacement-reveals-evolutionarily-conserved-axon-guidance-functions-of-drosophila-robo3-and-tribolium-robo2-3
#15
Timothy A Evans
BACKGROUND: Axon guidance receptors of the Roundabout (Robo) family regulate a number of axon guidance outcomes in bilaterian animals in addition to their canonical role in Slit-dependent midline repulsion. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, three Robo paralogs (Robo1, Robo2, and Robo3) each have specialized roles in regulating midline crossing and the formation of longitudinal axon pathways in the embryonic ventral nerve cord. The number of robo genes differs in other insects, and it is unknown whether the roles and/or signaling mechanisms of Drosophila Robos are shared in other insect species...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491275/outflow-tract-septation-and-the-aortic-arch-system-in-reptiles-lessons-for-understanding-the-mammalian-heart
#16
Robert E Poelmann, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Marcel W M Biermans, Anne I Dolfing, Armand Jagessar, Sam van Hattum, Amanda Hoogenboom, Lambertus J Wisse, Rebecca Vicente-Steijn, Merijn A G de Bakker, Freek J Vonk, Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shigeru Kuratani, Michael K Richardson
BACKGROUND: Cardiac outflow tract patterning and cell contribution are studied using an evo-devo approach to reveal insight into the development of aorto-pulmonary septation. RESULTS: We studied embryonic stages of reptile hearts (lizard, turtle and crocodile) and compared these to avian and mammalian development. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to indicate where the essential cell components in the outflow tract and aortic sac were deployed, more specifically endocardial, neural crest and second heart field cells...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469835/developing-an-ancient-epithelial-appendage-fgf-signalling-regulates-early-tail-denticle-formation-in-sharks
#17
Rory L Cooper, Kyle J Martin, Liam J Rasch, Gareth J Fraser
BACKGROUND: Vertebrate epithelial appendages constitute a diverse group of organs that includes integumentary structures such as reptilian scales, avian feathers and mammalian hair. Recent studies have provided new evidence for the homology of integumentary organ development throughout amniotes, despite their disparate final morphologies. These structures develop from conserved molecular signalling centres, known as epithelial placodes. It is not yet certain whether this homology extends beyond the integumentary organs of amniotes, as there is a lack of knowledge regarding their development in basal vertebrates...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439397/transcriptomic-analysis-of-maternally-provisioned-cues-for-phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-annual-killifish-austrofundulus-limnaeus
#18
Amie L Romney, Jason E Podrabsky
BACKGROUND: Genotype and environment can interact during development to produce novel adaptive traits that support life in extreme conditions. The development of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus is unique among vertebrates because the embryos have distinct cell movements that separate epiboly from axis formation during early development, can enter into a state of metabolic dormancy known as diapause and can survive extreme environmental conditions. The ability to enter into diapause can be maternally programmed, with young females producing embryos that do not enter into diapause...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331573/evolution-of-the-spatula-alcatraz-gene-lineage-and-expression-analyses-in-the-basal-eudicot-bocconia-frutescens-l-papaveraceae
#19
Cecilia Zumajo-Cardona, Barbara Ann Ambrose, Natalia Pabón-Mora
BACKGROUND: SPATULA (SPT) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) are recent paralogs that belong to the large bHLH transcription factor family. Orthologs of these genes have been found in all core eudicots, whereas pre-duplication genes, named paleoSPATULA/ALCATRAZ, have been found in basal eudicots, monocots, basal angiosperms and gymnosperms. Nevertheless, functional studies have only been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, where SPT and ALC are partially redundant in carpel and valve margin development and ALC has a unique role in the dehiscence zone...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239444/locomotory-control-in-amphioxus-larvae-new-insights-from-neurotransmitter-data
#20
EDITORIAL
Thurston Lacalli, Simona Candiani
Amphioxus larvae have a midbrain-level locomotory control center whose overall organization is known from serial TEM reconstructions. How it functions has been a puzzle, owing to uncertainty as to the transmitters used by each class of neurons, but this has recently become clearer. We summarize what is now known, and correct past misconceptions: The large paired neurons at the core of the control center are glutamatergic, and hence excitatory, the commissural neurons are GABAergic, hence probably inhibitory, and both motoneurons and ipsilateral projection neurons are cholinergic, suggesting that the latter, a class of interneurons, may be derived evolutionarily from the former...
2017: EvoDevo
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