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Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151782/salvage-low-dose-rate-brachytherapy-for-recurrent-prostate-cancer-after-external-beam-radiotherapy-results-from-a-single-institution-with-focus-on-toxicity-and-functional-outcomes
#1
F Barbera, L Triggiani, M Buglione, P Ghirardelli, P Vitali, B Caraffini, P Borghetti, D Greco, L Bardoscia, N Pasinetti, L Costa, M Maddalo, B Ghedi, B La Face, S M Magrini
Background/aim: Low dose rate brachytherapy has been used as salvage therapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer (PC) after primary external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), along with surgery and cryotherapy. All these techniques, in particular, when applied to the whole gland, involve a relatively high risk of toxicity and may worsen the patient's quality of life. Our aim is to evaluate the results of whole-gland salvage brachytherapy (SBT) after primary EBRT in terms of toxicity, functional outcomes, and efficacy...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118587/consequences-of-different-corticosteroids-on-serum-potassium-and-prostate-specific-antigen-in-patients-receiving-abiraterone-for-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-a-retrospective-observational-study
#2
Masaomi Tatsuzawa, Ryuichi Ogawa, Naoki Kinjo, Soan Kim, Fumitaka Shimizu, Yoshiro Sakamoto, Kazuyo Shimojima, Hirotoshi Echizen, Akihisa Miyazaki
Background: Abiraterone acetate is an androgen synthesis inhibitor approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although co-administration of either prednisone or prednisolone at 10 mg/d has been recommended to reduce the risk of abiraterone-induced hyperaldosteronism (notably hypokalemia) and to give adjunctive pain relief effects, whether these glucocorticoids can be substituted by dexamethasone remains unknown. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of medical records of patients who were given abiraterone for the treatment of CRPC with either prednisolone (ABI/PSL) 10 mg/d or dexamethasone (ABI/DEX) 0...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051709/effect-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-on-bone-mineral-density-in-a-prostate-cancer-cohort-in-new-zealand-a-pilot-study
#3
Alice Wang, Nishi Karunasinghe, Lindsay Plank, Shuotun Zhu, Sue Osborne, Karen Bishop, Charis Brown, Tiffany Schwass, Jonathan Masters, Michael Holmes, Roger Huang, Christine Keven, Lynnette Ferguson, Ross Lawrenson
INTRODUCTION: Reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) is a common side effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). We aimed to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in BMD and associated bone markers in patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer (PCa) managed with and without ADT. METHODS: Bone mineral density of the total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, ultradistal forearm, and one-third distal radius was measured in 88 patients with PCa without bone metastases at baseline and at 6 months...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989291/frontline-therapy-for-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma-by-stage-and-prognostic-factors
#4
REVIEW
Pamela B Allen, Leo I Gordon
Hodgkin lymphoma is a highly curable malignancy in early and advanced stages. Most patients are diagnosed in their teens or twenties and are expected to live decades beyond their treatment. Therefore, the toxicity of treatment must be balanced with the goal of cure. Thus, treatment has been refined through prognostic models and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)-directed therapy. Stratification by prognostic models defines groups of patients with favorable characteristics who may be treated with less intensive therapy upfront, including fewer cycles of chemotherapy, lower doses of radiation, or omission of radiation altogether...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894395/factors-affecting-adjuvant-therapy-in-stage-iii-pancreatic-cancer-analysis-of-the-national-cancer-database
#5
Mridula Krishnan, Aabra Ahmed, Ryan W Walters, Peter T Silberstein
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant therapy after curative resection is associated with survival benefit in stage III pancreatic cancer. We analyzed the factors affecting the outcome of adjuvant therapy in stage III pancreatic cancer and compared overall survival with different modalities of adjuvant treatment. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with stage III pancreatic cancer listed in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2012...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811744/cytogenetic-profile-and-flt3-gene-mutations-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#6
Nawaf Alkhayat, Yasser Elborai, Omer Al Sharif, Mohammad Al Shahrani, Omar Alsuhaibani, Mohammed Awad, Hatem Elghezal, Inesse Ben-Abdallah Bouhajar, Mona Alfaraj, Eman Al Mussaed, Fahad Alabbas, Ghaleb Elyamany
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by recurrent genetic aberrations. The identification of those abnormalities is clinically important because they are considered significant risk-stratifying markers. AIMS: There are insufficient data of cytogenetic profiles in Saudi Arabian patients with childhood ALL leukemia. We have examined a cohort of 110 cases of ALL to determine the cytogenetic profiles and prevalence of FLT3 mutations and analysis of the more frequently observed abnormalities and its correlations to other biologic factors and patient outcomes and to compare our results with previously published results...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659717/accuracy-of-18-fluorine-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-response-assessment-following-chemo-radiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-laryngeal-hypopharyngeal-carcinoma
#7
Finbar Slevin, Ekin Ermiş, Sriram Vaidyanathan, Mehmet Sen, Andrew F Scarsbrook, Robin Jd Prestwich
INTRODUCTION: The accuracy of response assessment positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) following radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for laryngeal/hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is uncertain. METHODS: In all, 35 patients with laryngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who were treated between 2009 and 2014 with (chemo)radiotherapy were identified. The accuracy of response assessment PET-CT was made by correlation with clinical follow-up and pathological findings...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469513/bcr-abl-v280g-mutation-potential-role-in-imatinib-resistance-first-case-report
#8
Ana P Azevedo, Alice Reichert, Celina Afonso, Maria D Alberca, Purificação Tavares, Fernando Lima
INTRODUCTION: The identification of BCR-ABL expression as the defining leukemogenic event in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and the introduction of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors in 2001 have revolutionized disease management, leading to a reduction in mortality rates and accordingly an increase in the estimated prevalence of CML. CASE REPORT: Based on medical records and clinical follow-up, the authors present the case of a Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML patient who developed resistance to imatinib...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469512/does-motion-assessment-with-4-dimensional-computed-tomographic-imaging-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-radiotherapy-improve-target-volume-coverage
#9
Naseer Ahmed, Sankar Venkataraman, Kate Johnson, Keith Sutherland, Shaun K Loewen
INTRODUCTION: Modern radiotherapy with 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT) image acquisition for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) captures respiratory-mediated tumor motion to provide more accurate target delineation. This study compares conventional 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) plans generated with standard helical free-breathing CT (FBCT) with plans generated on 4D-CT contoured volumes to determine whether target volume coverage is affected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with stage I to IV NSCLC were enrolled in the study...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469511/understanding-women-s-choice-of-mastectomy-versus-breast-conserving-therapy-in-early-stage-breast-cancer
#10
Jeffrey Gu, Gary Groot, Lorraine Holtslander, Rachel Engler-Stringer
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that influence Saskatchewan women's choice between breast conserving therapy (BCT) and mastectomy in early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) and to compare and contrast underlying reasons behind choice of BCT versus mastectomy. METHODS: Interpretive description methods guided this practice-based qualitative study. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and presented in thematic maps. RESULTS: Women who chose mastectomy described 1 of the 3 main themes: worry about cancer recurrence, perceived consequences of BCT treatment, or breast-tumor size perception...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469510/a-study-of-use-of-port-catheter-in-patients-with-cancer-a-single-center-experience
#11
Irappa Madabhavi, Apurva Patel, Malay Sarkar, Asha Anand, Harsha Panchal, Sonia Parikh
BACKGROUND: Effective and reliable venous access is one of the cornerstones of modern medical therapy in oncology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational study, which collected data of patients who require "PORT" catheter insertion for any cancer, at a tertiary care oncology hospital in Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India, during a 2-year period. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to study the various complications and outcomes related to "PORT" catheters...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469509/tailored-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-surgical-molecular-and-genetic-considerations
#12
REVIEW
Knut Magne Augestad, Marianne A Merok, Dejan Ignatovic
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex cancer disease, and approximately 40% of the surgically cured patients will experience cancer recurrence within 5 years. During recent years, research has shown that CRC treatment should be tailored to the individual patient due to the wide variety of risk factors, genetic factors, and surgical complexity. In this review, we provide an overview of the considerations that are needed to provide an individualized, patient-tailored treatment. We emphasize the need to assess the predictors of CRC, and we summarize the latest research on CRC genetics and immunotherapy...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469508/effects-of-serum-leptin-and-resistin-levels-on-cancer-cachexia-in-patients-with-advanced-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Gökcen Demiray, Serkan Değirmencioğlu, Erhan Uğurlu, Arzu Yaren
INTRODUCTION: Cancer cachexia is one of the most frequent effects of malignancy, is often associated with poor prognosis, and may account for up to 20% of cancer deaths. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship of cancer cachexia and serum levels of resistin and leptin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 67 chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced-stage non-small cell cancer and a control group containing 20 healthy individuals without a known chronic disease were enrolled in this study...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469507/primary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-stomach
#14
Juan Antonio González-Sánchez, Rebeca Vitón, Elena Collantes, José Antonio Rodríguez-Montes
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the stomach is a rare entity. There are several theories regarding the development of this tumor, but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Fewer than 100 cases of primary SCC of the stomach have been published in the literature. Due to advanced stage at the time of diagnosis in most of these cases, the prognosis is generally poor. In the case presented here, endoscopy revealed a vegetative tumor in the stomach described as SCC by biopsy. Following curative surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy was administered; however, the patient died 3 years and 4 months after surgery after recurrence was diagnosed...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891057/key-difficulties-associated-with-cancer-biology
#15
EDITORIAL
Xiaolan Fang, Jeanny Aragon-Ching, Esther Una Cidon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840583/a-partial-response-to-reintroduced-chemotherapy-in-a-resistant-small-cell-lung-cancer-patient-after-priming-with-rrx-001
#16
Bryan Oronsky, Scott Caroen, Karen Zeman, Mary Quinn, Christina Brzezniak, Jan Scicinski, Pedro Cabrales, Tony R Reid, Jane B Trepel, Nacer D Abrouk, Christopher Larson, Arnold Oronsky, Harry E Lybeck, Regina M Day, Corey A Carter
As an exceedingly recalcitrant and highly aggressive tumor type without Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment or a known cure, the prognosis of recurrent extensive stage platinum-resistant/refractory small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is worse than other types of lung cancer, and many other tumor types, given a response rate of less than 10% and an overall survival of less than six months. It was broadly classified into three groups based on the initial response to cisplatin/etoposide therapy, platinum-refractory, platinum-resistant, and platinum-sensitive, extensive stage SCLC inevitably relapses, at which point the only standard options are to rechallenge with the first-line chemotherapeutic regimen in the case of sensitive disease or to start the topoisomerase I inhibitor, topotecan...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773999/role-of-chemotherapy-and-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-chemotherapy-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Vipin Lohiya, Jeanny B Aragon-Ching, Guru Sonpavde
Chemotherapy using the taxanes, docetaxel and cabazitaxel, remains an important therapeutic option in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, despite the survival benefits afforded by these agents, the survival increments are modest and resistance occurs universally. Efforts to overcome resistance to docetaxel by combining with biologic agents have heretofore been unsuccessful. Indeed, resistance to these taxanes is also associated with cross-resistance to the antiandrogen drugs, abiraterone and enzalutamide...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721664/is-adherence-to-imatinib-mesylate-treatment-among-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-associated-with-better-clinical-outcomes-in-qatar
#18
Nader I Al-Dewik, Hisham M Morsi, Muthanna M Samara, Rola S Ghasoub, Cinquea C Gnanam, Subi K Bhaskaran, Abdulqadir J Nashwan, Rana M Al-Jurf, Mohamed A Ismail, Mohammed M AlSharshani, Ali A AlSayab, Tawfeg I Ben-Omran, Rani B Khatib, Mohamed A Yassin
BACKGROUND: Despite the revolutionary success of introducing tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib mesylate (IM), for treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a substantial proportion of patients' treatments fail. AIM: This study investigates the correlation between patient adherence and failure of TKIs' treatment in a follow-up study. METHODS: This is a follow-up study of a new cohort of CML patients. Adherence to IM is assessed using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS 6 TrackCap, AARDEX Ltd)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660506/monitoring-metastasis-and-cachexia-in-a-patient-with-breast-cancer-a-case-study
#19
Nikita Consul, Xiaotao Guo, Courtney Coker, Sara Lopez-Pintado, Hanina Hibshoosh, Binsheng Zhao, Kevin Kalinsky, Swarnali Acharyya
Cachexia, a wasting syndrome associated with advanced cancer and metastasis, is rarely documented in breast cancer patients. However, the incidence of cachexia in breast cancer is now thought to be largely underestimated. In our case report of a breast cancer patient with bone metastasis monitored during the course of her treatment, we document the development of cachexia by image analysis in relation to her metastatic burden. Elucidation of the link between metastatic burden and cachexia could unveil a highly specific screening process for metastasis, by assessing true muscle mass loss...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559302/age-neurological-status-mrc-scale-and-postoperative-morbidity-are-prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-glioblastoma-treated-by-chemoradiotherapy
#20
Clotilde Verlut, Guillaume Mouillet, Eloi Magnin, Joëlle Buffet-Miny, Gabriel Viennet, Françoise Cattin, Nora Clelia Billon-Grand, Emilie Bonnet, Stéphanie Servagi-Vernat, Joël Godard, Romain Billon-Grand, Antoine Petit, Thierry Moulin, Laurent Cals, Xavier Pivot, Elsa Curtit
INTRODUCTION: Temozolomide and concomitant radiotherapy followed by temozolomide has been used as a standard therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiform since 2005. A search for prognostic factors was conducted in patients with glioblastoma routinely treated by this strategy in our institution. METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients with histologically proven glioblastoma diagnosed between June 1, 2005, and January 1, 2012, in the Franche-Comté region and treated by radiotherapy (daily fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 60 Gy) combined with temozolomide at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) per day, followed by six cycles of maintenance temozolomide (150-200 mg/m(2), five consecutive days per month)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
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