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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337139/a-mixed-methods-trial-of-broad-band-noise-and-nature-sounds-for-tinnitus-therapy-group-and-individual-responses-modeled-under-the-adaptation-level-theory-of-tinnitus
#1
Mithila Durai, Grant D Searchfield
Objectives: A randomized cross-over trial in 18 participants tested the hypothesis that nature sounds, with unpredictable temporal characteristics and high valence would yield greater improvement in tinnitus than constant, emotionally neutral broadband noise. Study Design: The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Secondary measures were: loudness and annoyance ratings, loudness level matches, minimum masking levels, positive and negative emotionality, attention reaction and discrimination time, anxiety, depression and stress...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331485/corrigendum-chronic-pyruvate-supplementation-increases-exploratory-activity-and-brain-energy-reserves-in-young-and-middle-aged-mice
#2
Hennariikka Koivisto, Henri Leinonen, Mari Puurula, Hani S Hafez, Glenda Alquicer Barrera, Malin H Stridh, Helle S Waagepetersen, Mika Tiainen, Pasi Soininen, Yuri Zilberter, Heikki Tanila
[This corrects the article on p. 41 in vol. 8, PMID: 27014054.].
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326037/differences-on-brain-connectivity-in-adulthood-are-present-in-subjects-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-infancy
#3
Cecilia Algarin, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran, Sussanne Reyes, Cristian Morales, Betsy Lozoff, Patricio Peirano, Bharat Biswal
Iron deficiency continues to be the most prevalent micronutrient deficit worldwide. Since iron is involved in several processes including myelination, dopamine neurotransmission and neuronal metabolism, the presence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy relates to long-lasting neurofunctional effects. There is scarce data regarding whether these effects would extend to former iron deficient anemic human adults. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel technique to explore patterns of functional connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326036/associations-between-early-markers-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-sarcopenia
#4
Michael Drey, Sandra E Hasmann, Jan-Peter Krenovsky, Markus A Hobert, Stefanie Straub, Morad Elshehabi, Anna-Katharina von Thaler, Andreas J Fallgatter, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Ulrike Suenkel, Daniela Berg, Walter Maetzler
Introduction: Sarcopenia and Parkinson's disease (PD) are both common age-related syndromes, and there is preliminary evidence that the probability of the co-occurrence of these syndromes within one individual is higher than expected. However, it is unclear to date whether one of the syndromes induces the other, or whether there may be common underlying causes. This pilot study thus aimed at investigating the association of the features of increased risk for PD with early stage sarcopenia (ESS). Method: Two hundred and fifty-five community-dwelling individuals were recruited from the Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of NeuroDegeneration (TREND) study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326035/hippocampal-and-amygdala-gray-matter-loss-in-elderly-controls-with-subtle-cognitive-decline
#5
Davide Zanchi, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Stefan Borgwardt, Cristelle Rodriguez, Sven Haller
In contrast to the idea that hippocampal and amygdala volume loss occur in late phases of neurodegeneration, recent contributions point to the relevance of preexisting structural deficits that are associated with aging and are independent of amyloid deposition in preclinical Alzheimer disease cases. The present work explores GM hippocampal and amygdala volumes in elderly controls displaying the first signs of cognitive decline. 455 subjects (263 females), including 374 controls (228 females) and 81 middle cognitive impairment subjects (35 females), underwent two neuropsychological evaluations (baseline and 18 months follow-up) and a MRI-T1 examination (only baseline)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326034/the-presence-of-previous-cerebral-microbleeds-has-a-negative-effect-on-hypertensive-intracerebral-hemorrhage-recovery
#6
Kang Yang, Yulan Feng, JinJin Mu, Ningzhen Fu, Shufen Chen, Yi Fu
Background and Purpose: Cerebral microbleeds are an intracerebral microangiopathy with bleeding tendency found in intracerebral hemorrhage patients. However, studies about cerebral microbleed effects on the prognosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage patients are rare. We performed a prospective study to discuss not only the risk factors of cerebral microbleed incidence in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage patients but also the relevance of cerebral microbleeds with silent brain infarction, hemorrhage and prognosis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326033/subcortical-shape-changes-hippocampal-atrophy-and-cortical-thinning-in-future-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#7
Andrea M Kälin, Min T M Park, M Mallar Chakravarty, Jason P Lerch, Lars Michels, Clemens Schroeder, Sarah D Broicher, Spyros Kollias, Roger M Nitsch, Anton F Gietl, Paul G Unschuld, Christoph Hock, Sandra E Leh
Efficacy of future treatments depends on biomarkers identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment at highest risk for transitioning to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we applied recently developed analysis techniques to investigate cross-sectional differences in subcortical shape and volume alterations in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 23, age range 59-82, 47.8% female), future converters at baseline (n = 10, age range 66-84, 90% female) and at time of conversion (age range 68-87) compared to group-wise age and gender matched healthy control subjects (n = 23, age range 61-81, 47...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321189/plasma-tau-levels-in-cognitively-normal-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#8
Ming-Jang Chiu, Ling-Yun Fan, Ta-Fu Chen, Ya-Fang Chen, Jen-Jei Chieh, Herng-Er Horng
Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45-95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65-95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45-64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321188/explicit-action-switching-interferes-with-the-context-specificity-of-motor-memories-in-older-adults
#9
Carly J Sombric, Harrison M Harker, Patrick J Sparto, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo
Healthy aging impairs the ability to adapt movements to novel situations and to switch choices according to the context in cognitive tasks, indicating resistance to changes in motor and cognitive behaviors. Here we examined if this lack of "flexibility" in old subjects observed in motor and cognitive domains were related. To this end, we evaluated subjects' performance in a motor task that required switching walking patterns and its relation to performance in a cognitive switching task. Specifically, a group of old (>73 years old) and young subjects learned a new locomotor pattern on a split-belt treadmill, which drives the legs at different speeds...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316570/isometric-exercise-training-for-managing-vascular-risk-factors-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Nicole C L Hess, Neil A Smart
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia diagnosed amongst the elderly. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition often indicative of the earliest symptomatology of AD with 10%-15% of MCI patients reportedly progressing to a diagnosis of AD. Individuals with a history of vascular risk factors (VRF's) are considered high risk candidates for developing cognitive impairment in later life. Evidence suggests that vascular injury resulting from untreated VRF's promotes progression from MCI to AD and exacerbates the severity of dementia in AD, and neuroimaging studies have found that the neurodegenerative processes associated with AD are heavily driven by VRF's that promote cerebral hypoperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316569/longitudinal-analysis-for-disease-progression-via-simultaneous-multi-relational-temporal-fused-learning
#11
Baiying Lei, Feng Jiang, Siping Chen, Dong Ni, Tianfu Wang
It is highly desirable to predict the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) of patients [e.g., to predict conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD], especially longitudinal prediction of AD is important for its early diagnosis. Currently, most existing methods predict different clinical scores using different models, or separately predict multiple scores at different future time points. Such approaches prevent coordinated learning of multiple predictions that can be used to jointly predict clinical scores at multiple future time points...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303102/the-effects-of-aging-on-orientation-discrimination
#12
Clara Casco, Michele Barollo, Giulio Contemori, Luca Battaglini
Visual perception relies on low-level encoding of local orientation. Recent studies show an age-dependent impairment in orientation discrimination of stimuli embedded in external noise, suggesting that encoding of orientation is inefficient in older adults. In the present study we ask whether aging also reduces decoding, i.e., selecting the neural representations of target orientation while discarding those conflicting with it. We compared younger and older participants capability (mean age 24 and 68 years respectively) in discriminating whether the orientation of a Gabor target was left or right from the vertical...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298893/bis-retinoid-a2e-induces-an-increase-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-via-inhibition-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinases-1-2-pathway-in-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-facilitates-phagocytosis
#13
Delphine Balmer, Linda Bapst-Wicht, Aswin Pyakurel, Martine Emery, Natacha Nanchen, Christian G Bochet, Raphael Roduit
Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. Hallmarks of the disease are well known; indeed, this pathology is characterized by lipofuscin accumulation, is principally composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion. The N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine (A2E) retinoid which is thought to be a cytotoxic component for RPE is the best-characterized component of lipofuscin so far. Even if no direct correlation between A2E spatial distribution and lipofuscin fluorescence has been established in aged human RPE, modified forms or metabolites of A2E could be involved in ARMD pathology...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298892/maintaining-cognitive-functioning-in-healthy-seniors-with-a-technology-based-foreign-language-program-a-pilot-feasibility-study
#14
Caitlin Ware, Souad Damnee, Leila Djabelkhir, Victoria Cristancho, Ya-Huei Wu, Judith Benovici, Maribel Pino, Anne-Sophie Rigaud
Researchers have hypothesized that learning a foreign language could be beneficial for seniors, as language learning requires the use of extensive neural networks. We developed and qualitatively evaluated an English training program for older French adults; our principal objective was to determine whether a program integrating technology is feasible for this population. We conducted a 4-month pilot study (16, 2-h sessions) with 14 French participants, (nine women, five men, average age 75). Questionnaires were administered pre- and post-intervention to measure cognitive level and subjective feelings of loneliness or social isolation; however, these scores did not improve significantly...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298891/white-matter-deterioration-may-foreshadow-impairment-of-emotional-valence-determination-in-early-stage-dementia-of-the-alzheimer-type
#15
Ravi Rajmohan, Ronald C Anderson, Dan Fang, Austin G Meyer, Pavis Laengvejkal, Parunyou Julayanont, Greg Hannabas, Kitten Linton, John Culberson, Hafiz M R Khan, John De Toledo, P Hemachandra Reddy, Michael O'Boyle
In Alzheimer Disease (AD), non-verbal skills often remain intact for far longer than verbally mediated processes. Four (1 female, 3 males) participants with early-stage Clinically Diagnosed Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (CDDAT) and eight neurotypicals (NTs; 4 females, 4 males) completed the emotional valence determination test (EVDT) while undergoing BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We expected CDDAT participants to perform just as well as NTs on the EVDT, and to display increased activity within the bilateral amygdala and right anterior cingulate cortex (r-ACC)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293188/evidence-for-narrow-transfer-after-short-term-cognitive-training-in-older-adults
#16
Dustin J Souders, Walter R Boot, Kenneth Blocker, Thomas Vitale, Nelson A Roque, Neil Charness
The degree to which "brain training" can improve general cognition, resulting in improved performance on tasks dissimilar from the trained tasks (transfer of training), is a controversial topic. Here, we tested the degree to which cognitive training, in the form of gamified training activities that have demonstrated some degree of success in the past, might result in broad transfer. Sixty older adults were randomly assigned to a gamified cognitive training intervention or to an active control condition that involved playing word and number puzzle games...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293187/comparison-of-cognitive-change-after-working-memory-training-and-logic-and-planning-training-in-healthy-older-adults
#17
Vina M Goghari, Linette Lawlor-Savage
Recent attention has focused on the benefits of cognitive training in healthy adults. Many commercial cognitive training programs are available given the attraction of not only bettering one's cognitive capacity, but also potentially preventing age-related declines, which is of particular interest to older adults. The issue of whether cognitive training can improve performance within cognitive domains not trained (i.e., far transfer) is controversial, with meta-analyses of cognitive training both supporting and falsifying this claim...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289381/white-matter-damage-in-the-cholinergic-system-contributes-to-cognitive-impairment-in-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment-no-dementia
#18
Qing Liu, Zude Zhu, Stefan J Teipel, Jianwei Yang, Yi Xing, Yi Tang, Jianping Jia
Cholinergic deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but the extent of involvement and underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, targeting the early stage of VCI, we determined regional atrophy within the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic pathways in 25 patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) compared to 24 healthy elderly subjects. By applying stereotaxic cytoarchitectonic maps of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM), no significant atrophy was identified in VCIND...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286480/promoting-the-assessment-of-frailty-in-the-clinical-approach-to-cognitive-disorders
#19
Marco Canevelli, Matteo Cesari, Francesca Remiddi, Alessandro Trebbastoni, Federica Quarata, Carlo Vico, Carlo de Lena, Giuseppe Bruno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280465/activating-developmental-reserve-capacity-via-cognitive-training-or-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-potentials-for-promoting-fronto-parietal-and-hippocampal-striatal-network-functions-in-old-age
#20
REVIEW
Susanne Passow, Franka Thurm, Shu-Chen Li
Existing neurocomputational and empirical data link deficient neuromodulation of the fronto-parietal and hippocampal-striatal circuitries with aging-related increase in processing noise and declines in various cognitive functions. Specifically, the theory of aging neuronal gain control postulates that aging-related suboptimal neuromodulation may attenuate neuronal gain control, which yields computational consequences on reducing the signal-to-noise-ratio of synaptic signal transmission and hampering information processing within and between cortical networks...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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