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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919857/divergent-roles-of-vascular-burden-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-cognitive-decline-of-geriatric-depression-patients-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#1
Qing Ye, Fan Su, Liang Gong, Hao Shu, Wenxiang Liao, Chunming Xie, Hong Zhou, Zhijun Zhang, Feng Bai
Both geriatric depression and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) confer an increased risk for the development of dementia. The mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive impairment in geriatric depression patients remain controversial. The present study aimed to explore the association of cognitive decline with vascular risk, white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and hippocampal volume in both remitted geriatric depression (RGD) subjects and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects. Forty-one RGD subjects, 51 aMCI subjects, and 64 healthy elderly subjects underwent multimodal MRI scans and neuropsychological tests at both baseline and a 35-month follow-up...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919856/visualizing-hyperactivation-in-neurodegeneration-based-on-prefrontal-oxygenation-a-comparative-study-of-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-controls
#2
Kah Hui Yap, Wei Chun Ung, Esther G M Ebenezer, Nadira Nordin, Pui See Chin, Sandheep Sugathan, Sook Ching Chan, Hung Loong Yip, Masashi Kiguchi, Tong Boon Tang
Background: Cognitive performance is relatively well preserved during early cognitive impairment owing to compensatory mechanisms. Methods: We explored functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) alongside a semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) to investigate any compensation exhibited by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, a group of healthy controls (HC) was studied. A total of 61 volunteers (31 HC, 12 patients with MCI and 18 patients with mild AD) took part in the present study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912712/effect-of-cognitive-demand-on-functional-visual-field-performance-in-senior-drivers-with-glaucoma
#3
Viswa Gangeddula, Maud Ranchet, Abiodun E Akinwuntan, Kathryn Bollinger, Hannes Devos
Purpose: To investigate the effect of cognitive demand on functional visual field performance in drivers with glaucoma. Method: This study included 20 drivers with open-angle glaucoma and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Visual field performance was evaluated under different degrees of cognitive demand: a static visual field condition (C1), dynamic visual field condition (C2), and dynamic visual field condition with active driving (C3) using an interactive, desktop driving simulator. The number of correct responses (accuracy) and response times on the visual field task were compared between groups and between conditions using Kruskal-Wallis tests...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912711/increased-hippocampal-probdnf-contributes-to-memory-impairments-in-aged-mice
#4
Mona Buhusi, Chris Etheredge, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Catalin V Buhusi
Memory decline during aging or accompanying neurodegenerative diseases, represents a major health problem. Neurotrophins have long been considered relevant to the mechanisms of aging-associated cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Mature Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) can both be secreted in response to neuronal activity and exert opposing effects on neuronal physiology and plasticity. In this study, biochemical analyses revealed that increased levels of proBDNF are present in the aged mouse hippocampus relative to young and that the level of hippocampal proBDNF inversely correlates with the ability to perform in a spatial memory task, the water radial arm maze (WRAM)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912710/key-aging-associated-alterations-in-primary-microglia-response-to-beta-amyloid-stimulation
#5
Cláudia Caldeira, Carolina Cunha, Ana R Vaz, Ana S Falcão, Andreia Barateiro, Elsa Seixas, Adelaide Fernandes, Dora Brites
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and believed to be driven by the self-aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into oligomers and fibrils that accumulate as senile plaques. It is widely accepted that microglia-mediated inflammation is a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis; however, different microglia phenotypes were identified along AD progression and excessive Aβ production was shown to dysregulate cell function. As so, the contribution of microglia to AD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900396/corrigendum-conversion-discriminative-analysis-on-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-multiple-cortical-features-from-mr-images
#6
Shengwen Guo, Chunren Lai, Congling Wu, Guiyin Cen
[This corrects the article on p. 146 in vol. 9, PMID: 28572766.].
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900395/astrocyte-senescence-and-metabolic-changes-in-response-to-hiv-antiretroviral-therapy-drugs
#7
Justin Cohen, Luca D'Agostino, Joel Wilson, Ferit Tuzer, Claudio Torres
With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) survival rates among patients infected by HIV have increased. However, even though survival has increased HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still persist, suggesting that HAART-drugs may play a role in the neurocognitive impairment observed in HIV-infected patients. Given previous data demonstrating that astrocyte senescence plays a role in neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined the role of HAART on markers of senescence in primary cultures of human astrocytes (HAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890696/gaze-bias-in-preference-judgments-by-younger-and-older-adults
#8
Toshiki Saito, Rui Nouchi, Hikari Kinjo, Ryuta Kawashima
Individuals' gaze behavior reflects the choice they will ultimately make. For example, people confronting a choice among multiple stimuli tend to look longer at stimuli that are subsequently chosen than at other stimuli. This tendency, called the gaze bias effect, is a key aspect of visual decision-making. Nevertheless, no study has examined the generality of the gaze bias effect in older adults. Here, we used a two-alternative forced-choice task (2AFC) to compare the gaze behavior reflective of different stages of decision processes demonstrated by younger and older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890695/acute-hypoxia-induced-an-imbalanced-m1-m2-activation-of-microglia-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice-and-wild-type-littermates
#9
Feng Zhang, Rujia Zhong, Song Li, Zhenfa Fu, Cheng Cheng, Huaibin Cai, Weidong Le
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease mainly caused by abnormal tau phosphorylation, amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and neuroinflammation. As an important environmental factor, hypoxia has been reported to aggravate AD via exacerbating Aβ and tau pathologies. However, the link between hypoxia and neuroinflammation, especially the changes of pro-inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammation M2 microglia phenotypes in AD, is still far from being clearly investigated. Here, we evaluated the activation of microglia in the brains of APP(swe)/PS1(dE9) transgenic (Tg) mice and their wild type (Wt) littermates, after a single episode of acute hypoxia (24 h) exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890694/erythrocytes-as-potential-link-between-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Cristiana Carelli-Alinovi, Francesco Misiti
Many studies support the existence of an association between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, in addition to brain, a number of peripheral tissues and cells are affected, including red blood cell (RBC) and because there are currently no reliable diagnostic biomarkers of AD in the blood, a gradually increasing attention has been given to the study of RBC's alterations. Recently it has been evidenced in diabetes, RBC alterations superimposable to the ones occurring in AD RBC. Furthermore, growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of RBC's alterations and vice versa...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878666/weight-rich-club-analysis-in-the-white-matter-network-of-late-life-depression-with-memory-deficits
#11
Naikeng Mai, Xiaomei Zhong, Ben Chen, Qi Peng, Zhangying Wu, Weiru Zhang, Cong Ouyang, Yuping Ning
Patients with late-life depression (LLD) have a higher incident of developing dementia, especially individuals with memory deficits. However, little is known about the white matter characteristics of LLD with memory deficits (LLD-MD) in the human connectome, especially for the rich-club coefficient, which is an indicator that describes the organization pattern of hub in the network. To address this question, diffusion tensor imaging of 69 participants [15 LLD-MD patients; 24 patients with LLD with intact memory (LLD-IM); and 30 healthy controls (HC)] was applied to construct a brain network for each individual...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878665/memory-alteration-test-to-detect-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-early-alzheimer-s-dementia-in-population-with-low-educational-level
#12
Nilton Custodio, David Lira, Eder Herrera-Perez, Rosa Montesinos, Sheila Castro-Suarez, José Cuenca-Alfaro, Lucía Valeriano-Lorenzo
Background/Aims: Short tests to early detection of the cognitive impairment are necessary in primary care setting, particularly in populations with low educational level. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate controls, patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and patients with early Alzheimer's Dementia (AD) in a sample of individuals with low level of education. Methods: Cross-sectional study to assess the performance of the M@T (study test), compared to the neuropsychological evaluation (gold standard test) scores in 247 elderly subjects with low education level from Lima-Peru...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871222/reproducibility-of-single-pulse-paired-pulse-and-intermittent-theta-burst-tms-measures-in-healthy-aging-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Peter J Fried, Ali Jannati, Paula Davila-Pérez, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to assess neurophysiology and the mechanisms of cortical brain plasticity in humans in vivo. As the use of these measures in specific populations (e.g., Alzheimer's disease; AD) increases, it is critical to understand their reproducibility (i.e., test-retest reliability) in the populations of interest. Objective: Reproducibility of TMS measures was evaluated in older adults, including healthy, AD, and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) groups. Methods: Participants received two identical neurophysiological assessments within a year including motor thresholds, baseline motor evoked potentials (MEPs), short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF), and MEP changes following intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868035/a-novel-stress-diathesis-model-to-predict-risk-of-post-operative-delirium-implications-for-intra-operative-management
#14
Renée El-Gabalawy, Ronak Patel, Kayla Kilborn, Caitlin Blaney, Christopher Hoban, Lawrence Ryner, Duane Funk, Regina Legaspi, Joseph A Fisher, James Duffin, David J Mikulis, W Alan C Mutch
Introduction: Risk assessment for post-operative delirium (POD) is poorly developed. Improved metrics could greatly facilitate peri-operative care as costs associated with POD are staggering. In this preliminary study, we develop a novel stress-diathesis model based on comprehensive pre-operative psychiatric and neuropsychological testing, a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) carbon dioxide (CO2) stress test, and high fidelity measures of intra-operative parameters that may interact facilitating POD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860988/structural-brain-network-changes-across-the-adult-lifespan
#15
Ke Liu, Shixiu Yao, Kewei Chen, Jiacai Zhang, Li Yao, Ke Li, Zhen Jin, Xiaojuan Guo
A number of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown age-related alterations in brain structural networks in different age groups. However, the specific age-associated changes in brain structural networks across the adult lifespan is underexplored. In the current study, we performed a multivariate independent component analysis (ICA) to identify structural brain networks based on covariant gray matter volume and then investigated the age-related trajectories of structural networks over the adult lifespan in 536 healthy subjects aged 20-86 years...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860987/apathy-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-correlates-with-alteration-of-left-fronto-polar-electroencephalographic-connectivity
#16
Florian Hatz, Antonia Meyer, Ronan Zimmermann, Ute Gschwandtner, Peter Fuhr
Introduction: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) brain frequency and network analyses are known to differentiate between disease stages in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are possible biomarkers. They correlate with cognitive decline. Little is known about changes in brain networks in relation to apathy. Objective/Aims: To analyze changes in brain network connectivities related to apathy. Methods: 40 PD patients (14 PD with mild cognitive deficits and 26 PD with normal cognition) were included. All patients had extensive neuropsychological testing; apathy was evaluated using the apathy evaluation score (AES, median 24...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848430/balance-training-enhances-vestibular-function-and-reduces-overactive-proprioceptive-feedback-in-elderly
#17
Isabella K Wiesmeier, Daniela Dalin, Anja Wehrle, Urs Granacher, Thomas Muehlbauer, Joerg Dietterle, Cornelius Weiller, Albert Gollhofer, Christoph Maurer
Objectives: Postural control in elderly people is impaired by degradations of sensory, motor, and higher-level adaptive mechanisms. Here, we characterize the effects of a progressive balance training program on these postural control impairments using a brain network model based on system identification techniques. Methods and Material: We analyzed postural control of 35 healthy elderly subjects and compared findings to data from 35 healthy young volunteers. Eighteen elderly subjects performed a 10 week balance training conducted twice per week...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848429/exploring-tinnitus-induced-disablement-by-persistent-frustration-in-aging-individuals-a-grounded-theory-study
#18
Nicolas Dauman, Soly I Erlandsson, Dolorès Albarracin, René Dauman
Background: Qualitative research can help to improve the management of patients, meet their expectations and assist physicians in alleviating their suffering. The perception of moment-to-moment variability in tinnitus annoyance is an emerging field of exploration. This study sought to enlighten variability in tinnitus-induced disablement using a qualitative approach. Methods: Twelve participants (six females, six males, aged 51-79) were recruited via the French Tinnitus Association Journal for participation in recorded semi-structured interviews...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848428/analysis-of-dti-derived-tensor-metrics-in-differential-diagnosis-between-low-grade-and-high-grade-gliomas
#19
Liang Jiang, Chao-Yong Xiao, Quan Xu, Jun Sun, Huiyou Chen, Yu-Chen Chen, Xindao Yin
Purpose: It is critical and difficult to accurately discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas preoperatively. This study aimed to ascertain the role of several scalar measures in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, especially the axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), and linear tensor (Cl) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas (21 low-grade and 32 high-grade) were included...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848427/remote-ischemic-conditioning-a-novel-non-invasive-approach-to-prevent-post-stroke-depression
#20
Wenbo Zhao, Fang Jiang, Zhen Zhang, Jing Zhang, Yuchuan Ding, Xunming Ji
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common neuropsychiatric complication of stroke. However, due to the high expense and side effects of pharmacotherapy and the difficult-to-achieve of psychotherapy, the prevention and treatment of PSD are still far from satisfaction. Inflammation hypothesis is now playing an essential role in the pathophysiological mechanism of PSD, and it may be a new preventive and therapeutic target. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a non-invasive and easy-to-use physical strategy, which has been used to protect brain (including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke), heart and many other organs in clinical trials...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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