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Acta Naturae

E I Shramova, G M Proshkina, S P Chumakov, Yu M Khodarovich, S M Deyev
In this study, we investigated the possibility of phototoxic flavoprotein miniSOG (photosensitizer) excitation in cancer cells by bioluminescence occurring when luciferase NanoLuc oxidizes its substrate, furimazine. We have shown that the phototoxic flavoprotein miniSOG expressed in eukaryotic cells in fusion with NanoLuc luciferase is activated in the presence of its substrate, furimazine. Upon such condition, miniSOG possesses photoinduced cytotoxicity and causes a 48% cell death level in a stably transfected cell line...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
O S Taranov, S N Yakubitskiy, T S Nepomnyashchikh, A E Nesterov, S N Shchelkunov
We propose a model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) induced in outbred guinea pigs using a single subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant to the hind paw. Histological examination of this model shows fibrin deposition on the surface of the synovial membrane, leukocyte infiltration of the synovial membrane and adjacent tissues, proliferation of the granulation tissue, and emergence of angioid areas, characteristic of RA. The cell response appears as an increase in the plasma cell count and development of follicle-like lymphoid infiltrates; erosion of the articular surface of the cartilage, frequently with deep cartilage destruction over large areas; and epiphysiopathy...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
S Yu Smirnova, Yu V Sidorova, N V Ryzhikova, K A Sychevskaya, E N Parovichnikova, A B Sudarikov
Clonal instability of a tumor cell population in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may complicate the monitoring of a minimal residual disease (MRD) by means of patient-specific targets identified at the disease onset. Most of the data concerning the possible instability of rearranged clonal TCR and IG genes during disease recurrence were obtained for ALL in children. The appropriate features of adult ALL, which are known to differ from those of childhood ALL in certain biological characteristics and prognosis, remain insufficiently studied...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
T V Karelina, Yu D Stepanenko, P A Abushik, D A Sibarov, S M Antonov
Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) are widely expressed in CNS tissues. Their functions, however, have not been well studied. Participation of SK channels in Purkinje cell (PC) pacemaker activity has been studied predominantly in vitro. Here we studied for the first time the effects of SK channel activation by NS309 or CyPPA on the PC simple spike frequency in vivo in adult (3 - 6 months) and aged (22 - 28 months) rats using extracellular microelectrode recordings. Both pharmacological agents caused a statistically significant decrease in the PC simple spike frequency...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
R S Esipov, Yu A Abramchik, I V Fateev, I D Konstantinova, M A Kostromina, T I Muravyova, K G Artemova, A I Miroshnikov
We propose a new approach for the synthesis of biologically important nucleotides which includes a multi-enzymatic cascade conversion of D-pentoses into purine nucleotides. The approach exploits nucleic acid exchange enzymes from thermophilic microorganisms: ribokinase, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. We cloned the ribokinase gene from Thermus sp. 2.9, as well as two different genes of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRPP-synthetase) and the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APR-transferase) gene from Thermus thermophilus HB27 into the expression vectors, generated high-yield E...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
A P Yakimov, A S Afanaseva, M A Khodorkovskiy, M G Petukhov
α-Helices are the most frequently occurring elements of the secondary structure in water-soluble globular proteins. Their increased conformational stability is among the main reasons for the high thermal stability of proteins in thermophilic bacteria. In addition, α-helices are often involved in protein interactions with other proteins, nucleic acids, and the lipids of cell membranes. That is why the highly stable α-helical peptides used as highly active and specific inhibitors of protein-protein and other interactions have recently found more applications in medicine...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
T B Stanishneva-Konovalova, N I Derkacheva, S V Polevova, O S Sokolova
Many cellular processes are associated with membrane remodeling. The BAR domain protein family plays a key role in the formation and detection of local membrane curvatures and in attracting other proteins, including the regulators of actin dynamics. Based on their structural and phylogenetic properties, BAR domains are divided into several groups which affect membrane in various ways and perform different functions in cells. However, recent studies have uncovered evidence of functional differences even within the same group...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
B S Shenkman
Skeletal muscle consists of different fiber types arranged in a mosaic pattern. These fiber types are characterized by specific functional properties. Slow-type fibers demonstrate a high level of fatigue resistance and prolonged contraction duration, but decreased maximum contraction force and velocity. Fast-type fibers demonstrate high contraction force and velocity, but profound fatigability. During the last decades, it has been discovered that all these properties are determined by the predominance of slow or fast myosin-heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
V I Martynov, A A Pakhomov, N V Popova, I E Deyev, A G Petrenko
The last decade has witnessed significant advance in the imaging of living systems using fluorescent markers. This progress has been primarily associated with the discovery of different spectral variants of fluorescent proteins. However, the fluorescent protein technology has its own limitations and, in some cases, the use of low-molecular-weight fluorophores is preferable. In this review, we describe the arsenal of synthetic fluorescent tools that are currently in researchers' hands and span virtually the entire spectrum, from the UV to visible and, further, to the near-infrared region...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
M M Prokofjeva, S N Kochetkov, V S Prassolov
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent of one of the most dangerous human diseases - the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Over the past 30 years since the discovery of HIV-1, a number of antiviral drugs have been developed to suppress various stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. This approach has enables the suppression of virus replication in the body, which significantly prolongs the life of HIV patients. The main downside of the method is the development of viral resistance to many anti-HIV drugs, which requires the creation of new drugs effective against drug-resistant viral forms...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
M P Rubtsova, D P Vasilkova, Yu V Naraykina, O A Dontsova
Telomerase is one of the major components of the telomeres -- linear eukaryotic chromosome ends - maintenance system. Linear chromosomes are shortened during each cell division due to the removal of the primer used for DNA replication. Special repeated telomere sequences at the very ends of linear chromosomes prevent the deletion of genome information caused by primer removal. Telomeres are shortened at each replication round until it becomes critically short and is no longer able to protect the chromosome in somatic cells...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
I V Korobko, P G Georgiev, K G Skryabin, M P Kirpichnikov
Russian legislation lags behind the rapid developments witnessed in genetic engineering. Only a scientifically based and well-substantiated policy on the place of organisms that are created with the use of genetic engineering technologies and an assessment of the risks associated with them could guarantee that the breakthroughs achieved in modern genetic engineering technologies are effectively put to use in the real economy. A lack of demand for such breakthroughs in the practical field will lead to stagnation in scientific research and to a loss of expertise...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
O V Shamova, D S Orlov, M S Zharkova, S V Balandin, E V Yamschikova, D Knappe, R Hoffmann, V N Kokryakov, T V Ovchinnikova
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of neutrophils play an important role in the animal and human host defenses. We have isolated two AMPs (average molecular masses of 2895.5 and 2739.3 Da), with potent antimicrobial activity from neutrophils of the domestic goat (Capra hircus). A structural analysis of the obtained peptides revealed that they encompass N-terminal fragments (1-21 and 1-22) of the proline-rich peptide bactenecin 7.5. The primary structure of caprine bactenecin 7.5 had been previously deduced from the nucleotide sequence, but the corresponding protein had not been isolated from leukocytes until now...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
A P Topolyan, M A Belyaeva, E E Bykov, P V Coodan, E A Rogozhin, D A Strizhevskaya, O M Ivanova, A V Ustinov, I V Mikhura, I A Prokhorenko, V A Korshun, A A Formanovsky
Detection of aminoglycoside antibiotics by MS or HPLC is complicated, because a) carbohydrate molecules have low ionization ability in comparison with other organic molecules (particularly in MALDI-MS), and b) the lack of aromatics and/or amide bonds in the molecules makes common HPLC UV-detectors useless. Here, we report on the application of a previously developed method for amine derivatization with tris(2,6- dimethoxyphenyl)carbenium ion to selective modification of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Only amino groups bound to primary carbons get modified...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
O A Smirnova, O N Ivanova, F Sh Mukhtarov, V L Tunitskaya, J Jansons, M G Isaguliants, S N Kochetkov, A V Ivanov
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers a chronic disease that is often accompanied by a spectrum of liver pathologies and metabolic alterations. The oxidative stress that occurs in the infected cells is considered as one of the mechanisms of HCV pathogenesis. It is induced by the viral core and NS5A proteins. It is already known that both of these proteins activate the antioxidant defense system controlled by the Nrf2 transcription factor. Here, we show that this activation is mediated by domain 1 of the NS5A protein and two fragments of the core protein...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
D K Nilov, A V Kulikov, E A Prokhorova, V K Švedas
Human lactate dehydrogenase A plays an important role in the glucose metabolism of tumor cells and constitutes an attractive target for chemotherapy. Molecular fragments able to bind in the active site of this enzyme and form hydrogen bonds with the Arg168 guanidinium group, as well as additional interactions with the loop 96-111 in the closed conformation, have been identified by virtual screening of sulfonates and experimental testing of their inhibitory effect. The sulfo group can occupy a similar position as the carboxyl group of the substrate and its structural analogs, whereas the benzothiazole group attached via a linker can be located in the coenzyme (NADH) binding site...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
Yu O Nikishina, A Ya Sapronova, M V Ugrumov
This research was aimed at studying the brain's endocrine function in ontogenesis. It has been previously shown in our laboratory that the brain serves as the source of dopamine in the systemic circulation of rats prior to the formation of the blood-brain barrier. This paper provides direct evidence that dopamine secreted by the brain directly into the systemic circulation in this period of ontogenesis has an inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion by pituitary cells. These results provide the basis for a fundamentally new understanding of the brain's role in the neuroendocrine regulation of the development and function of peripheral target organs and, particularly in this study, the pituitary gland...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
O G Kulakova, M R Kabilov, L V Danilova, E V Popova, O A Baturina, E Y Tsareva, N M Baulina, I S Kiselev, A N Boyko, A V Favorov, O O Favorova, V V Vlassov
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease of polygenic etiology affecting the central nervous system. In addition to genetic factors, epigenetic mechanisms, primarily DNA methylation, which regulate gene expression, play an important role in MS development and progression. In this study, we have performed the first whole-genome DNA methylation profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and primary-progressive MS (PPMS) patients and compared them to those of healthy individuals in order to identify the differentially methylated CpG-sites (DMSs) associated with these common clinical disease courses...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
N A Zolotarev, O G Maksimenko, P G Georgiev, A N Bonchuk
Many arthropod zinc-finger transcription factors contain a N-terminal domain called ZAD (Zinc-finger Associated Domain), which consists of four cysteines coordinating a single zinc ion. Dimerization ability has been shown for several ZAD-domains. The functional role of this domain is poorly understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that a point mutation within the ZAD-domain of the Zw5 insulator protein disrupts its nuclear localization without affecting its dimerization ability. The importance of the ZAD-domain for nuclear localization has also been shown for the Pita and Grauzone proteins...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
Yu K Doronin, I V Senechkin, L V Hilkevich, M A Kurcer
In order to estimate the diversity of embryo cleavage relatives to embryo progress (blastocyst formation), time-lapse imaging data of preimplantation human embryo development were used. This retrospective study is focused on the topographic features and time parameters of the cleavages, with particular emphasis on the lengths of cleavage cycles and the genealogy of blastomeres in 2- to 8-cell human embryos. We have found that all 4-cell human embryos have four developmental variants that are based on the sequence of appearance and orientation of cleavage planes during embryo cleavage from 2 to 4 blastomeres...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
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