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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804457/association-between-hypometabolism-in-the-supplementary-motor-area-and-fear-of-falling-in-older-adults
#1
Ryota Sakurai, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Masashi Yasunaga, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Kazuyuki Kanosue, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Kenji Ishii
Background: A better understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the development of fear of falling (FoF) in seniors may help to detect potential treatable factors and reduce future falls. We therefore investigate the neural correlates of FoF in older adults using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Methods: This cohort study included 117 community-dwelling older adults. At baseline, participants were assessed for FoF, psychiatric symptoms, walking speed, global cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism with FDG-PET...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804456/lessons-learned-about-neurodegeneration-from-microglia-and-monocyte-depletion-studies
#2
REVIEW
Harald Lund, Melanie Pieber, Robert A Harris
While bone marrow-derived Ly6C(hi) monocytes can infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) they are developmentally and functionally distinct from resident microglia. Our understanding of the relative importance of these two populations in the distinct processes of pathogenesis and resolution of inflammation during neurodegenerative disorders was limited by a lack of tools to specifically manipulate each cell type. During recent years, the development of experimental cell-specific depletion models has enabled this issue to be addressed...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804455/comparison-of-the-long-term-effect-of-positioning-the-cathode-in-tdcs-in-tinnitus-patients
#3
Sarah Rabau, Giriraj S Shekhawat, Mohamed Aboseria, Daniel Griepp, Vincent Van Rompaey, Marom Bikson, Paul Van de Heyning
Objective: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one of the methods described in the literature to decrease the perceived loudness and distress caused by tinnitus. However, the main effect is not clear and the number of responders to the treatment is variable. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the placement of the cathode on the outcome measurements. Methods: Patients considered for the trial were chronic non-pulsatile tinnitus patients with complaints for more than 3 months and a Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) score that exceeded 25...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798686/strong-association-between-plasma-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-activity-and-impaired-cognitive-function-in-elderly-population-with-normal-glucose-tolerance
#4
Bo Chen, Tianpeng Zheng, Linyuan Qin, Xueping Hu, Xiaoxi Zhang, Yihong Liu, Hongbo Liu, Shenghua Qin, Gang Li, Qinghua Li
Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798685/attentional-orienting-and-dorsal-visual-stream-decline-review-of-behavioral-and-eeg-studies
#5
REVIEW
Evatte T Sciberras-Lim, Anthony J Lambert
Every day we are faced with an overwhelming influx of visual information. Visual attention acts as the filtering mechanism that enables us to focus our limited neural resources, by selectively processing only the most relevant and/or salient aspects of our visual environment. The ability to shift attention to the most behaviorally relevant items enables us to successfully navigate and interact with our surroundings. The dorsal visual stream is important for the rapid and efficient visuospatial orienting of attention...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798684/differential-roles-of-environmental-enrichment-in-alzheimer-s-type-of-neurodegeneration-and-physiological-aging
#6
Vladimir V Salmin, Yulia K Komleva, Natalia V Kuvacheva, Andrey V Morgun, Elena D Khilazheva, Olga L Lopatina, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Konstantin A Shapovalov, Yulia A Uspenskaya, Alla B Salmina
Impairment of hippocampal adult neurogenesis in aging or degenerating brain is a well-known phenomenon caused by the shortage of brain stem cell pool, alterations in the local microenvironment within the neurogenic niches, or deregulation of stem cell development. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been proposed as a potent tool to restore brain functions, to prevent aging-associated neurodegeneration, and to cure neuronal deficits seen in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report our data on the effects of environmental enrichment on hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and neurosphere-forming capacity of hippocampal stem/progenitor cells in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798683/enhanced-gamma-activity-and-cross-frequency-interaction-of-resting-state-electroencephalographic-oscillations-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jing Wang, Yuxing Fang, Xiao Wang, Huichao Yang, Xin Yu, Huali Wang
Cognitive impairment, functional decline and behavioral symptoms that characterize Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with perturbations of the neuronal network. The typical electroencephalographic (EEG) features in AD patients are increased delta or theta rhythm and decreased alpha or beta rhythm activities. However, considering the role of cross-frequency couplings in cognition, the alternation of cross-frequency couplings in AD patients is still obscure. This study aims to explore the interaction dynamics between different EEG oscillations in AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798682/a-novel-virtual-reality-based-training-protocol-for-the-enhancement-of-the-mental-frame-syncing-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-development-of-concept-trial
#8
Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Cosimo Tuena, Gianluca De Leo, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Karine Goulene, Noemi G Mariotti, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence suggests that people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show compromised spatial abilities. In addition, there exists from the earliest stages of AD a specific impairment in "mental frame syncing," which is the ability to synchronize an allocentric viewpoint-independent representation (including object-to-object information) with an egocentric one by computing the bearing of each relevant "object" in the environment in relation to the stored heading in space (i.e., information about our viewpoint contained in the allocentric viewpoint-dependent representation)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798681/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-treatment-enhances-hemodynamics-and-ameliorates-memory-deficits-in-rats-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#9
Zhilin Xiong, Weibiao Lu, Lihui Zhu, Ling Zeng, Changzheng Shi, Zhen Jing, Yonghui Xiang, Wenxian Li, Chi Kwan Tsang, Yiwen Ruan, Li'an Huang
Our previous study has revealed that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) activates a compensatory vascular mechanism attempting to maintain an optimal cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, this compensation fails to prevent neuronal death and cognitive impairment because neurons die prior to the restoration of normal CBF. Therefore, pharmacological invention may be critical to enhance the CBF for reducing neurodegeneration and memory deficit. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a compound isolated from the seeds of Chinese celery and has been proven to be able to prevent neuronal loss, reduce inflammation and ameliorate memory deficits in acute ischemic animal models and stroke patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790913/the-dual-role-of-microglia-in-als-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Maria Concetta Geloso, Valentina Corvino, Elisa Marchese, Alessia Serrano, Fabrizio Michetti, Nadia D'Ambrosi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a non-cell autonomous motor neuron loss. While it is generally believed that the disease onset takes place inside motor neurons, different cell types mediating neuroinflammatory processes are considered deeply involved in the progression of the disease. On these grounds, many treatments have been tested on ALS animals with the aim of inhibiting or reducing the pro-inflammatory action of microglia and astrocytes and counteract the progression of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790912/associations-of-childhood-and-adulthood-cognition-with-bone-mineral-density-in-later-adulthood-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#11
Rebecca Bendayan, Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper, Stella Muthuri, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Judith Adams, Kate Ward, Marcus Richards
This study explores the association between cognitive ability in childhood and midlife and bone health outcomes in early old age; and the relationships of these bone measures with contemporaneous and subsequent cognitive ability in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD). This British birth cohort assessed areal and volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD and vBMD) at age 60-64, derived from peripheral quantitative computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and cognitive performance from childhood to age 69, among 866 women and 792 men...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790911/plasma-levels-of-a%C3%AE-42-and-tau-identified-probable-alzheimer-s-dementia-findings-in-two-cohorts
#12
Lih-Fen Lue, Marwan N Sabbagh, Ming-Jang Chiu, Naomi Jing, Noelle L Snyder, Christopher Schmitz, Andre Guerra, Christine M Belden, Ta-Fu Chen, Che-Chuan Yang, Shieh-Yueh Yang, Douglas G Walker, Kewei Chen, Eric M Reiman
The utility of plasma amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau levels for the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia has been controversial. The main objective of this study was to compare Aβ42 and tau levels measured by the ultra-sensitive immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assays in plasma samples collected at the Banner Sun Health Institute (BSHRI) (United States) with those from the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) (Taiwan). Significant increase in tau levels were detected in AD subjects from both cohorts, while Aβ42 levels were increased only in the NTUH cohort...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785219/corrigendum-oscillatory-activities-in-neurological-disorders-of-elderly-biomarkers-to-target-for-neuromodulation
#13
Giovanni Assenza, Fioravante Capone, Lazzaro di Biase, Florinda Ferreri, Lucia Florio, Andrea Guerra, Massimo Marano, Matteo Paolucci, Federico Ranieri, Gaetano Salomone, Mario Tombini, Gregor Thut, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
[This corrects the article on p. 189 in vol. 9, PMID: 28659788.].
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785218/auditory-brainstem-responses-in-tinnitus-a-review-of-who-how-and-what
#14
REVIEW
Victoria Milloy, Philippe Fournier, Daniel Benoit, Arnaud Noreña, Amineh Koravand
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) in tinnitus subjects has been extensively investigated over the last decade with the hopes of finding possible abnormalities related to the pathology. Despite this effort, the use of the ABR for tinnitus diagnosis or as an outcome measure is under debate. The present study reviewed published literature on ABR and tinnitus. The authors searched PubMed, MedLine, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL, and identified additional records through manually searching reference lists and gray literature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785217/curcumin-protects-against-ischemic-stroke-by-titrating-microglia-macrophage-polarization
#15
Zongjian Liu, Yuanyuan Ran, Shuo Huang, Shaohong Wen, Wenxiu Zhang, Xiangrong Liu, Zhili Ji, Xiaokun Geng, Xunming Ji, Huishan Du, Rehana K Leak, Xiaoming Hu
Stroke is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death. Ischemic stroke accounts for approximately 80% of all strokes. The remaining 20% of strokes are hemorrhagic in nature. To date, therapeutic options for acute ischemic stroke are very limited. Recent research suggests that shifting microglial phenotype from the pro-inflammatory M1 state toward the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785216/microrna-4639-is-a-regulator-of-dj-1-expression-and-a-potential-early-diagnostic-marker-for-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Yimeng Chen, Chao Gao, Qian Sun, Hong Pan, Pei Huang, Jianqing Ding, Shengdi Chen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and has profound impacts on the daily lives of patients. However, there is a lack of effective biomarkers for early diagnosis, and the mechanisms of PD pathogenesis remain obscure. microRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators and can be easily detected in plasma, which suggests a promising role as diagnostic markers. Here, we aimed to explore a peripheral biomarker, which not only can be applied for early diagnosis of PD but also has the potential to be a therapeutic target...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785215/microglia-responses-in-acute-and-chronic-neurological-diseases-what-microglia-specific-transcriptomic-studies-taught-and-did-not-teach-us
#17
REVIEW
Hélène E Hirbec, Harun N Noristani, Florence E Perrin
Over the last decade, microglia have been acknowledged to be key players in central nervous system (CNS) under both physiological and pathological conditions. They constantly survey the CNS environment and as immune cells, in pathological contexts, they provide the first host defense and orchestrate the immune response. It is well recognized that under pathological conditions microglia have both sequential and simultaneous, beneficial and detrimental effects. Cell-specific transcriptomics recently became popular in Neuroscience field allowing concurrent monitoring of the expression of numerous genes in a given cell population...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769787/a-combination-of-ex-vivo-diffusion-mri-and-multiphoton-to-study-microglia-monocytes-alterations-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Harun N Noristani, Hassan Boukhaddaoui, Guillaume Saint-Martin, Pauline Auzer, Rahima Sidiboulenouar, Nicolas Lonjon, Eric Alibert, Nicolas Tricaud, Christophe Goze-Bac, Christophe Coillot, Florence E Perrin
Central nervous system (CNS) injury has been observed to lead to microglia activation and monocytes infiltration at the lesion site. Ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI or DWI) allows detailed examination of CNS tissues, and recent advances in clearing procedures allow detailed imaging of fluorescent-labeled cells at high resolution. No study has yet combined ex vivo diffusion MRI and clearing procedures to establish a possible link between microglia/monocytes response and diffusion coefficient in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769786/mild-inflammatory-profile-without-gliosis-in-the-c-rel-deficient-mouse-modeling-a-late-onset-parkinsonism
#19
Vanessa Porrini, Mariana Mota, Edoardo Parrella, Arianna Bellucci, Marina Benarese, Lara Faggi, Paolo Tonin, Pier F Spano, Marina Pizzi
The impact of neuroinflammation and microglial activation to Parkinson's disease (PD) progression is still debated. Post-mortem analysis of PD brains has shown that neuroinflammation and microgliosis are key features of end-stage disease. However, microglia neuroimaging studies and evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines in PD patients at earlier stages do not support the occurrence of a pronounced neuroinflammatory process. PD animal models recapitulating the motor and non-motor features of the disease, and the slow and progressive neuropathology, can be of great advantage in understanding whether and how neuroinflammation associates with the onset of symptoms and neuronal loss...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769785/amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-redistribution-of-transcriptional-factor-eb-and-lysosomal-dysfunction-in-primary-microglial-cells
#20
Xingzhi Guo, Peng Tang, Li Chen, Peng Liu, Chen Hou, Xin Zhang, Yue Liu, Li Chong, Xiaoqing Li, Rui Li
Impaired clearance of Amyloid β (Aβ) by microglia in the brain may be associated with the senile plaque formation, a pathological hallmark relevant to Alzheimer's disease. Microglial cells in the brain are not able to efficiently degrade Aβ, suggesting that microglial lysosome impairment may occur. However, the mechanism of Aβ-induced impairment of microglia remains poorly understood. We observed the effects of Aβ on the trafficking of nuclear transcriptional factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis, and the expression of a downstream osteoporosis-associated transmembrane protein 1 (OSTM1), a vital molecule involved in lysosome acidification in primary microglial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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