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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Nathan Duval, Guido N Vacano, David Patterson
Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Individuals with DS exhibit changes in neurochemistry and neuroanatomy that worsen with age, neurological delay in learning and memory, and predisposition to Alzheimer's disease. The Ts65Dn mouse is the best characterized model of DS and has many features reminiscent of DS, including developmental anomalies and age-related neurodegeneration. The mouse carries a partial triplication of mouse chromosome 16 containing roughly 100 genes syntenic to human chromosome 21 genes...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Kai-Cheng Li, Xiao Luo, Qing-Ze Zeng, Xiao-Jun Xu, Pei-Yu Huang, Zhu-Jing Shen, Jing-Jing Xu, Jiong Zhou, Min-Ming Zhang
Background : Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) presents a different clinical profile than late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with EOAD present more atrophy and functional disconnection than LOAD patients. However, it remains unknown whether the interhemispheric functional disconnection or its underlying structural impairment contributes to the different clinical profiles of EOAD and LOAD. Methods : According to the arbitrary cut-off age of 65, we included 22 EOAD patients, 27 LOAD patients and 38 healthy controls (further divided into 21 relatively young and 17 old controls)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ramón López-Higes, Jose M Prados, Susana Rubio-Valdehita, Inmaculada Rodríguez-Rojo, Jaisalmer de Frutos-Lucas, Mercedes Montenegro, Pedro Montejo, David Prada, María L D Losada
The present study explores if cognitive reserve, executive functions, and working memory capacity are predictive of performance in the language domain (specifically in sentence comprehension and naming) after a cognitive training intervention. Sixty-six Spanish older adults voluntarily participated in the study, classified either as older adults with subjective cognitive decline according to Jessen et al.'s (2014) criteria ( n = 35; 70.94 ± 4.16 years old) or cognitively intact ( n = 31; 71.34 ± 4.96 years old)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Carina Arnold, Claudia Schulte, Mariana Moscovich, Ulrike Sünkel, Laura Zaunbrecher, Florian Metzger, Thomas Gasser, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Ann-Kathrin Hauser, Daniela Berg, Walter Maetzler
Objective: To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cholinergic system and quantitative parameters of postural control are associated in healthy older adults. This is a cross-sectional analysis from the TREND study. Methods: All participants performed a static postural control task for 30 s on a foam pad in semitandem stance and eyes closed. We analyzed mean power frequency (MPF), area, acceleration, jerk, and velocity from a mobile sensor worn at the lower back using a validated algorithm...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yaqi Ding, Chenqi Xin, Cheng-Wu Zhang, Kah-Leong Lim, Hang Zhang, ZhenQian Fu, Lin Li, Wei Huang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, affecting about 7-10 million patients worldwide. The major pathological features of PD include loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the midbrain and the presence of α-synuclein-enriched Lewy bodies. Although the mechanism underlying PD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated, oxidative stress induced by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is widely accepted to be a key pathogenic factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Alexandra Schättin, Federico Gennaro, Martin Egloff, Simon Vogt, Eling D de Bruin
The aging brain undergoes remodeling processes because of biological and environmental factors. To counteract brain aging, neuronal plasticity should be preserved. The aim of this study was to test if the capacity of generating short-time synaptic plasticity in older adults may be related to either physical activity, nutritional status, cognition, or neurophysiological activity. Thirty-six participants (mean age 73.3 ± 5.9 years) received transcranial magnetic stimulation in combination with peripheral nerve stimulation to experimentally induce short-time synaptic plasticity by paired associative stimulation (PAS)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yang Hu, Junping Pan, Yirong Xin, Xiangnan Mi, Jiahui Wang, Qin Gao, Huanmin Luo
Human neurons function over an entire lifetime, yet the molecular mechanisms which perform their functions and protecting against neurodegenerative disease during aging are still elusive. Here, we conducted a systematic study on the human brain aging by using the weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) method to identify meaningful modules or representative biomarkers for human brain aging. Significantly, 19 distinct gene modules were detected based on the dataset GSE53890; among them, six modules related to the feature of brain aging were highly preserved in diverse independent datasets...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tomas Petrasek, Iveta Vojtechova, Veronika Lobellova, Anna Popelikova, Martina Janikova, Hana Brozka, Pavel Houdek, Martin Sladek, Alena Sumova, Zdenka Kristofikova, Karel Vales, Ales Stuchlík
The McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic rat is an animal model of the familial form of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This model mirrors several neuropathological hallmarks of the disease, including the accumulation of beta-amyloid and the formation of amyloid plaques (in homozygous animals only), neuroinflammation and the gradual deterioration of cognitive functions even prior to plaque formation, although it lacks the tauopathy observed in human victims of AD. The goal of the present study was a thorough characterization of the homozygous model with emphasis on its face validity in several domains of behavior known to be affected in AD patients, including cognitive functions, motor coordination, emotionality, sociability, and circadian activity patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Etheresia Pretorius, Janette Bester, Martin J Page, Douglas B Kell
Many studies indicate that there is a (mainly dormant) microbial component in the progressive development of Alzheimer-type dementias (ADs); and that in the case of Gram-negative organisms, a chief culprit might be the shedding of the highly inflammagenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from their cell walls. We have recently shown that a highly sensitive assay for the presence of free LPS [added to platelet poor plasma (PPP)] lies in its ability (in healthy individuals) to induce blood to clot into an amyloid form...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lijuan Gao, Jiu Chen, Lihua Gu, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Yanna Yan, Zhijun Zhang
Background: The apolipoprotein E epsilon4 ( ApoE ε4) allele and female gender may be important risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Novelty mismatch negativity (MMN) represents the pre-attentive index of deviance detection and P3a represents the attention orienting response. Furthermore, MMN and P3a components have been reported to be potential markers in aMCI. Therefore, this study will investigate the effects of gender and ApoE on auditory novelty MMN and P3a and their relationship to neuropsychological performance in aMCI...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Marina Weiler, Raphael Fernandes Casseb, Brunno Machado de Campos, Camila Vieira de Ligo Teixeira, Ana Flávia Mac Knight Carletti-Cassani, Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Thamires Naela Cardoso Magalhães, Débora Queiroz de Almeira, Leda Leme Talib, Orestes Vicente Forlenza, Marcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar, Gabriela Castellano
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, with no means of cure or prevention. The presence of abnormal disease-related proteins in the population is, in turn, much more common than the incidence of dementia. In this context, the cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis has been proposed to explain the discontinuity between pathophysiological and clinical expression of AD, suggesting that CR mitigates the effects of pathology on clinical expression and cognition. fMRI studies of the human connectome have recently reported that AD patients present diminished functional efficiency in resting-state networks, leading to a loss in information flow and cognitive processing...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ana Navarro, Beatriz Rioseras, Eva Del Valle, Eva Martínez-Pinilla, Aurora Astudillo, Jorge Tolivia
Apolipoprotein D (Apo D) is a key molecule in the lipid transport during homeostasis and repair processes in normal and pathological conditions of the nervous system with a putative neuroprotective effect. In the last decades, huge experimental efforts have been made to know the exact mechanism of action of Apo D, even though, it remains an open question. In this regard, studies in mammals and flies have suggested that Apo D seems to act through a variety of cellular mechanisms related with its ability to selectively bind different lipid ligands...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Alexander L Kollhoff, Jennifer C Howell, William T Hu
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers can enhance the early and accurate etiologic detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) even when symptoms are very mild, but are not yet widely available for clinical testing. There are a number of reasons for this, including the need for an experienced operator, the use of instruments mostly reserved for research, and low cost-effectiveness when patient samples do not completely fill each assay plate. Newer technology can overcome some of these issues through automated assays of a single patient sample on existing clinical laboratory platforms, but it is not known how these newer automated assays compare with previous research-based measurements...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Habtamu M Aycheh, Joon-Kyung Seong, Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Duk L Na, Byungkon Kang, Sang W Seo, Kyung-Ah Sohn
Brain age estimation from anatomical features has been attracting more attention in recent years. This interest in brain age estimation is motivated by the importance of biological age prediction in health informatics, with an application to early prediction of neurocognitive disorders. It is well-known that normal brain aging follows a specific pattern, which enables researchers and practitioners to predict the age of a human's brain from its degeneration. In this paper, we model brain age predicted by cortical thickness data gathered from large cohort brain images...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
László Ákos Kovács, Josef Andreas Schiessl, Anna Elisabeth Nafz, Valér Csernus, Balázs Gaszner
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the main regulator of the stress response. The key of the HPA is the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (pPVN) controlled by higher-order limbic stress centers. The reactivity of the HPA axis is considered to be a function of age, but to date, little is known about the background of this age-dependency. Sporadic literature data suggest that the stress sensitivity as assessed by semi-quantitation of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos may also be influenced by age...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Brian R Ott, Richard N Jones, Lori A Daiello, Suzanne M de la Monte, Edward G Stopa, Conrad E Johanson, Charles Denby, Paula Grammas
Background: The pathophysiology underlying altered blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown but may relate to endothelial cell activation and cytokine mediated inflammation. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were concurrently collected from cognitively healthy controls ( N = 21) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) ( N = 8) or AD ( N = 11). The paired serum and CSF samples were assayed for a panel of cytokines, chemokines, and related trophic factors using multiplex ELISAs...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Chun-Ni Zhou, Feng-Lei Chao, Yi Zhang, Lin Jiang, Lei Zhang, Yan-Min Luo, Qian Xiao, Lin-Mu Chen, Yong Tang
Previous studies have suggested that changes in the white matter might play an important role in the pathogenic processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, no study has investigated sex differences in these changes. Previous studies found that running exercise could delay both the decline in spatial learning and memory abilities as well as the changes in the white matter during early AD in male mice. However, whether exercise also has an effect on the changes in the white matter in female AD mice remains unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jovana Maliković, Daniel D Feyissa, Ahmed M Hussein, Harald Höger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Nutrition can have significant effects on behavior and cognitive processes. Most of the studies related to this use extremely modified diets, such as high fat contents or the exclusion of distinct components needed for normal development and bodily homeostasis. Here we report significant effects of diets with moderate differences in compositions on food rewarded spatial learning in young (3-4 months), adult (6-7 months), and aged (17-18 months) rats. Young rats fed with a lower energy diet showed better performance only during aquisition of the spatial task when compared to rats fed with a standard diet...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Juliane Weicker, Nicole Hudl, Stefan Frisch, Jöran Lepsien, Karsten Mueller, Arno Villringer, Angelika Thöne-Otto
Background: Scientifically evaluated cognitive intervention programs are essential to meet the demands of our increasingly aging society. Currently, one of the "hottest" topics in the field is the improvement of working memory function and its potential impact on overall cognition. The present study evaluated the efficacy of WOME (WOrking MEmory), a theory-based working memory training program, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, and randomized controlled trial (, DRKS00013162). Methods: N = 60 healthy older adults were allocated to (1) the WOME intervention, (2) an active low-level intervention, or (3) a passive control group...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Liyan Lu, Mingliang Wang, Xiaoer Wei, Wenbin Li
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2018.00207.].
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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