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Hyung Cheoul Shim, Ilhwan Kim, Chang-Su Woo, Hoo-Jeong Lee, Seungmin Hyun
Silicon anodes for lithium ion batteries (LiBs) have been attracting considerable attention due to a theoretical capacity up to about 10 times higher than that of conventional graphite. However, huge volume expansion during the cycle causes cracks in the silicon, resulting in the degradation of cycling performance and eventual failure. Moreover, low electrical conductivity and an unstable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer resulting from repeated changes in volume still block the next step forward for the commercialization of the silicon material...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Miao Shi, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Goutam Palui, Hedi Mattoussi, Alison Elder, Hong Yang
The understanding of nanoparticle (NP) cytotoxicity is challenging because of incomplete information about physicochemical changes particles undergo once they come into contact with biological fluids. It is therefore essential to characterize changes in NP properties to better understand their biological fate and effects in mammalian cells. In this paper, we present a study on the effect of particle surface oxidation and dissolution rates of Cu NPs. Particle dissolution, cell-associated Cu doses, and oxidative stress responses in A549 luciferase reporter cells were examined for Cu NPs modified with mercaptocarboxylic acids with different carbon chain lengths and a thiotic acid appended-PEG ligand (TA)...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Xueping Wu, Honglai Li, Hongjun Liu, Xiujuan Zhuang, Xiao Wang, Xiaopeng Fan, Xidong Duan, Xiaoli Zhu, Qinglin Zhang, Alfred J Meixner, Xiangfeng Duan, Anlian Pan
Controllable synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with tunable bandgaps is vital for their applications in nanophotonics, due to its efficient modulation of the physical and chemical properties of these atomic layered nanostructures. Here we report for the first time, the controllable synthesis of spatially composition-modulated WS2xSe2(1-x) nanosheets and WS2-WS2xSe2(1-x) lateral heterostructures by a developed one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach, as well as the understanding of their growth mechanism...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
I Angeloni, W Raja, A Polovitsyn, F De Donato, R Proietti Zaccaria, I Moreels
We studied the oscillator strength fgap of the band gap transition in heteronanocrystals (hNCs) with a spherical CdSe core embedded in an elongated CdS shell. A comparison with fgap of core-only CdSe NCs confirmed a reduction of the electron-hole overlap in hNCs with a band gap larger than 2.05 eV or smaller than 1.98 eV. However, the decrease in fgap is limited to about 50% when compared to CdSe NCs, suggesting that residual confinement still localizes the electron near the core. We correlated fgap with the radiative lifetime obtained from multiexponential photoluminescence (PL) decay traces...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Xiaoxiao Huang, Ziyu Yang, Bing Dong, Yazhou Wang, Tianyu Tang, Yanglong Hou
Developing efficient and economical noble-metal free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the essential factors for the industrialization of fuel cells. Recent studies on transition metal ORR catalysts have become the priority to practical low-temperature fuel cells. Herein, we proposed a novel in situ design, Fe2N nanoparticles (NPs) in an N doped porous carbon matrix (Fe2N@NPC) derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as high-performance ORR catalysts. The decorated Fe2N NPs increase the amount of Fe-N/C bonding as catalytic site...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Rainer Joachim Schwarz, Clemens Richert
Designed DNA nanostructures of impressive size have been described, but designed structures of the size of protein enzymes that bind organic ligands with high specificity are rare. Here we report a four-helix motif consisting of three synthetic strands with 65 base pairs and 165 nucleotides in total that folds well. Furthermore, we show that in the interior of this small folded DNA nanostructure, cavities can be set up that bind pyrimidine nucleotides with micromolar affinity. Base-specific binding for both thymidine and cytidine derivatives is demonstrated...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Aram Klaassen, Fei Liu, Dirk van den Ende, Frieder Mugele, Igor Siretanu
We use high resolution Atomic Force Microscopy to study the surface charge of the basal plane of gibbsite nanoparticles, with a lateral resolution of approximately 5 nm, in ambient electrolyte of variable pH and salt content. Our measurements reveal surface charge variations on the basal planes that correlate with the presence of topographic defects such as atomic steps. This surface charge heterogeneity, which increases with increasing pH, suggests that for a pH between 6 and 9 the defect sites display a stronger chemical activity than adjacent, apparently atomically smooth regions of the basal plane...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Julie Russier, Laura Oudjedi, Martin Piponnier, Cyrill Bussy, Maurizio Prato, Kostas Kostarelos, Brahim Lounis, Alberto Bianco, Laurent Cognet
Assessment of biodegradability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a critically important aspect that needs to be solved before their translation into new biomedical tools. CNT biodegradation has been shown both in vitro and in vivo, but we are limited by the number of analytical techniques that can be used to follow the entire process. Photothermal imaging (PhI) is an innovative technique that enables the quantitative detection of nanometer-sized absorptive objects. In this study, we demonstrate that PhI allows the observation of the degradation process of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) following their internalization by primary glial cells...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Shuwen Luo, Minjie Yao, Song Lei, Pengze Yan, Xiang Wei, Xiaotong Wang, Lili Liu, Zhiqiang Niu
Freestanding reduced graphene oxide-sulfur (rGO-S) composite films were fabricated by combining solution infiltration of sulfur into solvated rGO films with freeze-drying. Such rGO-S composite films can directly serve as the cathodes of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The nanostructured architecture of rGO-S composite films considerably improved the cycling stability of Li-S batteries.
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Gisang Park, Yong-Il Kim, Young Heon Kim, Mira Park, Kyu Yeon Jang, Hyunjoon Song, Ki Min Nam
The evolution of the phase and morphology of FeOOH nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal method is studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in situ transmission electron microscopy. The FeOOH nanorod with a tetragonal structure (β-FeOOH) is gradually converted into a rhombohedral Fe2O3 nanorod by a simple thermal treatment. The existence of an intermediate FeOOH structure with high lattice strains during the phase transition is identified by Rietveld analysis using XRD. The electrochemical properties of the nanorods are investigated based on the crystal phases to elucidate their relative catalytic activities...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Chao Xu, Yaling Wang, Chunyu Zhang, Yanwei Jia, Yunjing Luo, Xueyun Gao
Multi-modal imaging agents are desirable for tumor diagnosis because they can provide more information on the tumor than single-modal imaging agents. However, most reported multi-modal imaging agents are dual-modal agents rather than tri-modal agents; therefore, detailed information on the tumor may still be insufficient when such imaging agents are used. To ameliorate this issue, we synthesized a tri-modal imaging agent, composed of gold cluster and gadolinium oxide integrated nanoparticles (denoted as AuGds) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template via a bio-mineralization method...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Nicolas Jamond, Pascal Chrétien, Lina Gatilova, Elisabeth Galopin, Laurent Travers, Jean-Christophe Harmand, Frank Glas, Frédéric Houzé, Noëlle Gogneau
The performances of 1D-nanostructure based nanogenerators are governed by the ability of nanostructures to efficiently convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy, and by the efficiency with which this piezo-generated energy is harvested. In this paper, we highlight the crucial influence of the GaN nanowire-metal Schottky nanocontact on the energy harvesting efficiency. Three different metals, p-type doped diamond, PtSi and Pt/Ir, have been investigated. By using an atomic force microscope equipped with a Resiscope module, we demonstrate that the harvesting of piezo-generated energy is up to 2...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Yimin Lei, Jian Li, Zhan Wang, Jun Sun, Fuyi Chen, Hongwei Liu, Xiaohua Ma, Zongwen Liu
Crystallography of phase transformation combining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with in situ heating techniques and X-ray diffraction (XRD) can provide critical information regarding solid-state phase transitions and the transition-induced interfaces in TiO2 nanomaterials theoretically and experimentally. Two types of reduced titanium oxides (Ti3O5, Ti6O11) are found during ex situ and in situ heating of TiO2 (B) nanofibers with a specific morphology of the {100} single form (SF) in air and vacuum...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Jun Zhou, Peng Fei Gao, Hong Zhi Zhang, Gang Lei, Lin Ling Zheng, Hui Liu, Cheng Zhi Huang
Imaging of light scattering plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) with the aid of the dark-field microscopy imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high signal-to-noise ratio, but to improve the color resolution and contrast of dark-field microscopy (DFM) images of single light scattering PNPs in a small spectral variation environment is still a challenge. In this study, a new color analytical method for resolving the resolution and contrast in DFM images has been developed and further applied for colorimetric analysis using the digital image processing technique...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Ashok S Chauhan, Isaac Taylor-Harrod, Samuel D Littlejohn, Alain Nogaret
We report and systematically study large amplitude piezoresistance spikes in thin composite films under stress. These spikes are characterized by a unique double exponential decay which we demonstrate to be the signature of transient tunnelling currents. We establish an expression that predicts the dynamic conductivity of the composite with only three material parameters and use it to infer the magnitude of applied stress from resistance spikes, thus achieving quasi-instantaneous readout unhindered by viscoelastic relaxation...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Yuechang Wei, Jinqing Jiao, Xindong Zhang, Baofang Jin, Zhen Zhao, Jing Xiong, Yazhao Li, Jian Liu, Jianmei Li
The catalytic performance in heterogeneous catalytic reactions consisting of solid reactants is strongly dependent on the nanostructure of the catalysts. Metal-oxides core-shell (MOCS) nanostructures have potential to enhance the catalytic activity for soot oxidation reactions as a result of optimizing the density of active sites located at the metal-oxide interface. Here, we report a facile strategy for fabricating nanocatalysts with self-assembled Pt@CeO2-δ-rich core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) supported on three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Ce1-xZrxO2via the in situ colloidal crystal template (CCT) method...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
J W Jarrett, C Yi, T Stoll, J Rehault, A Oriana, F Branchi, G Cerullo, K L Knappenberger
Exciton relaxation dynamics of CdSe and quasi-type-II CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals were examined using femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). The use of 2DES allowed for determination of structure-specific and state-resolved carrier dynamics for CdSe nanocrystals formed with five, or fewer, CdS passivation monolayers (ML). For CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanocrystals formed with one through three MLs of CdS, excitation using broad bandwidth femtosecond visible laser pulses generated electron-hole pairs among the |X1〉 = 2...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Qiang Chen, Wen-Juan Tian, Lin-Yan Feng, Hai-Gang Lu, Yue-Wen Mu, Hua-Jin Zhai, Si-Dian Li, Lai-Sheng Wang
Boron clusters have been found to exhibit a variety of interesting electronic, structural, and bonding properties. Of particular interest are the recent discoveries of the 2D hexagonal B36(-/0) which led to the concept of borophenes and the 3D fullerene-like B40(-/0) which marked the onset of borospherene chemistry. Here, we present a joint photoelectron spectroscopic and first-principles study of B37(-) and B38(-), which are in the transition size range between the 2D borophene-type clusters and the 3D borospherenes...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Gregor Žerjav, Muhammad Shahid Arshad, Petar Djinović, Ita Junkar, Janez Kovač, Janez Zavašnik, Albin Pintar
The as-synthesized TiO2 nanorods a-TNR (amorphous TiO2 layer covering the crystalline anatase TiO2 core) and TNR (fully crystalline anatase TiO2) were decorated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to synthesize two series of TiO2 + rGO composites with different nominal loadings of GO (from 4 to 20 wt%). The structural, surface and electronic properties of the obtained TiO2 + rGO composites were analyzed and correlated to their performance in the photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous bisphenol A solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that charge separation in TiO2 + rGO composites is improved due to the perfect matching of TiO2 and rGO valence band maxima (VBM)...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Buddha Deka Boruah, Shanmukh Naidu Majji, Abha Misra
The unique photo-charge characteristics of chlorine-doped zinc oxide nanorods (Cl-ZnO NRs) are explored for the first time in ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) that offers an outstanding self-powered photoresponse towards low UV illumination signals. A self-powered Cl-ZnO NRs PD exhibits superior photon detection speed of the order of a few ms with high sensitivity and photoelasticity. Therefore, the presented PD opens up a novel route to fabricate highly efficient self-powered PDs on a large scale without employing complex multilayer systems...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
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