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Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology

Ana P Azevedo, Alice Reichert, Celina Afonso, Maria D Alberca, Purificação Tavares, Fernando Lima
INTRODUCTION: The identification of BCR-ABL expression as the defining leukemogenic event in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and the introduction of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors in 2001 have revolutionized disease management, leading to a reduction in mortality rates and accordingly an increase in the estimated prevalence of CML. CASE REPORT: Based on medical records and clinical follow-up, the authors present the case of a Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML patient who developed resistance to imatinib...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Naseer Ahmed, Sankar Venkataraman, Kate Johnson, Keith Sutherland, Shaun K Loewen
INTRODUCTION: Modern radiotherapy with 4-dimensional computed tomographic (4D-CT) image acquisition for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) captures respiratory-mediated tumor motion to provide more accurate target delineation. This study compares conventional 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) plans generated with standard helical free-breathing CT (FBCT) with plans generated on 4D-CT contoured volumes to determine whether target volume coverage is affected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with stage I to IV NSCLC were enrolled in the study...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Jeffrey Gu, Gary Groot, Lorraine Holtslander, Rachel Engler-Stringer
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that influence Saskatchewan women's choice between breast conserving therapy (BCT) and mastectomy in early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) and to compare and contrast underlying reasons behind choice of BCT versus mastectomy. METHODS: Interpretive description methods guided this practice-based qualitative study. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and presented in thematic maps. RESULTS: Women who chose mastectomy described 1 of the 3 main themes: worry about cancer recurrence, perceived consequences of BCT treatment, or breast-tumor size perception...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Irappa Madabhavi, Apurva Patel, Malay Sarkar, Asha Anand, Harsha Panchal, Sonia Parikh
BACKGROUND: Effective and reliable venous access is one of the cornerstones of modern medical therapy in oncology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational study, which collected data of patients who require "PORT" catheter insertion for any cancer, at a tertiary care oncology hospital in Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India, during a 2-year period. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to study the various complications and outcomes related to "PORT" catheters...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Knut Magne Augestad, Marianne A Merok, Dejan Ignatovic
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex cancer disease, and approximately 40% of the surgically cured patients will experience cancer recurrence within 5 years. During recent years, research has shown that CRC treatment should be tailored to the individual patient due to the wide variety of risk factors, genetic factors, and surgical complexity. In this review, we provide an overview of the considerations that are needed to provide an individualized, patient-tailored treatment. We emphasize the need to assess the predictors of CRC, and we summarize the latest research on CRC genetics and immunotherapy...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Gökcen Demiray, Serkan Değirmencioğlu, Erhan Uğurlu, Arzu Yaren
INTRODUCTION: Cancer cachexia is one of the most frequent effects of malignancy, is often associated with poor prognosis, and may account for up to 20% of cancer deaths. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship of cancer cachexia and serum levels of resistin and leptin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 67 chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced-stage non-small cell cancer and a control group containing 20 healthy individuals without a known chronic disease were enrolled in this study...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Juan Antonio González-Sánchez, Rebeca Vitón, Elena Collantes, José Antonio Rodríguez-Montes
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the stomach is a rare entity. There are several theories regarding the development of this tumor, but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Fewer than 100 cases of primary SCC of the stomach have been published in the literature. Due to advanced stage at the time of diagnosis in most of these cases, the prognosis is generally poor. In the case presented here, endoscopy revealed a vegetative tumor in the stomach described as SCC by biopsy. Following curative surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy was administered; however, the patient died 3 years and 4 months after surgery after recurrence was diagnosed...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Xiaolan Fang, Jeanny Aragon-Ching, Esther Una Cidon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Bryan Oronsky, Scott Caroen, Karen Zeman, Mary Quinn, Christina Brzezniak, Jan Scicinski, Pedro Cabrales, Tony R Reid, Jane B Trepel, Nacer D Abrouk, Christopher Larson, Arnold Oronsky, Harry E Lybeck, Regina M Day, Corey A Carter
As an exceedingly recalcitrant and highly aggressive tumor type without Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment or a known cure, the prognosis of recurrent extensive stage platinum-resistant/refractory small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is worse than other types of lung cancer, and many other tumor types, given a response rate of less than 10% and an overall survival of less than six months. It was broadly classified into three groups based on the initial response to cisplatin/etoposide therapy, platinum-refractory, platinum-resistant, and platinum-sensitive, extensive stage SCLC inevitably relapses, at which point the only standard options are to rechallenge with the first-line chemotherapeutic regimen in the case of sensitive disease or to start the topoisomerase I inhibitor, topotecan...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Vipin Lohiya, Jeanny B Aragon-Ching, Guru Sonpavde
Chemotherapy using the taxanes, docetaxel and cabazitaxel, remains an important therapeutic option in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, despite the survival benefits afforded by these agents, the survival increments are modest and resistance occurs universally. Efforts to overcome resistance to docetaxel by combining with biologic agents have heretofore been unsuccessful. Indeed, resistance to these taxanes is also associated with cross-resistance to the antiandrogen drugs, abiraterone and enzalutamide...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Nader I Al-Dewik, Hisham M Morsi, Muthanna M Samara, Rola S Ghasoub, Cinquea C Gnanam, Subi K Bhaskaran, Abdulqadir J Nashwan, Rana M Al-Jurf, Mohamed A Ismail, Mohammed M AlSharshani, Ali A AlSayab, Tawfeg I Ben-Omran, Rani B Khatib, Mohamed A Yassin
BACKGROUND: Despite the revolutionary success of introducing tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib mesylate (IM), for treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a substantial proportion of patients' treatments fail. AIM: This study investigates the correlation between patient adherence and failure of TKIs' treatment in a follow-up study. METHODS: This is a follow-up study of a new cohort of CML patients. Adherence to IM is assessed using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS 6 TrackCap, AARDEX Ltd)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Nikita Consul, Xiaotao Guo, Courtney Coker, Sara Lopez-Pintado, Hanina Hibshoosh, Binsheng Zhao, Kevin Kalinsky, Swarnali Acharyya
Cachexia, a wasting syndrome associated with advanced cancer and metastasis, is rarely documented in breast cancer patients. However, the incidence of cachexia in breast cancer is now thought to be largely underestimated. In our case report of a breast cancer patient with bone metastasis monitored during the course of her treatment, we document the development of cachexia by image analysis in relation to her metastatic burden. Elucidation of the link between metastatic burden and cachexia could unveil a highly specific screening process for metastasis, by assessing true muscle mass loss...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Clotilde Verlut, Guillaume Mouillet, Eloi Magnin, Joëlle Buffet-Miny, Gabriel Viennet, Françoise Cattin, Nora Clelia Billon-Grand, Emilie Bonnet, Stéphanie Servagi-Vernat, Joël Godard, Romain Billon-Grand, Antoine Petit, Thierry Moulin, Laurent Cals, Xavier Pivot, Elsa Curtit
INTRODUCTION: Temozolomide and concomitant radiotherapy followed by temozolomide has been used as a standard therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiform since 2005. A search for prognostic factors was conducted in patients with glioblastoma routinely treated by this strategy in our institution. METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients with histologically proven glioblastoma diagnosed between June 1, 2005, and January 1, 2012, in the Franche-Comté region and treated by radiotherapy (daily fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 60 Gy) combined with temozolomide at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) per day, followed by six cycles of maintenance temozolomide (150-200 mg/m(2), five consecutive days per month)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Millena Prata Jammal, Agrimaldo Martins-Filho, Thales Parenti Silveira, Eddie Fernando Candido Murta, Rosekeila Simões Nomelini
INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and delayed diagnosis. Inflammation is a risk factor for ovarian cancer, and the inflammatory response is involved in almost all stages of tumor development. Immunohistochemical staining in stroma and epithelium of a panel of cytokines in benign and malignant ovarian neoplasm was evaluated. In addition, immunostaining was related to prognostic factors in malignant tumors. METHOD: The study group comprised 28 ovarian benign neoplasias and 28 ovarian malignant neoplasms...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Quyen D Chu, Prakash Peddi
As major advances are made in the management of early breast cancer, the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNBx) has been called into question. However, before abandoning SLNBx, a critical appraisal of its role should be done because we believe that it remains a critical component of care, especially when tailoring patient's adjuvant therapy. This commentary provides cogent arguments in favor of SLNBx in the management of patients with early breast cancer.
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Fabien Calcagno, Sabrina Lenoble, Zaher Lakkis, Thierry Nguyen, Samuel Limat, Christophe Borg, Marine Jary, Stefano Kim, Virginie Nerich
BACKGROUND: Regorafenib is an orally administered multikinase inhibitor that has been approved for patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Even though regorafenib significantly improved survival in two international phase 3 trials (CORRECT and CONCUR), a high rate of treatment-related toxic effects and dose modifications were observed with a modest benefit. The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the efficacy, safety, and cost of regorafenib in patients with mCRC in clinical practice...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Nikolaos Zavras, Charalampos Siristatidis, Argyris Siatelis, Anna Koumarianou
Cancer represents the second cause of death in prepubertal children and adolescents, although it is currently associated with an overall survival rate of 80%-85%. The annual incidence rate is 186.6 per 1 million children and adolescents aged up to 19 years. Both disease and treatment options are associated with life-altering, long-term effects that require monitoring. Infertility is a common issue, and as such, fertility preservation represents an essential part in the management of young patients with cancer who are at risk of premature gonadal failure...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
E Una Cidon
Cholangiocarcinoma is a very heterogeneous and rare group of neoplasms originating from the perihilar, intra-, or extrahepatic bile duct epithelium. It represents only 3% of gastrointestinal cancers, although their incidence is increasing as its mortality increases. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative option, but unfortunately the resectability rate is low. Overall, these malignancies have got a very poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of 5-10%. Although the five-year survival rate increases to 25-30% in the cases amenable to surgery, only 10-40% of patients present with resectable disease...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
E Una Cidon, P Alonso, B Masters
Despite advances in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), it remains the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Angiogenesis is a complex process that involves the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. It is essential for promoting cancer survival, growth, and dissemination. The inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to prevent tumor progression experimentally, and several chemotherapeutic targets of tumor angiogenesis have been identified. These include anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments, such as bevacizumab (a VEGF-specific binding antibody) and anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, although antiangiogenic therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of several cancers, including CRC...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Mohammed A Osman, Mohammad S Elkady, Khalid E Nasr
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian and peritoneal cancers represents a therapeutic challenge. The aim of this Phase III prospective study was to compare the survival benefits, objective response rate, and toxicities among patients treated by weekly paclitaxel with those who underwent three-weekly paclitaxel in recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian and peritoneal cancers. METHOD: Patients with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian and peritoneal cancer were allocated to receive either weekly paclitaxel (arm 1) at 80 m/m(2) or three-weekly paclitaxel (arm 2) at 175 mg/m(2)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
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