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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Jesús Cespón, Claudia Rodella, Paolo M Rossini, Carlo Miniussi, Maria C Pellicciari
Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task (n-back task) during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Bettina Wollesen, Klaus Mattes, Sören Schulz, Laura L Bischoff, L Seydell, Jeffrey W Bell, Serge P von Duvillard
Background: Dual-task (DT) training is a well-accepted modality for fall prevention in older adults. DT training should include task-managing strategies such as task switching or task prioritization to improve gait performance under DT conditions. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a balance and task managing training (BDT group) in gait performance compared to a single task (ST) strength and resistance training and a control group, which received no training. A total of 78 older individuals (72...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sahil Bajaj, Anna Alkozei, Natalie S Dailey, William D S Killgore
Despite extensive research in the field of aging neuroscience, it still remains unclear whether age related cortical changes can be detected in different functional networks of younger adults and whether these networks respond identically to healthy aging. We collected high-resolution brain anatomical data from 56 young healthy adults (mean age = 30.8 ± 8.1 years, 29 males). We performed whole brain parcellation into seven functional networks, including visual, somatomotor, dorsal attention, ventral attention, limbic, frontoparietal and default mode networks...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Thomas J Klotzbier, Nadja Schott
Although several studies have shown that dual-tasking (DT) mobility is impaired in Alzheimer's disease, studies on the effects of DT conditions in probable Mild Cognitive Impairment (pMCI) have not yielded unequivocal results. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine the effect of a concurrent task on a complex walking task in adults with cognitive impairment; and (2) determine whether the effect varied with different difficulty levels of the concurrent task. Furthermore, the study was designed to evaluate the Trail-Walking Test (TWT) as a potential detection tool for MCI...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sandra Zárate, Tinna Stevnsner, Ricardo Gredilla
Aging is an inevitable biological process characterized by a progressive decline in physiological function and increased susceptibility to disease. The detrimental effects of aging are observed in all tissues, the brain being the most important one due to its main role in the homeostasis of the organism. As our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of brain aging increases, potential approaches to preserve brain function rise significantly. Accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may contribute to aging, especially in the central nervous system (CNS) owing to its low DNA repair capacity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Giorgio Arcara, Sara Mondini, Alice Bisso, Katie Palmer, Francesca Meneghello, Carlo Semenza
Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations), in a group of healthy older people (aged 65-98 years)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Kyoungjoo Cho, Jihye Kim, Gyung W Kim
The present study aimed to assess the changes in blood factors and ultrasound measures of atherosclerosis burden patient with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Peripheral blood samples and ultrasonography findings were obtained for 53 enrolled participants. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate levels of activated platelets and platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLAs). The number of platelets expressing p-selectin was correlated with intima media thickness (IMT) and plaque number in both the MCI and dementia groups...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Junfeng Sun, Chunbo Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hannah E Smithers, John R Terry, Jon T Brown, Andrew D Randall
Intrinsic neuronal excitability has been reported to change during normal aging. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic forebrain structure, is involved in fear, stress and anxiety; behavioral features that exhibit age-dependent properties. To examine the effect of aging on intrinsic neuronal properties in BNST we compared patch clamp recordings from cohorts of female mice at two ages, 3-4 months (Young) and 29-30 months (Aged) focusing on 2 types of BNST neurons. Aged Type I neurons exhibited a hyperpolarized resting membrane potential (RMP) of circa -80 mV compared to circa -70 mV in the Young...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Rachel A Crockett, Chun Liang Hsu, John R Best, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aging is associated with an increased risk of falling. In particular, older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are more vulnerable to falling compared with their healthy counterparts. Major contributors to this increased falls risk include a decline in dual task performance, gait speed, and postural sway. Recent evidence highlights the potential influence of the default mode network (DMN), the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the supplementary motor area (SMA) on dual task performance, gait speed, and postural sway...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sachchida N Rai, Hareram Birla, Saumitra S Singh, Walia Zahra, Ravishankar R Patil, Jyoti P Jadhav, Mallikarjuna R Gedda, Surya P Singh
Till date, drugs that have been used to manage Parkinson's disease (PD) have only shown symptomatic relief with several adverse effects besides their inability to prevent neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of PD and can be targeted for its effective treatment. Researchers have suggested that herbal plants exhibiting the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties are therefore beneficial to human health. Conventionally, Mucuna pruriens (Mp) seeds are used for maintaining male virility in India...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Susanne G Mueller, Michael W Weiner
Observations in animal models suggest that amyloid can cause network hypersynchrony in the early preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was (a) to obtain evidence of paroxysmal hypersynchrony in cognitively intact subjects (CN) with increased brain amyloid load from task-free fMRI exams using a dynamic analysis approach, (b) to investigate if and how hypersynchrony interferes with memory performance, and (c) to describe its relationship with gray and white matter connectivity. Florbetapir-F18 PET and task-free 3T functional and structural MRI were acquired in 47 CN (age = 70...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Scott A Ferguson, Benoit C Mouzon, Cillian Lynch, Carlyn Lungmus, Alexander Morin, Gogce Crynen, Benjamin Carper, Gayle Bieler, Elliott J Mufson, William Stewart, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health concern which strikes someone every 15 s on average in the US. Even mild TBI, which comprise as many as 75% of all TBI cases, carries long term consequences. The effects of age and sex on long term outcome from TBI is not fully understood, but due to the increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases after TBI it is important to understand how these factors influence the outcome from TBI. This study examined the neurobehavioral and neuropathological effects of age and sex on the outcome 15 days following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) in mice transgenic for human tau (hTau)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Elizabeth Dinces, Elyse S Sussman
The ability to select sound streams from background noise becomes challenging with age, even with normal peripheral auditory functioning. Reduced stream segregation ability has been reported in older compared to younger adults. However, the reason why there is a difference is still unknown. The current study investigated the hypothesis that automatic sound processing is impaired with aging, which then contributes to difficulty actively selecting subsets of sounds in noisy environments. We presented a simple intensity oddball sequence in various conditions with irrelevant background sounds while recording EEG...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Anna Starnawska, Qihua Tan, Matt McGue, Ole Mors, Anders D Børglum, Kaare Christensen, Mette Nyegaard, Lene Christiansen
As the world's population ages, the age-related cognitive decline presents a great challenge to world's healthcare systems. One of the molecular mechanisms implicated in cognitive ageing is DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification known to be a key player in memory formation, maintenance, and synaptic plasticity. Using the twin design we performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) in a population of 486 middle-aged monozygotic twins (mean age at follow-up 65.9, SD = 6.1) and correlated their blood DNA methylation to their level (cross-sectional analysis) and change in cognitive abilities over 10 years (longitudinal analysis)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lourdes Rodríguez-de la Rosa, Luis Lassaletta, Miryam Calvino, Silvia Murillo-Cuesta, Isabel Varela-Nieto
Aging is associated with impairment of sensorial functions and with the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. As pari passu circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) bioavailability progressively decreases, we see a direct correlation with sensory impairment and cognitive performance in older humans. Age-related sensory loss is typically caused by the irreversible death of highly differentiated neurons and sensory receptor cells. Among sensory deficits, age-related hearing loss (ARHL), also named presbycusis, affects one third of the population over 65 years of age and is a major factor in the progression of cognitive problems in the elderly...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Brittany M Winner, Harue Zhang, McKenzie M Farthing, Lalitha M Karchalla, Keith J Lookingland, John L Goudreau
Parkinson disease (PD) is prevalent in elderly individuals and is characterized by selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) neurons. Interestingly, not all dopamine (DA) neurons are affected equally by PD and aging, particularly mesolimbic (ML) DA neurons. Here, effects of aging were examined on presynaptic DA synthesis, reuptake, metabolism and neurotoxicant susceptibility of NSDA and mesolimbic dopamine (MLDA) neurons and astrocyte DA metabolism. There were no differences in phenotypic markers of DA synthesis, reuptake or metabolism in NSDA or MLDA neurons in aged mice, but MLDA neurons displayed lower DA stores...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Chris J Carter, James France, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
Periodontal disease is of established etiology in which polymicrobial synergistic ecology has become dysbiotic under the influence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Following breakdown of the host's protective oral tissue barriers, P. gingivalis migrates to developing inflammatory pathologies that associate with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Periodontal disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders (CVD), type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), AD and other chronic diseases, whilst T2DM exacerbates periodontitis. This study analyzed the relationship between the P...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Walter J Lukiw
Several independent laboratories have recently reported the detection of bacterial nucleic acid sequences or bacterial-derived neurotoxins, such as highly inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS), within Alzheimer's disease (AD) affected brain tissues. Whether these bacterial neurotoxins originate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiome, a possible brain microbiome or some dormant pathological microbiome is currently not well understood. Previous studies indicate that the co-localization of pro-inflammatory LPS with AD-affected brain cell nuclei suggests that there may be a contribution of this neurotoxin to genotoxic events that support inflammatory neurodegeneration and failure in homeostatic gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ding-Hao Liu, Chia-Hua Kuo, Chia-To Wang, Ch-Chih Chiu, Tzeng-Ji Chen, De-Kuang Hwang, Chung-Lan Kao
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of peripheral vertigo. Numerous investigations have reported an increased BPPV incidence in females and in the aged population. The hormonal characteristics of BPPV patients have not been previously investigated. This study aimed to determine the risk of BPPV in relation to menopause in a population-based study. Materials and Methods: This retrospective population-based study was designed to use a nationwide longitudinal health insurance database to follow and analyze the incidence of and protective factors against BPPV in a Taiwanese population...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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