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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Brittani R Price, Donna M Wilcock, Erica M Weekman
Behind only Alzheimer's disease, vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second most common cause of dementia, affecting roughly 10-40% of dementia patients. While there is no cure for VCID, several risk factors for VCID, such as diabetes, hypertension, and stroke, have been identified. Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine, termed hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), are a major, yet underrecognized, risk factor for VCID. B vitamin deficiency, which is the most common cause of HHcy, is common in the elderly...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Huihui Qi, Hao Liu, Haimeng Hu, Huijin He, Xiaohu Zhao
Background: Recent studies have indicated that the default mode network (DMN) comprises at least three subsystems: The medial temporal lobe (MTL) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) subsystems and a core comprising the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Additionally, the disruption of the DMN is related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known regarding the changes in these subsystems in AD, a progressive disease characterized by memory impairment. Here, we performed a resting-state functional connectivity (FC) analysis to test our hypothesis that the memory-related MTL subsystem was predominantly disrupted in AD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Marianna Riello, Andreia V Faria, Bronte Ficek, Kimberly Webster, Chiadi U Onyike, John Desmond, Constantine Frangakis, Kyrana Tsapkini
Despite the common assumption that atrophy in a certain brain area would compromise the function that it subserves, this is not always the case, especially in complex clinical syndromes such as primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Clinical and demographic information may contribute to PPA phenotypes and explain the manifested impairments better than atrophy. In the present study, we asked how much variance of the object and action naming impairments observed in PPA may be attributed to atrophy in the language network alone vs...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Maren Dietzek, Sigrid Finn, Panagiota Karvouniari, Maja A Zeller, Carsten M Klingner, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Otto W Witte, Hubertus Axer
Objective: Many patients with dizziness and vertigo are of older age. It is still unclear which age-associated factors play a role in the treatment of dizziness and vertigo. Therefore, age-associated characteristics of patients subjected to an interdisciplinary day care approach for chronic vertigo and dizziness were analyzed. Subjects and Methods: 650 patients with chronic dizziness/vertigo subjected to a multimodal vestibular rehabilitation day care program were analyzed. Information concerning age, gender, medical diagnosis, medical consultations, technical diagnostics performed and therapy achieved before attending the clinic were collected...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ana Espinosa, Begoña Hernández-Olasagarre, Sonia Moreno-Grau, Luca Kleineidam, Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach, Isabel Hernández, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Holger Wagner, Maitée Rosende-Roca, Ana Mauleón, Liliana Vargas, Asunción Lafuente, Octavio Rodríguez-Gómez, Carla Abdelnour, Silvia Gil, Marta Marquié, Miguel A Santos-Santos, Ángela Sanabria, Gemma Ortega, Gemma Monté-Rubio, Alba Pérez, Marta Ibarria, Susana Ruiz, Johannes Kornhuber, Oliver Peters, Lutz Frölich, Michael Hüll, Jens Wiltfang, Tobias Luck, Steffi Riedel-Heller, Laura Montrreal, Pilar Cañabate, Mariola Moreno, Silvia Preckler, Nuria Aguilera, Itziar de Rojas, Adelina Orellana, Montserrat Alegret, Sergi Valero, Markus M Nöthen, Michael Wagner, Frank Jessen, Lluis Tárraga, Mercè Boada, Alfredo Ramírez, Agustín Ruiz
The role of genetic risk markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in mediating the neurocognitive endophenotypes (NEs) of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has rarely been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between well-known AD-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and individual NEs routinely evaluated during diagnosis of MCI, AD, and other dementias. The Fundació ACE (ACE) dataset, comprising information from 1245 patients with MCI, was analyzed, including the total sample, amnestic MCI (aMCI) ( n = 811), and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) ( n = 434)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Manuela Berlingeri, Desiré Carioti, Laura Danelli, Emanuele Lo Gerfo
It is well established that off-line sentence judgment tasks (oSJTs) typically rely on phonological working memory (WM), beyond specific linguistic processing. Nevertheless, empirical findings suggest that a juvenile level of performance in an oSJT could be associated with the recruitment of age-specific additional supportive neural network in healthy aging. In particular, in one of our previous study, healthy elderlies showed the additional activation of associative visual cortices when compared with young controls...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Geraldine Hipp, Michel Vaillant, Nico J Diederich, Kirsten Roomp, Venkata P Satagopam, Peter Banda, Estelle Sandt, Kathleen Mommaerts, Sabine K Schmitz, Laura Longhino, Alexandra Schweicher, Anne-Marie Hanff, Béatrice Nicolai, Pierre Kolber, Dorothea Reiter, Lukas Pavelka, Sylvia Binck, Claire Pauly, Lars Geffers, Fay Betsou, Manon Gantenbein, Jochen Klucken, Thomas Gasser, Michele T Hu, Rudi Balling, Rejko Krüger
While genetic advances have successfully defined part of the complexity in Parkinson's disease (PD), the clinical characterization of phenotypes remains challenging. Therapeutic trials and cohort studies typically include patients with earlier disease stages and exclude comorbidities, thus ignoring a substantial part of the real-world PD population. To account for these limitations, we implemented the Luxembourg PD study as a comprehensive clinical, molecular and device-based approach including patients with typical PD and atypical parkinsonism, irrespective of their disease stage, age, comorbidities, or linguistic background...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Alexandra L Palmer, Shalina S Ousman
By 2050, the aging population is predicted to expand by over 100%. Considering this rapid growth, and the additional strain it will place on healthcare resources because of age-related impairments, it is vital that researchers gain a deeper understanding of the cellular interactions that occur with normal aging. A variety of mammalian cell types have been shown to become compromised with age, each with a unique potential to contribute to disease formation in the aging body. Astrocytes represent the largest group of glial cells and are responsible for a variety of essential functions in the healthy central nervous system (CNS)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Krystallia Pantsiou, Ourania Sfakianaki, Vasileios Papaliagkas, Dimitra Savvoulidou, Vassiliki Costa, Georgia Papantoniou, Despina Moraitou
Recent studies have shown that patients diagnosed with Vascular Dementia (VaD) exhibit deficits in executive functions. According to "vascular hypothesis of cognitive aging," community-dwelling older adults having risk factors for vascular disease development (RVD) may suffer from cognitive decline of the same type. The aim of the study was to assess the level of specific executive functions (EF) that have been revealed as most affected by vascular abnormalities, in older adults with incipient VaD and RVD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Gaëlle Dumel, Marie-Eve Bourassa, Camille Charlebois-Plante, Martine Desjardins, Julien Doyon, Dave Saint-Amour, Louis De Beaumont
Healthy aging is associated with decline of motor function that can generate serious consequences on the quality of life and safety. Our studies aim to explore the 3-month effects of a 5-day multisession anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) protocol applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor sequence learning in elderly. The present sham-controlled aging study investigated whether tDCS-induced motor improvements previously observed 1 day after the intervention persist beyond 3 months...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hannah Muecke, Nils Richter, Boris von Reutern, Juraj Kukolja, Gereon R Fink, Oezguer A Onur
Objective : In subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), interference during memory consolidation may further degrade subsequent recall of newly learned information. We investigated whether spatial and object memory are differentially susceptible to interference. Method : Thirty-nine healthy young subjects, 39 healthy older subjects, and 12 subjects suffering from MCI encoded objects and their spatial position on a 4-by-5 grid. Encoding was followed by either: (i) a pause; (ii) an interference task immediately following encoding; or (iii) an interference task following encoding after a 6-min delay...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
María Velasco-Estevez, Myrthe Mampay, Hervé Boutin, Aisling Chaney, Peter Warn, Andrew Sharp, Ellie Burgess, Emad Moeendarbary, Kumlesh K Dev, Graham K Sheridan
A defining pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the amyloid plaque; an extracellular deposit of aggregated fibrillar Aβ1-42 peptides. Amyloid plaques are hard, brittle structures scattered throughout the hippocampus and cerebral cortex and are thought to cause hyperphosphorylation of tau, neurofibrillary tangles, and progressive neurodegeneration. Reactive astrocytes and microglia envelop the exterior of amyloid plaques and infiltrate their inner core. Glia are highly mechanosensitive cells and can almost certainly sense the mismatch between the normally soft mechanical environment of the brain and very stiff amyloid plaques via mechanosensing ion channels...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Deborah L Harrington, Qian Shen, Rebecca J Theilmann, Gabriel N Castillo, Irene Litvan, J Vincent Filoteo, Mingxiong Huang, Roland R Lee
Deficient inhibitory control in Parkinson's disease (PD) is often observed in situations requiring inhibition of impulsive or prepotent behaviors. Although activation of the right-hemisphere frontal-basal ganglia response inhibition network is partly altered in PD, disturbances in interactions of these regions are poorly understood, especially in patients without cognitive impairment. The present study investigated context-dependent connectivity of response inhibition regions in PD patients with normal cognition and control participants who underwent fMRI while performing a stop signal task...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jasmina M Boban, Dusko B Kozic, Snezana V Brkic, Dajana F Lendak, Majda M Thurnher
Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare age-related changes in chronically infected, asymptomatic HIV-positive patients under combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with age-, gender-, and educational-level-matched healthy subjects, using multi-voxel magnetic-resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: There were 66 chronically infected HIV-positive subjects and 65 age-, gender-, and educational-level-matched control subjects, divided into four groups according to the age: group 1 (20-29 years old), group 2 (30-39), group 3 (40-49) and group 4 (50-59)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Simon Steib, Philipp Wanner, Werner Adler, Jürgen Winkler, Jochen Klucken, Klaus Pfeifer
Background: Motor learning is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD), with patients demonstrating deficits in skill acquisition (online learning) and consolidation (offline learning) compared to healthy adults of similar age. Recent studies in young adults suggest that single bouts of aerobic exercise (AEX), performed in close temporal proximity to practicing a new motor task, may facilitate motor skill learning. Thus, we aimed at investigating the effects of a single bout of aerobic cycling on online and offline learning in PD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sarah E Burke, Immanuel Babu Henry Samuel, Qing Zhao, Jackson Cagle, Ronald A Cohen, Benzi Kluger, Mingzhou Ding
Cognitive fatigue and cognitive fatigability are distinct constructs. Cognitive fatigue reflects perception of cognitive fatigue outside of the context of activity level and duration and can be reliably assessed via established instruments such as the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). In contrast, cognitive fatigability reflects change in fatigue levels quantified within the context of the level and duration of cognitive activity, and currently there are no reliable measures of cognitive fatigability...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ruth F Itzhaki
Strong evidence has emerged recently for the concept that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is a major risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This concept proposes that latent HSV1 in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-ε4) is reactivated intermittently by events such as immunosuppression, peripheral infection, and inflammation, the consequent damage accumulating, and culminating eventually in the development of AD. Population data to investigate this epidemiologically, e...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Gabriele Cattaneo, David Bartrés-Faz, Timothy P Morris, Javier Solana Sánchez, Dídac Macià, Clara Tarrero, Josep M Tormos, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
The Barcelona Brain Health Initiative (BBHI) is an ongoing prospective longitudinal study focused on identifying determinants of brain health. The main objectives are: (i) to characterize lifestyle, cognitive, behavioral and environmental markers related to a given individual's cognitive and mental functions in middle to old age, (ii) to assess the biological determinants predictive of maintenance of brain health, and (iii) to evaluate the impact of a controlled multi-dimensional lifestyle intervention on improving and maintaining brain health...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Trang T Le, Rayus T Kuplicki, Brett A McKinney, Hung-Wen Yeh, Wesley K Thompson, Martin P Paulus
Several imaging modalities, including T1-weighted structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI can show chronological age related changes. Employing machine learning algorithms, an individual's imaging data can predict their age with reasonable accuracy. While details vary according to modality, the general strategy is to: (1) extract image-related features, (2) build a model on a training set that uses those features to predict an individual's age, (3) validate the model on a test dataset, producing a predicted age for each individual, (4) define the "Brain Age Gap Estimate" (BrainAGE) as the difference between an individual's predicted age and his/her chronological age, (5) estimate the relationship between BrainAGE and other variables of interest, and (6) make inferences about those variables and accelerated or delayed brain aging...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Zhiyuan Liu, Yuyan Wu, Lin Li, Xiuyan Guo
Previous research has identified the effects of tai chi exercise on elders' executive control or on their emotion regulation. However, few works have attempted to reveal the relationships between tai chi, executive control, and emotion regulation in the same study. The current resting-state study investigated whether the impact of tai chi on elders' emotion regulation was mediated by the resting-state functional connectivity within the executive control network. A total of 26 elders with long-term tai chi experience and 26 demographically matched healthy elders were recruited...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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