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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Jessica Alber, Kelly McGarry, Richard B Noto, Peter J Snyder
Background: Recent genome-wide association screening (GWAS) studies have linked Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology to gene networks that regulate immune function. Kan et al. recently reported that Arg1 (an anti-inflammatory gene that codes for arginase-1) is expressed in parts of the brain associated with amyloidosis prior to the onset of neuronal loss, suggesting that chronic brain arginine deprivation promotes AD-related neuropathology. They blocked arginine catabolism in their mouse AD model by administration of eflornithine (DFMO) to juvenile animals, effectively blocking the expression of AD-related amyloid pathology as the mice aged...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Friedrich Leblhuber, Michael Egger, Burkhard Schuetz, Dietmar Fuchs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Steven A Harris, Elizabeth A Harris
This review focuses on research in the areas of epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology and genetics that implicates herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as a causative agent in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular mechanisms whereby HSV-1 induces AD-related pathophysiology and pathology, including neuronal production and accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins, dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, and impaired autophagy, are discussed. HSV-1 causes additional AD pathologies through mechanisms that promote neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jan Kassubek, Hans-Peter Müller, Kelly Del Tredici, Michael Hornberger, Matthias L Schroeter, Karsten Müller, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Ingo Uttner, Murray Grossman, Heiko Braak, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Markus Otto, Albert C Ludolph
Objective: Recently, the characteristic longitudinal distribution pattern of the underlying phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43) pathology in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) excluding Pick's disease (PiD) across specific brain regions was described. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in vivo investigations of bvFTD patients by use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were consistent with these proposed patterns of progression. Methods: Sixty-two bvFTD patients and 47 controls underwent DTI in a multicenter study design...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yuan Feng, Yu-Chen Chen, Han Lv, Wenqing Xia, Cun-Nan Mao, Fan Bo, Huiyou Chen, Jin-Jing Xu, Xindao Yin
Purpose : Chronic subjective tinnitus may arise from aberrant functional coupling between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate the functional connectivity network of the cerebellar regions in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Methods : Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 28 chronic tinnitus patients and 29 healthy controls (well matched for age, sex and education) in this study. Cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Daniel Stoessel, Claudia Schulte, Marcia C Teixeira Dos Santos, Dieter Scheller, Irene Rebollo-Mesa, Christian Deuschle, Dirk Walther, Nicolas Schauer, Daniela Berg, Andre Nogueira da Costa, Walter Maetzler
Parkinson's disease (PD) shows high heterogeneity with regard to the underlying molecular pathogenesis involving multiple pathways and mechanisms. Diagnosis is still challenging and rests entirely on clinical features. Thus, there is an urgent need for robust diagnostic biofluid markers. Untargeted metabolomics allows establishing low-molecular compound biomarkers in a wide range of complex diseases by the measurement of various molecular classes in biofluids such as blood plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yongming Pan, Jianqin Xu, Cheng Chen, Fangming Chen, Ping Jin, Keyan Zhu, Chenyue W Hu, Mengmeng You, Minli Chen, Fuliang Hu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) and neuronal loss. One of the risk factors for AD is high cholesterol levels, which are known to promote Aβ deposition. Previous studies have shown that royal jelly (RJ), a product of worker bees, has potential neuroprotective effects and can attenuate Aβ toxicity. However, little is known about how RJ regulates Aβ formation and its effects on cholesterol levels and neuronal metabolic activities...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Espen A F Ihlen, Kimberley S van Schooten, Sjoerd M Bruijn, Jaap H van Dieën, Beatrix Vereijken, Jorunn L Helbostad, Mirjam Pijnappels
Age and age-related diseases have been suggested to decrease entropy of human gait kinematics, which is thought to make older adults more susceptible to falls. In this study we introduce a new entropy measure, called phase-dependent generalized multiscale entropy (PGME), and test whether this measure improves fall-risk prediction in community-dwelling older adults. PGME can assess phase-dependent changes in the stability of gait dynamics that result from kinematic changes in events such as heel strike and toe-off...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Mei-Yin Lin, Shiou-Han Yang
Age-related deficiency in the top-down modulation of cognitive inhibition has been extensively documented, whereas the effects of age on a bottom-up or automatic operation of inhibitory function were less investigated. It is unknown that whether the older adults (OA)' reduced behavioral performance and neural responses are due to the insufficient bottom-up processes. Compared to behavioral assessments which have been widely used to examine the top-down control of response inhibition, electrophysiological recordings are more suitable to probe the early-stage processes of automatic inhibitory function...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Julia U Henschke, Frank W Ohl, Eike Budinger
During aging, human response times (RTs) to unisensory and crossmodal stimuli decrease. However, the elderly benefit more from crossmodal stimulus representations than younger people. The underlying short-latency multisensory integration process is mediated by direct crossmodal connections at the level of primary sensory cortices. We investigate the age-related changes of these connections using a rodent model (Mongolian gerbil), retrograde tracer injections into the primary auditory (A1), somatosensory (S1), and visual cortex (V1), and immunohistochemistry for markers of apoptosis (Caspase-3), axonal plasticity (Growth associated protein 43, GAP 43), and a calcium-binding protein (Parvalbumin, PV)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yan Liang, Yang-Kun Chen, Vincent Chung-Tong Mok, De-Feng Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu, Hee-Ju Kang, Wai-Kwong Tang
Objective: All types of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) markers including lacune, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were found to be associated with poststroke depressive symptoms (PDS). This study explored whether the combination of the four markers constituting an overall SVD burden was associated with PDS. Methods: A cohort of 563 patients with acute ischemic stroke were followed over a 15-month period after the index stroke. A score of ≥7 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was defined as clinically significant PDS...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Wei Gan, Xin-Le Liu, Ting Yu, Yuan-Gao Zou, Ting-Ting Li, Shuang Wang, Jin Deng, Lan-Lan Wang, Jian-Ping Cai
Background: A molecular biomarker of physiologic age, as opposed to chronologic age, is needed in clinical medicine. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGsn) and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGsn) are two promising aging biomarkers. Methods: A total of 1,228 healthy Chinese residents (613 males and 615 females) 2-90 years of age were randomly selected. Spot urine samples were collected, and the concentrations of 8-oxodGsn and 8-oxoGsn were measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Zhuo Wang, Ya-Hong Zhang, Chuang Guo, Hui-Ling Gao, Man-Li Zhong, Ting-Ting Huang, Na-Na Liu, Rui-Fang Guo, Tian Lan, Wei Zhang, Zhan-You Wang, Pu Zhao
Although the positive relationship between copper and Alzheimer's disease (AD) was reported by a lot of epidemiological data, the mechanism is not completely known. Copper is a redox metal and serves as a mediator of inflammation. Because the homeostasis of copper is altered in Aβ precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice, the using of copper chelators is a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. Here we report that a copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate (TM), is a potential therapeutic drug of AD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Subodh Kumar, P Hemachandra Reddy
A non-invasive and early-detectable peripheral biomarker is urgently needed for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study is a step forward to verify the biomarker properties of human microRNA-455-3p (Hsa-miR-455-3p) in AD patients. Our previous findings on mild cognitive impaired subjects, AD patients and AD cells and mouse models unveiled the miR-455-3p as a potential peripheral biomarker for AD. In the current study, we verified the differential expression of miR-455-3p in postmortem AD brains obtained from NIH NeuroBioBank, and fibroblasts and B-lymphocytes from both familial and sporadic AD patients from Coriell Cell Repository of National Institutes on Aging...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Claudio Liguori, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Giulia M Sancesario, Nicola B Mercuri, Flaminia Franchini, Orazio Schillaci, Giuseppe Sancesario
Late-life depression (LLD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are the two most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders affecting elderly. LLD and AD may clinically present with depressive and cognitive symptoms. Therefore, when cognitive decline is coupled with depression in the elderly, the differential diagnosis between LLD and AD could be challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in a population of elderly patients affected by depression and dementia the usefulness of CSF AD biomarkers (tau proteins and β-amyloid42 -Aβ42 ) and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (18FFDG-PET) in early differentiating LLD from AD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hayato Takeuchi, Masahiro Kameda, Takao Yasuhara, Tatsuya Sasaki, Atsuhiko Toyoshima, Jun Morimoto, Kyohei Kin, Mihoko Okazaki, Michiari Umakoshi, Ittetsu Kin, Ken Kuwahara, Yosuke Tomita, Isao Date
Several reports have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) per se effectively enhances neurogenesis in the hippocampus of intact animals. If LTP can enhance neurogenesis in chronic hypoperfusion, this approach could potentially become a new therapeutic strategy for the restoration of cognitive function and for prevention from deterioration of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using an in vivo LTP model of rats, we examined whether LTP per se can enhance neurogenesis in hypoperfusion rats that underwent permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (permanent 2-vessel occlusion, P2VO)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Xinhua Zhan, Boryana Stamova, Frank R Sharp
This review proposes that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, found in the wall of all Gram-negative bacteria) could play a role in causing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is based in part upon recent studies showing that: Gram-negative E. coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid; bacterial-encoded 16S rRNA is present in all human brains with over 70% being Gram-negative bacteria; ultrastructural analyses have shown microbes in erythrocytes of AD patients; blood LPS levels in AD patients are 3-fold the levels in control; LPS combined with focal cerebral ischemia and hypoxia produced amyloid-like plaques and myelin injury in adult rat cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sheng-Wen Niu, Jiun-Chi Huang, Szu-Chia Chen, Hugo Y-H Lin, I-Ching Kuo, Pei-Yu Wu, Yi-Wen Chiu, Jer-Ming Chang
Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) represents changes in the time between successive heart beats, and it has been used to assess the autonomic nervous system. Previous studies have reported autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), however, no studies have evaluated the effects of age on changes in HRV in these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of age on changes in HRV in diabetic HD patients. Methods: We enrolled 84 diabetic patients receiving maintenance HD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Deirdre M O'Shea, Vonetta M Dotson, Adam J Woods, Eric C Porges, John B Williamson, Andrew O'Shea, Ronald Cohen
Objective: Research has shown that depression is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subsequent cognitive decline. This is compounded by evidence showing an association between depression and reduced hippocampal volumes; a primary structure implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Less is known about the relationship between depression and other AD vulnerable regions such as the entorhinal cortex. Given the heterogeneity of depressive symptom presentation, we examined whether symptom dimensions were associated with hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes in community dwelling older adults...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Vanessa Scarapicchia, Erin L Mazerolle, John D Fisk, Lesley J Ritchie, Jodie R Gawryluk
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that may benefit from early diagnosis and intervention. Therefore, there is a need to identify early biomarkers of AD using non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Recently, novel approaches to the analysis of resting-state fMRI data have been developed that focus on the moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. The objective of the current study was to investigate BOLD variability as a novel early biomarker of AD and its associated psychophysiological correlates...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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