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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Stephanie Fountain-Zaragoza, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash
The growing interest in mindfulness interventions for use in aging samples has been met with promising evidence of cognitive, emotional, and physiological benefits. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the impact of mindfulness training on three areas of functioning in older adults: behavioral and neural correlates of attentional performance, psychological well-being, and systemic inflammation. We have previously proposed that mindfulness training is uniquely suited as a rehabilitative tool for conferring both cognitive and emotional benefits for older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Aleksandra K Lebedeva, Eric Westman, Tom Borza, Mona K Beyer, Knut Engedal, Dag Aarsland, Geir Selbaek, Asta K Haberg
Objective: Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with development of different types of dementia. Identification of LLD patients, who will develop cognitive decline, i.e., the early stage of dementia would help to implement interventions earlier. The purpose of this study was to assess whether structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in LLD patients can predict mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia 1 year prior to the diagnosis. Methods: LLD patients underwent brain MRI at baseline and repeated clinical assessment after 1-year...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tingting Zheng, Jiali Pu, Yanxing Chen, Yanfang Mao, Zhangyu Guo, Hongyu Pan, Ling Zhang, Heng Zhang, Binggui Sun, Baorong Zhang
Exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicle, have been shown to be involved in many disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exosomes may contribute to the spread of misfolded proteins such as amyloid-β (Aβ) and α-synuclein. However, the specific diffusion process of exosomes and their final destination in brain are still unclear. In the present study, we isolated exosomes from peripheral plasma and injected them into the hippocampus of an AD mouse model, and investigated exosome diffusion. We found that injected exosomes can spread from the dentate gyrus (DG) to other regions of hippocampus and to the cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Zsófia Anna Gaál, Flóra Bodnár, István Czigler
We studied the possibility of age-related differences of visual integration at an automatic and at a task-related level. Data of 15 young (21.9 ± 1.8 years) and 15 older (66.6 ± 3.5 years) women were analyzed in our experiment. Automatic processing was investigated in a passive oddball paradigm, and the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) of event-related brain potentials was measured. Letters and pseudo-letters were presented either as single characters, or the characters were presented successively in two fragments...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Wenqing Xia, Yu-Chen Chen, Jianhua Ma
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed abnormal neural activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nonetheless, these findings are heterogeneous and have not been quantitatively reviewed. Thus, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis that identified consistent results of existing resting-state fMRI studies to determine concordant resting-state neural brain activity alterations in T2DM patients. A systematic search was conducted for resting-state fMRI studies comparing T2DM patients with healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Matthias Brendel, Gernot Kleinberger, Federico Probst, Anna Jaworska, Felix Overhoff, Tanja Blume, Nathalie L Albert, Janette Carlsen, Simon Lindner, Franz Josef Gildehaus, Laurence Ozmen, Marc Suárez-Calvet, Peter Bartenstein, Karlheinz Baumann, Michael Ewers, Jochen Herms, Christian Haass, Axel Rominger
Heterozygous missense mutations in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have been reported to significantly increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since TREM2 is specifically expressed by microglia in the brain, we hypothesized that soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) levels may increase together with in vivo biomarkers of microglial activity and amyloidosis in an AD mouse model as assessed by small animal positron-emission-tomography (μPET). In this cross-sectional study, we examined a strong amyloid mouse model (PS2APP) of four age groups by μPET with [(18)F]-GE180 (glial activation) and [(18)F]-florbetaben (amyloidosis), followed by measurement of sTREM2 levels and amyloid levels in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Marcelo N N Vieira, Natalia M Lyra E Silva, Sergio T Ferreira, Fernanda G De Felice
Despite significant advances in current understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD), attempts at drug development based on those discoveries have failed to translate into effective, disease-modifying therapies. AD is a complex and multifactorial disease comprising a range of aberrant cellular/molecular processes taking part in different cell types and brain regions. As a consequence, therapeutics for AD should be able to block or compensate multiple abnormal pathological events. Here, we examine recent evidence that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) may represent a promising strategy to combat a variety of AD-related detrimental processes...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Prakash C Bhatt, Preeti Pandey, Bibhu P Panda, Firoz Anwar, Vikas Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jin Cao, Yinshan Tang, Yujie Li, Kai Gao, Xudong Shi, Zhigang Li
Objective: Investigating the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment on mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD), using Morris water maze (MWM) for spatial learning and memory behavior tests combined with micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) imaging for glucose metabolism in hippocampus. Methods: Thirty seven-month-old APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into AD Model group (AD group), medicine group (M group) and EA group, C57BL/6 mice were used for Normal control group (N group), n = 10 in each group...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tineke K Steiger, Nico Bunzeck
Motivation can have invigorating effects on behavior via dopaminergic neuromodulation. While this relationship has mainly been established in theoretical models and studies in younger subjects, the impact of structural declines of the dopaminergic system during healthy aging remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we used electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy young and elderly humans in a reward-learning paradigm. Specifically, scene images were initially encoded by combining them with cues predicting monetary reward (high vs...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Menorca Chaturvedi, Florian Hatz, Ute Gschwandtner, Jan G Bogaarts, Antonia Meyer, Peter Fuhr, Volker Roth
Objectives: To find out which Quantitative EEG (QEEG) parameters could best distinguish patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment from healthy individuals and to find an optimal method for feature selection. Background: Certain QEEG parameters have been seen to be associated with dementia in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Studies have also shown some parameters to be dependent on the stage of the disease. We wanted to investigate the differences in high-resolution QEEG measures between groups of PD patients and healthy individuals, and come up with a small subset of features that could accurately distinguish between the two groups...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Stephanie C Rigters, Daniel Bos, Mick Metselaar, Gennady V Roshchupkin, Robert J Baatenburg de Jong, M Arfan Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, André Goedegebure
Although recent studies show that age-related hearing impairment is associated with cerebral changes, data from a population perspective are still lacking. Therefore, we studied the relation between hearing impairment and brain volume in a large elderly cohort. From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 2,908 participants (mean age 65 years, 56% female) underwent a pure-tone audiogram to quantify hearing impairment. By performing MR imaging of the brain we quantified global and regional brain tissue volumes (total brain volume, gray matter volume, white matter (WM) volume, and lobe-specific volumes)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Céline Poletti, Rita Sleimen-Malkoun, Leslie Marion Decker, Frédérique Retornaz, Patrick Lemaire, Jean-Jacques Temprado
The present study aimed at investigating how healthy older adults (HOA) and cognitively impaired patients (CIP) differ in a discrete Fitts' aiming task. Four levels of task difficulty were used, resulting from the simultaneous manipulation of the size of the target and its distance from home position. We found that movement times (MTs) followed Fitts' law in both HOA and CIP, with the latter being significantly slower and more affected by increased task difficulty. Moreover, correlation analyses suggest that lower information processing speed (IPS) and deficits in executive functions (EFs) are associated with decline of sensorimotor performance in Fitts' task...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ian Mahar, Marilia Silva Albuquerque, Siddhartha Mondragon-Rodriguez, Chelsea Cavanagh, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Jean-Guy Chabot, Sylvain Williams, Naguib Mechawar, Rémi Quirion, Slavica Krantic
Interneurons, key regulators of hippocampal neuronal network excitability and synchronization, are lost in advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given that network changes occur at early (presymptomatic) stages, we explored whether alterations of interneurons also occur before amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation. Numbers of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive (IR) cells were decreased in the hippocampus of 1 month-old TgCRND8 mouse AD model in a sub-regionally specific manner. The most prominent change observed was a decrease in the number of PV-IR cells that selectively affected CA1/2 and subiculum, with the pyramidal layer (PY) of CA1/2 accounting almost entirely for the reduction in number of hippocampal PV-IR cells...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lars S Jonasson, Lars Nyberg, Arthur F Kramer, Anders Lundquist, Katrine Riklund, Carl-Johan Boraxbekk
Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64-78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ni-Chung Lee, Shieh-Yueh Yang, Jen-Jie Chieh, Po-Tsang Huang, Lih-Maan Chang, Yen-Nan Chiu, Ai-Chiu Huang, Yin-Hsiu Chien, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Ming-Jang Chiu
Background: Changes in β-amyloids (Aβ) and tau proteins have been noted in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and patients with both Down syndrome (DS) and AD. However, reports of changes in the early stage of regression, such as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), in DS are sparse. Methods: Seventy-eight controls, 62 patients with AD, 35 with DS and 16 with DS with degeneration (DS_D), including 9 with BPSD and 7 with dementia, were enrolled. The levels of β-amyloids 40 and 42 (Aβ-40, Aβ-42) and tau protein in the blood were analyzed using immunomagnetic reduction (IMR)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sung-Han Lin, Wen-Chuin Hsu, Shu-Hang Ng, Jur-Shan Cheng, Oleksandr Khegai, Chin-Chang Huang, Yao-Liang Chen, Yi-Chun Chen, Jiun-Jie Wang
Background: The loss of cortical neuron environment integrity is the hallmark of neurodegeneration diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). To reveal the microenvironment changes in cerebral cortex, the current study aimed to examine the changes of mean diffusivity (MD) in parcellated brain among AD, aMCI patients and normal controls (NC). Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging data with the whole brain coverage were acquired from 28 AD (aged 69.4 ± 8.2 year old), 41 aMCI patients (aged 68...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Anders B Rodell, Graeme O'Keefe, Christopher C Rowe, Victor L Villemagne, Albert Gjedde
Background: We report results of the novel Washout Allometric Reference Method (WARM) that uses estimates of cerebral blood flow and amyloid load from the same [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound B ([(11)C]PiB) retention maps in brain to distinguish between patients with different forms dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, and healthy volunteers. The method introduces two approaches to the identification of brain pathology related to amyloid accumulation, (1) a novel analysis of amyloid binding based on the late washout of the tracer from brain tissue, and (2) the simultaneous estimation of absolute cerebral blood flow indices (sCBF) from the early accumulation of the tracer in brain tissue...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Joseph M Thomas, Tianxia Li, Wei Yang, Fengtian Xue, Paul S Fishman, Wanli W Smith
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is a large protein with implications in genetic and sporadic causes of Parkinson's disease. The physiological functions of LRRK2 are largely unknown. In this report, we investigated whether LRRK2 alters neural transport using live-cell imaging techniques and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our results demonstrated that expression of the PD-linked mutant, LRRK2-R1441C, induced mitochondrial, and lysosomal transport defects in neurites of SH-SY5Y cells. Most importantly, recently identified GTP-binding inhibitors, 68 and FX2149, can reduce LRRK2 GTP-binding activity and attenuates R1441C-induced mitochondrial and lysosomal transport impairments...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Adolfo M García, Lucas Sedeño, Eduar Herrera Murcia, Blas Couto, Agustín Ibáñez
In this study, we report an unusual case of mutidimensional sensorimotor, cognitive, and socio-affective preservation in an adult with extensive, acquired bilateral brain damage. At age 43, patient CG sustained a cerebral hemorrhage and a few months later, she suffered a second (ischemic) stroke. As a result, she exhibited extensive damage of the right hemisphere (including frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions), left Sylvian and striatal areas, bilateral portions of the insula and the amygdala, and the splenium...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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