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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

John G Grundy, John A E Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
María D Roldán-Tapia, Rosa Cánovas, Irene León, Juan García-Garcia
Aging is related to a deterioration of cognitive performance and to multiple alterations in the brain. Even before the beginning of a noticeable cognitive decline, the framework which holds cognitive function experiences these alterations. From a system-vulnerability point of view of cognition, the deterioration associated with age would be the collection of repercussions during a life. Brain function and structure are modified in a multidimensional way, which could concern different aspects like structural integrity, functional activity, connectivity, or glucose metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Safikur Rahman, Arif Tasleem Jan, Archana Ayyagari, Jiwoo Kim, Jihoe Kim, Rinki Minakshi
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an indispensable cellular organelle that remains highly active in neuronal cells. The ER bears the load of maintaining protein homeostasis in the cellular network by managing the folding of incoming nascent peptides; however, the stress imposed by physiological/environmental factors can cause ER dysfunctions that lead to the activation of ER unfolded protein response (UPR(ER)). Aging leads to deterioration of several cellular pathways and therefore weakening of the UPR(ER)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Anna B Pritchard, StJohn Crean, Ingar Olsen, Sim K Singhrao
As far back as the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, microbial infections were responsible for vast numbers of deaths. The trend reversed with the introduction of antibiotics coinciding with longer life. Increased life expectancy however, accompanied the emergence of age related chronic inflammatory states including the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Taken together, the true challenge of retaining health into later years of life now appears to lie in delaying and/or preventing the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases, through identifying and influencing modifiable risk factors...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ying Wan, Na Wu, Lu Song, Xijin Wang, Zhenguo Liu, Weien Yuan, Jing Gan
Background: The long-term intermittent Levodopa (L-dopa) stimulation contributes to an aberrant activation of D1 receptor (D1R) mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) in the striatal medium spiny neurons, resulting in the occurrence of L-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID). Recently, a novel signaling pathway, D1R/Shp-2/ERK1/2, was proposed to be required for the occurrence of LID. Here we designed the study in which two different methods of L-dopa delivery [continuous dopamine stimulation (CDS) vs...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ranmalee Eramudugolla, Kim M Kiely, Sidhant Chopra, Kaarin J Anstey
Objective: Computerized training for cognitive enhancement is of great public interest, however, there is inconsistent evidence for the transfer of training gains to every day activity. Several large trials have focused on speed of processing (SOP) training with some promising findings for long-term effects on daily activity, but no immediate transfer to other cognitive tests. Here, we examine the transfer of SOP training gains to cognitive measures that are known predictors of driving safety in older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tatsunori Oguchi, Ran Ono, Mayumi Tsuji, Hidenobu Shozawa, Masayuki Somei, Manami Inagaki, Yukiko Mori, Taro Yasumoto, Kenjiro Ono, Yuji Kiuchi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive form of dementia, characterized by memory impairment and cognitive dysfunction. AD is mainly characterized by the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, along with neuronal degeneration and high levels of oxidative stress. Cilostazol (CSZ) was recently found to suppress the progression of cognitive decline in patients with stable AD receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This present study aimed to clarify the mechanism by which CSZ protects neurons from degeneration associated with Aβ(1-42)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yi-Chien Liu, Kenichi Meguro, Kei Nakamura, Kyoko Akanuma, Masahiro Nakatsuka, Takashi Seki, Shutaro Nakaaki, Masaru Mimura, Norito Kawakami
Background: In this study, we investigated the relationship among a history of depression, depressive states, and dementia in a community-based old-old cohort. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, we recruited 200 subjects residing in Tome, Japan. Ultimately, 181 subjects were enrolled in our study and completed the whole study protocol. We used the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 to evaluate whether subjects had a history of depression or other affective disorders. Simultaneously, 3...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Weicong Ren, Jiang Ma, Juan Li, Zhijie Zhang, Mingwei Wang
Hyperlipidemia, one of the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, is associated with an increase in the risk for dementia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to modulate serum lipid levels in older adults. Participants received 10 sessions of rTMS or sham stimulation intervention within 2 weeks. The serum lipid and thyroid hormone-related endocrine levels were assessed before and after the treatment. We found that rTMS significantly decreased serum lipid levels, including the total cholesterol (CHO) and triglyceride (TG); meanwhile, it also increased the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as thyroxine (T4) levels...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Efraim Jaul, Oded Meiron
In order to prevent the onset of vascular dementia (VaD) in aging individuals, it is critical to detect clinically relevant vascular and systemic pathophysiological changes to signal the onset of its preceding prodromal stages. Identifying behavioral and neurobiological markers that are highly sensitive to VaD classification vs. other dementias is likely to assist in developing novel preventive treatment strategies that could delay the onset of disruptive psychomotor symptoms, decrease hospitalizations, and increase the quality of life in clinically-high-risk aging individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Francisco B Teixeira, Miki T Saito, Filipe C Matheus, Rui D Prediger, Elizabeth S Yamada, Cristiane S F Maia, Rafael R Lima
Periodontitis is an oral chronic infection/inflammatory condition, identified as a source of mediators of inflammation into the blood circulation, which may contribute to exacerbate several diseases. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although inflammation is present in both diseases, the exact mechanisms and crosslinks between periodontitis and AD are poorly understood. Therefore, this article aims to review possible comorbidity between periodontitis and AD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Kanchana Padmanabhan, Katie Shpanskaya, Gonzalo Bello, P Murali Doraiswamy, Nagiza F Samatova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hao Guan, Tao Liu, Jiyang Jiang, Dacheng Tao, Jicong Zhang, Haijun Niu, Wanlin Zhu, Yilong Wang, Jian Cheng, Nicole A Kochan, Henry Brodaty, Perminder Sachdev, Wei Wen
Amnestic MCI (aMCI) and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) are considered to differ in etiology and outcome. Accurately classifying MCI into meaningful subtypes would enable early intervention with targeted treatment. In this study, we employed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for MCI subtype classification. This was carried out in a sample of 184 community-dwelling individuals (aged 73-85 years). Cortical surface based measurements were computed from longitudinal and cross-sectional scans. By introducing a feature selection algorithm, we identified a set of discriminative features, and further investigated the temporal patterns of these features...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lars Michels, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Abdul R Anwar, Spyros Kollias, Sandra E Leh, Florian Riese, Paul G Unschuld, Michael Siniatchkin, Anton F Gietl, Christoph Hock
The assessment of effects associated with cognitive impairment using electroencephalography (EEG) power mapping allows the visualization of frequency-band specific local changes in oscillatory activity. In contrast, measures of coherence and dynamic source synchronization allow for the study of functional and effective connectivity, respectively. Yet, these measures have rarely been assessed in parallel in the context of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and furthermore it has not been examined if they are related to risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD) such as amyloid deposition and apolipoprotein ε4 (ApoE) allele occurrence...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Arianna Bellucci, Angelo Antonini, Marina Pizzi, PierFranco Spano
Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates known as Lewy bodies (LB) and loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that in the early phases of PD, synaptic and axonal damage anticipate the onset of a frank neuronal death. Paralleling, even post mortem studies on the brain of affected patients and on animal models support that synapses might represent the primary sites of functional and pathological changes...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Fermín Segovia, Juan M Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Francisco J Martínez-Murcia, Diego Salas-Gonzalez
(18)F-DMFP-PET is an emerging neuroimaging modality used to diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD) that allows us to examine postsynaptic dopamine D2/3 receptors. Like other neuroimaging modalities used for PD diagnosis, most of the total intensity of (18)F-DMFP-PET images is concentrated in the striatum. However, other regions can also be useful for diagnostic purposes. An appropriate delimitation of the regions of interest contained in (18)F-DMFP-PET data is crucial to improve the automatic diagnosis of PD. In this manuscript we propose a novel methodology to preprocess (18)F-DMFP-PET data that improves the accuracy of computer aided diagnosis systems for PD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sandra B Chapman, Jeffrey S Spence, Sina Aslan, Molly W Keebler
Non-invasive interventions, such as cognitive training (CT) and physical exercise, are gaining momentum as ways to augment both cognitive and brain function throughout life. One of the most fundamental yet little studied aspects of human cognition is innovative thinking, especially in older adults. In this study, we utilize a measure of innovative cognition that examines both the quantity and quality of abstracted interpretations. This randomized pilot trial in cognitively normal adults (56-75 years) compared the effect of cognitive reasoning training (SMART) on innovative cognition as measured by Multiple Interpretations Measure (MIM)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jennifer Sartor, Kristina Bettecken, Felix P Bernhard, Marc Hofmann, Till Gladow, Tobias Lindig, Meltem Ciliz, Mara Ten Kate, Johanna Geritz, Sebastian Heinzel, Marije Benedictus, Philip Scheltens, Markus A Hobert, Walter Maetzler
[This corrects the article on p. 213 in vol. 9, PMID: 28713264.].
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Alessia Sarica, Antonio Cerasa, Aldo Quattrone
Objective: Machine learning classification has been the most important computational development in the last years to satisfy the primary need of clinicians for automatic early diagnosis and prognosis. Nowadays, Random Forest (RF) algorithm has been successfully applied for reducing high dimensional and multi-source data in many scientific realms. Our aim was to explore the state of the art of the application of RF on single and multi-modal neuroimaging data for the prediction of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted on this field of study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Kilmer S McCully
Many pathogenic microorganisms have been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques and in cerebral plaques in dementia. Hyperhomocysteinemia, which is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and dementia, is caused by dysregulation of methionine metabolism secondary to deficiency of the allosteric regulator, adenosyl methionine. Deficiency of adenosyl methionine results from increased polyamine biosynthesis by infected host cells, causing increased activity of ornithine decarboxylase, decreased nitric oxide and peroxynitrate formation and impaired immune reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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