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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765316/noradrenergic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-overview-of-imaging-studies
#1
REVIEW
Andrew C Peterson, Chiang-Shan R Li
Noradrenergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Conventional therapeutic strategies seek to enhance cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in AD and PD, respectively, and few studies have examined noradrenergic dysfunction as a target for medication development. We review the literature of noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD with a focus on human imaging studies that implicate the locus coeruleus (LC) circuit. The LC sends noradrenergic projections diffusely throughout the cerebral cortex and plays a critical role in attention, learning, working memory, and cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755342/mitochondria-estrogen-and-female-brain-aging
#2
REVIEW
Imane Lejri, Amandine Grimm, Anne Eckert
Mitochondria play an essential role in the generation of steroid hormones including the female sex hormones. These hormones are, in turn, able to modulate mitochondrial activities. Mitochondria possess crucial roles in cell maintenance, survival and well-being, because they are the main source of energy as well as of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cell. The impairment of these important organelles is one of the central features of aging. In women's health, estrogen plays an important role during adulthood not only in the estrous cycle, but also in the brain via neuroprotective, neurotrophic and antioxidant modes of action...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755341/plasma-biomarkers-differentiate-parkinson-s-disease-from-atypical-parkinsonism-syndromes
#3
Chin-Hsien Lin, Shieh-Yueh Yang, Herng-Er Horng, Che-Chuan Yang, Jen-Jie Chieh, Hsin-Hsien Chen, Bing-Hsien Liu, Ming-Jang Chiu
Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) has significant clinical overlaps with atypical parkinsonism syndromes (APS), which have a poorer treatment response and a more aggressive course than PD. We aimed to identify plasma biomarkers to differentiate PD from APS. Methods: Plasma samples ( n = 204) were obtained from healthy controls and from patients with PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with parkinsonism (FTD-P) or without parkinsonism...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755340/glutamate-transporter-glt1-expression-in-alzheimer-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#4
Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Daniela Diaz-Lucena, Marina Ainciburu, Benjamin Torrejón-Escribano, Margarita Carmona, Franc Llorens, Isidro Ferrer
Glutamate transporter solute carrier family 1, member 2 (GLT1/EAAT2), a major modulator of glutamate homeostasis in astrocytes, is assessed in post-mortem human brain samples of frontal cortex area 8 in advanced stages of Alzheimer disease (AD) and terminal stages of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in order to gain understanding of astrogliopathy in diseases manifested by dementia. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA expression is significantly increased in AD but not in DLB, whereas GLT1 , vesicular glutamate transporter 1 ( vGLUT1 ) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member 1 ( ALDH1L1 ) are not modified in AD and DLB when compared with controls...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755339/therapeutic-potential-of-a-prolyl-hydroxylase-inhibitor-fg-4592-for-parkinson-s-diseases-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regulation-of-redox-biology-and-mitochondrial-function
#5
Xuan Li, Xin-Xin Cui, Ya-Jing Chen, Ting-Ting Wu, Huaxi Xu, Huiyong Yin, Yun-Cheng Wu
As the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular responses to hypoxia, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). HIF-1α is normally degraded through ubiquitination after hydroxylation by prolyl hydroxylases (PHD). Emerging evidence has suggested that HIF PHD inhibitors (HIF-PHI) may have neuroprotective effects on PD through increasing HIF-1α levels. However, the therapeutic benefit of HIF-PHI for PD remains poorly explored due to the lack of proper clinical compounds and understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755338/a-review-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Isobel T French, Kalai A Muthusamy
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR) in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc) and pars dissipatus (PPNd), and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, and spinal cord...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755337/influence-of-apoe-and-rnf219-on-behavioral-and-cognitive-features-of-female-patients-affected-by-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Alessandra Mosca, Samantha Sperduti, Viorela Pop, Domenico Ciavardelli, Alberto Granzotto, Miriam Punzi, Liborio Stuppia, Valentina Gatta, Francesca Assogna, Nerisa Banaj, Fabrizio Piras, Federica Piras, Carlo Caltagirone, Gianfranco Spalletta, Stefano L Sensi
The risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the presence of the
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740312/emotion-detection-deficits-and-decreased-empathy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-affect-caregiver-mood-and-burden
#8
Maria Martinez, Namita Multani, Cassandra J Anor, Karen Misquitta, David F Tang-Wai, Ron Keren, Susan Fox, Anthony E Lang, Connie Marras, Maria C Tartaglia
Background : Changes in social cognition occur in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) and can be caused by several factors, including emotion recognition deficits and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) group differences on emotion detection between patients diagnosed with AD or PD and their respective caregivers; (2) the association of emotion detection with empathetic ability and NPS in individuals with AD or PD; (3) caregivers' depression and perceived burden in relation to patients' ability to detect emotions, empathize with others, presence of NPS; and (4) caregiver's awareness of emotion detection deficits in patients with AD or Parkinson...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740311/-sophora-flavescens-aiton-decreases-mpp-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#9
Hee-Young Kim, Hyongjun Jeon, Hyungwoo Kim, Sungtae Koo, Seungtae Kim
Sophora flavescens Aiton (SF) has been used to treat various diseases including fever and inflammation in China, South Korea and Japan. Several recent reports have shown that SF has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, indicating that it is a promising candidate for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated the protective effect of SF against neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ )-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, an in vitro PD model. SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with SF for 24 h, after which they were treated with MPP+ ...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740310/reduced-dynamic-coupling-between-spontaneous-bold-cbf-fluctuations-in-older-adults-a-dual-echo-pcasl-study
#10
Piero Chiacchiaretta, Francesco Cerritelli, Giovanna Bubbico, Mauro Gianni Perrucci, Antonio Ferretti
Measurement of the dynamic coupling between spontaneous Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) fluctuations has been recently proposed as a method to probe resting-state brain physiology. Here we investigated how the dynamic BOLD-CBF coupling during resting-state is affected by aging. Fifteen young subjects and 17 healthy elderlies were studied using a dual-echo pCASL sequence. We found that the dynamic BOLD-CBF coupling was markedly reduced in elderlies, in particular in the left supramarginal gyrus, an area known to be involved in verbal working memory and episodic memory...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740309/expression-of-cyclin-d1-in-astrocytes-varies-during-aging
#11
Brigitte Ciapa, Sylvie Granon
D-Cyclins control progression through the G1 phase and the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. In the adult brain, they regulate neurogenesis which is limited to the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) and to the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. Yet, D-cyclins have also been detected in other parts of the adult brain in differentiated neurons that do not proliferate and rather die by apoptosis in response to cell cycle reactivation. Expression of D-cyclins in astrocytes has also been reported but published results, such as those concerning neurons, appear conflictual...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740308/cyclosporin-a-mediated-activation-of-endogenous-neural-precursor-cells-promotes-cognitive-recovery-in-a-mouse-model-of-stroke
#12
Labeeba Nusrat, Jessica M Livingston-Thomas, Vaakiny Raguthevan, Kelsey Adams, Ilan Vonderwalde, Dale Corbett, Cindi M Morshead
Cognitive dysfunction following stroke significantly impacts quality of life and functional independance; yet, despite the prevalence and negative impact of cognitive deficits, post-stroke interventions almost exclusively target motor impairments. As a result, current treatment options are limited in their ability to promote post-stroke cognitive recovery. Cyclosporin A (CsA) has been previously shown to improve post-stroke functional recovery of sensorimotor deficits. Interestingly, CsA is a commonly used immunosuppressant and also acts directly on endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the neurogenic regions of the brain (the periventricular region and the dentate gyrus)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725295/differential-hyperphosphorylation-of-tau-s199-t231-and-s396-in-organotypic-brain-slices-of-alzheimer-mice-a-model-to-study-early-tau-hyperphosphorylation-using-okadaic-acid
#13
Bettina M Foidl, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, characterized by extracellular aggregation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylation of tau causing intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). There is urgent need to study the interactions between Aβ and tau, especially to solve the question of the pathological cascade. In the present study, we aim to develop a model of organotypic brain slices in which both plaque and tau pathology can be examined. Organotypic brain slices (150 μm thick, coronal, at the hippocampal level) from adult (9 month) wildtype (WT, C57BL/6N) and transgenic AD mice (TG, APP_SweDI) were cultured for 2 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720937/the-nlrp3-caspase-1-inflammasome-negatively-regulates-autophagy-via-tlr4-trif-in-prion-peptide-infected-microglia
#14
Mengyu Lai, Hao Yao, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Wei Wu, Di Wang, Ying Zhao, Lu Wang, Xiangmei Zhou, Deming Zhao, Lifeng Yang
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein, spongiform changes in the brain, and brain inflammation as a result of the wide-spread activation of microglia. Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process for the clearance of cytoplasmic components, including protein aggregates and damaged organelles; this process also eliminates pathological PrPSc as it accumulates during prion infection. The NALP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that is a component of the innate immune system and is responsible for the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720936/the-effects-of-tai-chi-intervention-on-healthy-elderly-by-means-of-neuroimaging-and-eeg-a-systematic-review
#15
Zhujun Pan, Xiwen Su, Qun Fang, Lijuan Hou, Younghan Lee, Chih C Chen, John Lamberth, Mi-Lyang Kim
Aging is a process associated with a decline in cognitive and motor functions, which can be attributed to neurological changes in the brain. Tai Chi, a multimodal mind-body exercise, can be practiced by people across all ages. Previous research identified effects of Tai Chi practice on delaying cognitive and motor degeneration. Benefits in behavioral performance included improved fine and gross motor skills, postural control, muscle strength, and so forth. Neural plasticity remained in the aging brain implies that Tai Chi-associated benefits may not be limited to the behavioral level...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719505/cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-neurodegeneration-in-parkinson-disease
#16
REVIEW
Xian-Si Zeng, Wen-Shuo Geng, Jin-Jing Jia, Lei Chen, Peng-Peng Zhang
It has been 200 years since Parkinson disease (PD) was described by Dr. Parkinson in 1817. The disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although the pathogenesis of PD is still unknown, the research findings from scientists are conducive to understand the pathological mechanisms. It is well accepted that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset of PD. In this review, we summarize the mutations of main seven genes (α-synuclein, LRRK2, PINK1, Parkin, DJ-1, VPS35 and GBA1) linked to PD, discuss the potential mechanisms for the loss of dopaminergic neurons (dopamine metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, impaired autophagy, and deregulation of immunity) in PD, and expect the development direction for treatment of PD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713274/theta-gamma-coupling-and-working-memory-in-alzheimer-s-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
Michelle S Goodman, Sanjeev Kumar, Reza Zomorrodi, Zaid Ghazala, Amay S M Cheam, Mera S Barr, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Corinne Fischer, Alastair Flint, Linda Mah, Nathan Herrmann, Christopher R Bowie, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji
Working memory deficits are common among individuals with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Yet, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these deficits. Theta-gamma coupling-the modulation of high-frequency gamma oscillations by low-frequency theta oscillations-is a neurophysiologic process underlying working memory. We assessed the relationship between theta-gamma coupling and working memory deficits in AD and MCI. We hypothesized that: (1) individuals with AD would display the most significant working memory impairments followed by MCI and finally healthy control (HC) participants; and (2) there would be a significant association between working memory performance and theta-gamma coupling across all participants...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713273/targeting-beta-amyloid-at-the-csf-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Manuel Menendez-Gonzalez, Huber S Padilla-Zambrano, Gabriel Alvarez, Estibaliz Capetillo-Zarate, Cristina Tomas-Zapico, Agustin Costa
Although immunotherapies against the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide tried so date failed to prove sufficient clinical benefit, Aβ still remains the main target in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article aims to show the rationale of a new therapeutic strategy: clearing Aβ from the CSF continuously (the "CSF-sink" therapeutic strategy). First, we describe the physiologic mechanisms of Aβ clearance and the resulting AD pathology when these mechanisms are altered. Then, we review the experiences with peripheral Aβ-immunotherapy and discuss the related hypothesis of the mechanism of action of "peripheral sink...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708188/commentary-geographic-variations-in-the-incidence-of-glioblastoma-and-prognostic-factors-predictive-of-overall-survival-in-us-adults-from-2004-2013
#19
COMMENT
S M J Mortazavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706887/the-rs696880-polymorphism-in-the-nogo-a-receptor-gene-rtn4r-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-the-chinese-population
#20
Lianping Xu, Jiao Li, Danyang Tian, Lu Chen, Lu Tang, Dongsheng Fan
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Nogo-A receptor gene ( RTN4R ) have been associated with increased risk for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) in the French population. In the present study, we investigated the associations between RTN4R tag SNPs and SALS in a large Chinese population. Four tag SNPs (rs854971, rs887765, rs696880 and rs1567871) in the RTN4R gene with an r 2 threshold of 0.8 and a minor allele frequency (MAF) greater than 0.2% were selected based on Chinese population data from HapMap...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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