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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920720/validation-of-online-versions-of-tinnitus-questionnaires-translated-into-swedish
#1
Karolina Müller, Niklas K Edvall, Esma Idrizbegovic, Robert Huhn, Rilana Cima, Viktor Persson, Constanze Leineweber, Hugo Westerlund, Berthold Langguth, Winfried Schlee, Barbara Canlon, Christopher R Cederroth
Background: Due to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression), and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920719/bile-acids-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Hayley D Ackerman, Glenn S Gerhard
Bile acids, a structurally related group of molecules derived from cholesterol, have a long history as therapeutic agents in medicine, from treatment for primarily ocular diseases in ancient Chinese medicine to modern day use as approved drugs for certain liver diseases. Despite evidence supporting a neuroprotective role in a diverse spectrum of age-related neurodegenerative disorders, including several small pilot clinical trials, little is known about their molecular mechanisms or their physiological roles in the nervous system...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917121/neurochemical-and-neuroanatomical-plasticity-following-memory-training-and-yoga-interventions-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Hongyu Yang, Amber M Leaver, Prabha Siddarth, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M St Cyr, Harris A Eyre, Katherine L Narr, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895578/cognitive-performance-patterns-in-healthy-individuals-with-substantia-nigra-hyperechogenicity-and-early-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Rezzak Yilmaz, Susanne Gräber, Benjamin Roeben, Ulrike Suenkel, Anna-Katharina von Thaler, Sebastian Heinzel, Florian G Metzger, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Walter Maetzler, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+) is a risk marker for Parkinson's disease (PD) which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD. Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN-) and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the "Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease" test battery...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895577/fus1-ko-mouse-as-a-model-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-circadian-disruption-and-long-term-spatial-and-olfactory-memory-impairments
#5
Guillermo Coronas-Samano, Keeley L Baker, Winston J T Tan, Alla V Ivanova, Justus V Verhagen
Insufficient advances in the development of effective therapeutic treatments of sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (sAD) to date are largely due to the lack of sAD-relevant animal models. While the vast majority of models do recapitulate AD's hallmarks of plaques and tangles by virtue of tau and/or beta amyloid overexpression, these models do not reflect the fact that in sAD (unlike familial AD) these genes are not risk factors per se and that other mechanisms like oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and inflammation play key roles in AD etiology...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895576/sleep-disturbances-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states-2002-2012-nationwide-inpatient-rates-predictors-and-outcomes
#6
Alyssa A Gamaldo, May A Beydoun, Hind A Beydoun, Hailun Liang, Rachel E Salas, Alan B Zonderman, Charlene E Gamaldo, Shaker M Eid
Objective/Background: We examined the rates, predictors, and outcomes [mortality risk (MR), length of stay (LOS), and total charges (TC)] of sleep disturbances in older hospitalized patients. Patients/Methods: Using the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2002-2012), older patients (≥60 years) were selected and rates of insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other sleep disturbances (OSD) were estimated using ICD-9CM. TC, adjusted for inflation, was of primary interest, while MR and LOS were secondary outcomes...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895575/can-animal-models-contribute-to-understanding-tinnitus-heterogeneity-in-humans
#7
REVIEW
Jos J Eggermont
The brain activity of humans with tinnitus of various etiologies is typically studied with electro- and magneto-encephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based imaging techniques. Consequently, they measure population responses and mostly from the neocortex. The latter also underlies changes in neural networks that may be attributed to tinnitus. However, factors not strictly related to tinnitus such as hearing loss and hyperacusis, as well as other co-occurring disorders play a prominent role in these changes...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891091/amyloid-plaques-in-retina-for-diagnosis-in-alzheimer-s-patients-a-meta-analysis
#8
Jiangling Jiang, Hongyan Wang, Wei Li, Xinyi Cao, Chunbo Li
Background: Detection of retinal β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide accumulation is a novel diagnostic method for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is, as yet, no conclusive evidence of its accuracy. Aim: To identify the diagnostic accuracy of pathological retinal Aβ detection for AD by a meta-analytic approach. Methods: Electronic and reference searches were conducted to identify studies related to the diagnostic effects of retinal Aβ detection in AD that met pre-defined inclusion criteria. The QUADAS-2 tool was employed to assess the risk of bias, and Review Manager plus the Open Meta-Analyst were used to perform the data analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891090/disrupted-nodal-and-hub-organization-account-for-brain-network-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Yuko Koshimori, Sang-Soo Cho, Marion Criaud, Leigh Christopher, Mark Jacobs, Christine Ghadery, Sarah Coakeley, Madeleine Harris, Romina Mizrahi, Clement Hamani, Anthony E Lang, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in Parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls (HCs) and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891089/effect-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-cognitive-function-and-metabolic-status-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-randomized-double-blind-and-controlled-trial
#10
Elmira Akbari, Zatollah Asemi, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Fereshteh Bahmani, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Gholam Ali Hamidi, Mahmoud Salami
: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with severe cognitive impairments as well as some metabolic defects. Scant studies in animal models indicate a link between probiotics and cognitive function. This randomized, double-blind, and controlled clinical trial was conducted among 60 AD patients to assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on cognitive function and metabolic status. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30 in each group) treating with either milk (control group) or a mixture of probiotics (probiotic group)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877127/age-related-deterioration-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-primary-auditory-cortex-of-mice
#11
Dustin H Brewton, Jamiela Kokash, Oliva Jimenez, Eloy R Pena, Khaleel A Razak
Age-related changes in inhibitory neurotransmission in sensory cortex may underlie deficits in sensory function. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix components that ensheath some inhibitory neurons, particularly parvalbumin positive (PV+) interneurons. PNNs may protect PV+ cells from oxidative stress and help establish their rapid spiking properties. Although PNN expression has been well characterized during development, possible changes in aging sensory cortex have not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that PNN+, PV+ and PV/PNN co-localized cell densities decline with age in the primary auditory cortex (A1)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877126/recommendations-for-the-use-of-ict-in-elderly-populations-with-affective-disorders
#12
Auriane Gros, David Bensamoun, Valeria Manera, Roxane Fabre, Anne-Marie Zacconi-Cauvin, Susanne Thummler, Michel Benoit, Philippe Robert, Renaud David
Objective: Affective disorders are frequently encountered among elderly populations, and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) could provide an added value for their recognition and assessment in addition to current clinical methods. The diversity and lack of consensus in the emerging field of ICTs is however a strong limitation for their global use in daily practice. The aim of the present article is to provide recommendations for the use of ICTs for the assessment and management of affective disorders among elderly populations with or without dementia...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877125/an-own-age-bias-in-recognizing-faces-with-horizontal-information
#13
Andreas Schaich, Sven Obermeyer, Thorsten Kolling, Monika Knopf
Horizontal information, as a result of a selective filtering process, is essential in younger adults' (YA) ability to recognize human faces. Obermeyer et al. (2012) recently reported impaired recognition of faces with horizontal information in older adults (OA) suggesting age-variant processing. Two yet unconsidered factors (stimulus age and exposure duration) that may have influenced previous results, were investigated in this study. Forty-seven YA (18-35 years) and 49 OA (62-83 years) were tested in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 mixed design with the between-subjects factors age group (YA vs...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877124/tau-structures
#14
REVIEW
Jesus Avila, Juan S Jiménez, Carmen L Sayas, Marta Bolós, Juan C Zabala, Germán Rivas, Felix Hernández
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that plays an important role in axonal stabilization, neuronal development, and neuronal polarity. In this review, we focus on the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary tau structures. We describe the structure of tau from its specific residues until its conformation in dimers, oligomers, and larger polymers in physiological and pathological situations.
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877123/mobility-and-upright-posture-are-associated-with-different-aspects-of-cognition-in-older-adults
#15
Rajal G Cohen, Anita N Vasavada, Michelle M Wiest, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Objectives: Aging is associated with cognitive decline, including visuomotor and memory concerns, and with motor system changes, including gait slowing and stooped posture. We investigated the associations of visuomotor performance and episodic memory with motor system characteristics in healthy older adults. Methods: Neurologically healthy older adults (N = 160, aged 50-89) completed a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Cognitive variables were grouped by principal components analysis (PCA) into two components: visuomotor performance and verbal episodic memory...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877122/changes-in-neural-activity-underlying-working-memory-after-computerized-cognitive-training-in-older-adults
#16
Erich S Tusch, Brittany R Alperin, Eliza Ryan, Phillip J Holcomb, Abdul H Mohammed, Kirk R Daffner
Computerized cognitive training (CCT) may counter the impact of aging on cognition, but both the efficacy and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying CCT remain controversial. In this study, 35 older individuals were randomly assigned to Cogmed adaptive working memory (WM) CCT or an active control CCT, featuring five weeks of five ∼40 min sessions per week. Before and after the 5-week intervention, event-related potentials were measured while subjects completed a visual n-back task with three levels of demand (0-back, 1-back, 2-back)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872591/mild-cognitive-impairment-is-not-mild-at-all-in-altered-activation-of-episodic-memory-brain-networks-evidence-from-ale-meta-analysis
#17
Pengyun Wang, Juan Li, Hui-Jie Li, Lijuan Huo, Rui Li
The present study conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at assessing consensus across the functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and elucidating consistent activation patterns. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) was conducted on the functional neuroimaging studies of episodic encoding and retrieval in aMCI individuals published up to March 31, 2015. Analyses covered 24 studies, which yielded 770 distinct foci. Compared to healthy controls, aMCI individuals showed statistically significant consistent activation differences in a widespread episodic memory network, not only in the bilateral medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex, but also in the angular gyrus, precunes, posterior cingulate cortex, and even certain more basic structures...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872590/test-retest-reliability-of-a-serious-game-for-delirium-screening-in-the-emergency-department
#18
Tiffany Tong, Mark Chignell, Mary C Tierney, Jacques S Lee
Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853433/a-surgical-method-to-improve-the-homeostasis-of-csf-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Yang Qin, Jian W Gu
Reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and increased resistance to CSF outflow are considered to be associated with aging, and are also characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These changes probably result in a decrease in the efficiency of the mechanism by which CSF removes toxic molecules such as amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau from the interstitial fluid space. Soluble Aβ is potently neurotoxic and dysfunctional in CSF circulation and can accelerate the progression of AD. Current therapies for AD exhibit poor efficiency; therefore, a surgical method to improve the homeostasis of CSF is worthy of investigation...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853432/clinical-trials-to-gain-fda-approval-for-computerized-cognitive-training-what-is-the-ideal-control-condition
#20
Jeffrey N Motter, Davangere P Devanand, P Murali Doraiswamy, Joel R Sneed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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