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Acta Naturae

O V Shamova, D S Orlov, M S Zharkova, S V Balandin, E V Yamschikova, D Knappe, R Hoffmann, V N Kokryakov, T V Ovchinnikova
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of neutrophils play an important role in the animal and human host defenses. We have isolated two AMPs (average molecular masses of 2895.5 and 2739.3 Da), with potent antimicrobial activity from neutrophils of the domestic goat (Capra hircus). A structural analysis of the obtained peptides revealed that they encompass N-terminal fragments (1-21 and 1-22) of the proline-rich peptide bactenecin 7.5. The primary structure of caprine bactenecin 7.5 had been previously deduced from the nucleotide sequence, but the corresponding protein had not been isolated from leukocytes until now...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
A P Topolyan, M A Belyaeva, E E Bykov, P V Coodan, E A Rogozhin, D A Strizhevskaya, O M Ivanova, A V Ustinov, I V Mikhura, I A Prokhorenko, V A Korshun, A A Formanovsky
Detection of aminoglycoside antibiotics by MS or HPLC is complicated, because a) carbohydrate molecules have low ionization ability in comparison with other organic molecules (particularly in MALDI-MS), and b) the lack of aromatics and/or amide bonds in the molecules makes common HPLC UV-detectors useless. Here, we report on the application of a previously developed method for amine derivatization with tris(2,6- dimethoxyphenyl)carbenium ion to selective modification of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Only amino groups bound to primary carbons get modified...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
O A Smirnova, O N Ivanova, F Sh Mukhtarov, V L Tunitskaya, J Jansons, M G Isaguliants, S N Kochetkov, A V Ivanov
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers a chronic disease that is often accompanied by a spectrum of liver pathologies and metabolic alterations. The oxidative stress that occurs in the infected cells is considered as one of the mechanisms of HCV pathogenesis. It is induced by the viral core and NS5A proteins. It is already known that both of these proteins activate the antioxidant defense system controlled by the Nrf2 transcription factor. Here, we show that this activation is mediated by domain 1 of the NS5A protein and two fragments of the core protein...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
D K Nilov, A V Kulikov, E A Prokhorova, V K Švedas
Human lactate dehydrogenase A plays an important role in the glucose metabolism of tumor cells and constitutes an attractive target for chemotherapy. Molecular fragments able to bind in the active site of this enzyme and form hydrogen bonds with the Arg168 guanidinium group, as well as additional interactions with the loop 96-111 in the closed conformation, have been identified by virtual screening of sulfonates and experimental testing of their inhibitory effect. The sulfo group can occupy a similar position as the carboxyl group of the substrate and its structural analogs, whereas the benzothiazole group attached via a linker can be located in the coenzyme (NADH) binding site...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
Yu O Nikishina, A Ya Sapronova, M V Ugrumov
This research was aimed at studying the brain's endocrine function in ontogenesis. It has been previously shown in our laboratory that the brain serves as the source of dopamine in the systemic circulation of rats prior to the formation of the blood-brain barrier. This paper provides direct evidence that dopamine secreted by the brain directly into the systemic circulation in this period of ontogenesis has an inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion by pituitary cells. These results provide the basis for a fundamentally new understanding of the brain's role in the neuroendocrine regulation of the development and function of peripheral target organs and, particularly in this study, the pituitary gland...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
O G Kulakova, M R Kabilov, L V Danilova, E V Popova, O A Baturina, E Y Tsareva, N M Baulina, I S Kiselev, A N Boyko, A V Favorov, O O Favorova, V V Vlassov
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease of polygenic etiology affecting the central nervous system. In addition to genetic factors, epigenetic mechanisms, primarily DNA methylation, which regulate gene expression, play an important role in MS development and progression. In this study, we have performed the first whole-genome DNA methylation profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and primary-progressive MS (PPMS) patients and compared them to those of healthy individuals in order to identify the differentially methylated CpG-sites (DMSs) associated with these common clinical disease courses...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
N A Zolotarev, O G Maksimenko, P G Georgiev, A N Bonchuk
Many arthropod zinc-finger transcription factors contain a N-terminal domain called ZAD (Zinc-finger Associated Domain), which consists of four cysteines coordinating a single zinc ion. Dimerization ability has been shown for several ZAD-domains. The functional role of this domain is poorly understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that a point mutation within the ZAD-domain of the Zw5 insulator protein disrupts its nuclear localization without affecting its dimerization ability. The importance of the ZAD-domain for nuclear localization has also been shown for the Pita and Grauzone proteins...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
Yu K Doronin, I V Senechkin, L V Hilkevich, M A Kurcer
In order to estimate the diversity of embryo cleavage relatives to embryo progress (blastocyst formation), time-lapse imaging data of preimplantation human embryo development were used. This retrospective study is focused on the topographic features and time parameters of the cleavages, with particular emphasis on the lengths of cleavage cycles and the genealogy of blastomeres in 2- to 8-cell human embryos. We have found that all 4-cell human embryos have four developmental variants that are based on the sequence of appearance and orientation of cleavage planes during embryo cleavage from 2 to 4 blastomeres...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
A P Bonartsev, G A Bonartseva, V L Myshkina, V V Voinova, T K Mahina, I I Zharkova, S G Yakovlev, A L Zernov, E V Ivanova, E A Akoulina, E S Kuznetsova, V A Zhuikov, S G Alekseeva, V V Podgorskii, I V Bessonov, M N Kopitsyna, A S Morozov, E Y Milanovskiy, Z N Tyugay, G S Bykova, M P Kirpichnikov, K V Shaitan
Production of novel polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications, and biomaterials based on them is a promising trend in modern bioengineering. We studied the ability of an effective strain-producer Azotobacter chroococcum 7B to synthesize not only poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) homopolymer (PHB) and its main copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), but also a novel copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) (PHB4MV). For the biosynthesis of PHB copolymers, we used carboxylic acids as additional carbon sources and monomer precursors in the chain of synthesized copolymers...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
S V Zhenilo, A S Sokolov, E B Prokhortchouk
Initially, the study of DNA isolated from ancient specimens had been based on the analysis of the primary nucleotide sequence. This approach has allowed researchers to study the evolutionary changes that occur in different populations and determine the influence of the environment on genetic selection. However, the improvement of methodological approaches to genome-wide analysis has opened up new possibilities in the search for the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression. It was discovered recently that the methylation status of the regulatory elements of the HOXD cluster and MEIS1 gene changed during human evolution...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
M M Ziganshina, S V Pavlovich, N V Bovin, G T Sukhikh
Preeclampsia (PE) is a multisystem pathologic state that clinically manifests itself after the 20th week of pregnancy. It is characterized by high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. According to modern concepts, the impairment of trophoblast invasion into maternal spiral arteries, leading to the development of ischemia in placenta, is considered to be the major pathogenetic factor of PE development. Ischemic lesions initiate the development of a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) and endothelial dysfunction, which is the main cause of the multiple organ failure in PE...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
A E Guller, P N Grebenyuk, A B Shekhter, A V Zvyagin, S M Deyev
This review focuses on modeling of cancer tumors using tissue engineering technology. Tumor tissue engineering (TTE) is a new method of three-dimensional (3D) simulation of malignant neoplasms. Design and development of complex tissue engineering constructs (TECs) that include cancer cells, cell-bearing scaffolds acting as the extracellular matrix, and other components of the tumor microenvironment is at the core of this approach. Although TECs can be transplanted into laboratory animals, the specific aim of TTE is the most realistic reproduction and long-term maintenance of the simulated tumor properties in vitro for cancer biology research and for the development of new methods of diagnosis and treatment of malignant neoplasms...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
M A Borisov, O S Petrakova, I G Gvazava, E N Kalistratova, A V Vasiliev
Diabetes affects over 350 million people worldwide, with the figure projected to rise to nearly 500 million over the next 20 years, according to the World Health Organization. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes) is an endocrine disorder caused by an autoimmune reaction that destroys insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas, which leads to insulin deficiency. Administration of exogenous insulin remains at the moment the treatment mainstay. This approach helps to regulate blood glucose levels and significantly increases the life expectancy of patients...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
O V Markov, N L Mironova, V V Vlasov, M A Zenkova
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the initiation and regulation of the antitumor immune response. Already , DC-based antitumor vaccines have been thoroughly explored both in animal tumor models and in clinical trials. DC-based vaccines are commonly produced from DC progenitors isolated from peripheral blood or bone marrow by culturing in the presence of cytokines, followed by loading the DCs with tumor-specific antigens, such as DNA, RNA, viral vectors, or a tumor cell lysate. However, the efficacy of DC-based vaccines remains low...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
E V Sotnezova, E R Andreeva, A I Grigoriev, L B Buravkova
Transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells is currently widely used in modern cell therapy. However, the limited number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and prolonged time of recovery after the transplantation are significant limitations in the use of cord blood. Ex vivo expansion with various cytokine combinations is one of the most common approaches for increasing the number of HSPCs from one cord blood unit. In addition, there are protocols that enable ex vivo amplification of cord blood cells based on native hematopoietic microenvironmental cues, including stromal components and the tissue-relevant oxygen level...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
P V Elizar'ev, D V Lomaev, D A Chetverina, P G Georgiev, M M Erokhin
Maintenance of the individual patterns of gene expression in different cell types is required for the differentiation and development of multicellular organisms. Expression of many genes is controlled by Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax (TrxG) group proteins that act through association with chromatin. PcG/TrxG are assembled on the DNA sequences termed PREs (Polycomb Response Elements), the activity of which can be modulated and switched from repression to activation. In this study, we analyzed the influence of transcriptional read-through on PRE activity switch mediated by the yeast activator GAL4...
April 2016: Acta Naturae
S V Tapilina, D V Abramochkin
Type 3 muscarinic receptors (M3 receptors) participate in the mediation of cholinergic effects in mammalian myocardium, along with M2 receptors. However, myocardium of adult mammals demonstrates only modest electrophysiological effects in response to selective stimulation of M3 receptors which are hardly comparable to the effects produced by M2 stimulation. In the present study, the effects of selective M3 stimulation induced by application of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (10 μM) in the presence of the selective M2 blocker methoctramine (100 nM) on the action potential (AP) waveform were investigated in isolated atrial and ventricular preparations from newborn and 3-week-old rats and compared to those in preparations from adult rats...
April 2016: Acta Naturae
L A Stepanova, M V Sergeeva, M A Shuklina, A A Shaldzhyan, M V Potapchuk, A V Korotkov, L M Tsybalova
Conserved fragments of the second subunit of hemagglutinin (HA2) are of great interest for the design of vaccine constructs that can provide protective immunity against influenza A viruses of different subtypes. A recombinant fusion protein, FlgMH, was constructed on the basis of flagellin and a highly conserved HA2 fragment (35-107) of influenza viruses of the subtype A/H2N2, containing B cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell epitopes. The native conformation of the HA2 fragment was partially preserved upon its attachment to the C-terminus of flagellin within the recombinant fusion protein FlgMH...
April 2016: Acta Naturae
D K Nilov, V I Tararov, A V Kulikov, A L Zakharenko, I V Gushchina, S N Mikhailov, O I Lavrik, V K Švedas
The ability of 7-methylguanine, a nucleic acid metabolite, to inhibit poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-2 (PARP-2) has been identified in silico and studied experimentally. The amino group at position 2 and the methyl group at position 7 were shown to be important substituents for the efficient binding of purine derivatives to PARPs. The activity of both tested enzymes, PARP-1 and PARP-2, was suppressed by 7-methylguanine with IC50 values of 150 and 50 μM, respectively. At the PARP inhibitory concentration, 7-methylguanine itself was not cytotoxic, but it was able to accelerate apoptotic death of BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cells induced by cisplatin and doxorubicin, the widely used DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents...
April 2016: Acta Naturae
E A Nikitskaya, J C Grivel, E V Maryukhnich, A M Lebedeva, O I Ivanova, P P Savvinova, A V Shpektor, L B Margolis, E Yu Vasilieva
The relationship between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and local and systemic inflammation, including accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques and upregulation of blood cytokines (e.g., C-reactive protein (CRP)), has been known for more than 100 years. The atherosclerosis-associated inflammatory response has been traditionally considered as an immune system reaction to low-density lipoproteins. At the same time, some data have indicated a potential involvement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the activation and progression of atherosclerosis-associated inflammation, leading to ACS...
April 2016: Acta Naturae
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