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Weina Xu, Junlin Lu, Wangchen Huo, Jien Li, Xue Wang, Cuiling Zhang, Xiao Gu, Chenguo Hu
Flexible and wearable electronic devices with excellent performance have been desired for making the next generation of electronic products. Herein, the synthesis of CuCo2S4 nanosheets on flexible carbon fiber textile (CFT) by a facile one-step and scalable hydrothermal procedure is reported, which is free from the sulphurization process used in the conventional synthesis of mixed metal sulphospinels. The as-prepared CuCo2S4 nanostructures on CFT can provide rich reaction sites and short ion diffusion paths...
July 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Chuanping Li, Ping Wang, Haijuan Li, Minmin Wang, Jie Zhang, Guohua Qi, Yongdong Jin
Understanding and controlling the charge transfer behavior across the interface/junction in hybrid nanostructures is essential for various plasmon-enhanced catalytic reactions. The rational design of plasmonic nanostructures offers a unique capability for eliminating the daunting complexity of the electronic effect induced by interfacial interactions and maximizing the conversion efficiency of solar energy into chemical energy by surface coupling. Herein, we tactfully construct a new type of plasmon-driven photoanode based on plasmonic metal-insulator-semiconductor (PMIS) hetero-nanostructures (Au@SiO2NP-decorated α-Fe2O3 nanorod array), by using Fe2O3 nanoarrays as model semiconductor structures and Au@SiO2 NPs as photosensitizers, for optimizing the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance...
July 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Fawei Zheng, Jize Zhao, Zheng Liu, Menglei Li, Mei Zhou, Shengbai Zhang, Ping Zhang
The recent discovery of ferromagnetic single-layer CrI3 creates ample opportunities for studying the fundamental properties and the spintronic applications of atomically thin magnets. Through first-principles calculations and model Hamiltonian simulations, here we build for the first time a substantial magnetic phase diagram under lateral strain and charge doping, the two factors that are easily modulated in single-layer CrI3 via substrate and gating controls. We demonstrate that both lateral strain and charge doping efficiently change the coupling between the local spins and thus have unexpected effects on the magnetic properties of CrI3...
July 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Shuang Cai, Bin Luo, Peipei Jiang, Xiaoxi Zhou, Fang Lan, Qiangying Yi, Yao Wu
The study of exosomes has great significance for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, in which damage-free isolation of exosomes is a critically important step due to their extremely low concentration in body fluids. Herein, immunoaffinitive superparamagnetic nanoparticles (IS-NPs) were successfully constructed by combining antibodies with superparamagnetic nanoparticles through host-guest interactions between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 4-aminoazobenzene (AAB). Exosomes in cell-culture supernatants or body fluids can be efficiently captured by IS-NPs and then mildly eluted by competitive host molecules, α-CD...
July 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Wei Pan, Bo Liu, Xiaonan Gao, Zhengze Yu, Xiaohan Liu, Na Li, Bo Tang
Since microRNA-21 (miR-21) and protein programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) are implicated in tumor progression, simultaneous monitoring of the dynamic variation of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA in living cells is of great interest for understanding their relationship in the pathology of the disease. Herein, a versatile nanoprobe based on graphene oxide (GO) and DNA was prepared which can simultaneously monitor and visualize miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA in living cells. In vitro experiments demonstrate that the nanoprobe exhibits outstanding selectivity and high sensitivity towards miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Jaewon Lee, Sooho Ham, Dayeon Choi, Du-Jeon Jang
ZnS nanostructures of barbell-shaped porous and hollow nanoplates with a controlled amount of S vacancies have been facilely fabricated via the hydrothermal treatment of ZnS(en)0.5 (en = ethylenediamine) nanoplates. The amount of S vacancies as well as the morphologies of ZnS nanostructures have been controlled by adjusting the hydrolysis time; the layered structure of ZnS(en)0.5 nanoplates decomposes to yield discrete ZnS nanoparticles at two end facets of template nanoplates, producing barbell-shaped porous and hollow ZnS nanoplates with abundant S vacancies finally...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Debabrata Maiti, Yu Chao, Ziliang Dong, Xuan Yi, Jinlin He, Zhuang Liu, Kai Yang
Although chemo-radiotherapy has been widely applied in clinics for cancer treatment, current strategies still face many challenges including serious side-effects and drug resistance. Herein, we develop a chemically cross-linked poly-N,N'-dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA) smart nanogel as an excellent thermosensitive nanocarrier to load both an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) and a radioisotope, 131I-labeled albumin, for enhanced chemo-radioisotope therapy. Such a PDMAEMA nanogel in the solution form at room temperature can be easily injected into a tumor, in which it would be transformed into a gel at body temperature...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Liyun Cao, Ning Zhang, Liangliang Feng, Jianfeng Huang, Yongqiang Feng, Wenbin Li, Dan Yang, Qianqian Liu
The rational design and synthesis of ultrasmall metal-based electrocatalysts using earth-abundant elements for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have been widely considered as a promising route for achieving improved catalytic properties. Herein, a metal-triggered confinement strategy to prepare well-dispersed ultrasmall VC nanoparticles (∼3 nm) embedded within N-doped carbon nanotubes (VC@NCNT) by using Co metal as the crystallization promoter is reported. When used as a HER electrocatalyst for water splitting, the resultant VC@NCNT catalyst exhibits low overpotentials (acid medium: 161 mV; alkaline medium: 159 mV; neutral medium: 266 mV) for driving a current density of 10 mA cm-2, remarkable durability at least for 100 h, and ∼100% faradaic yield in both acid and alkaline media...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Jian Li, Zhiguang Guo
Spontaneous directional transportation of droplets on solid surfaces driven by structure gradients has attracted much attention due to its large-scale applications, such as heat transfer, microfluidic devices, water collection, and separation. It also provides new insight for theoretical research into the interactions between droplets and solid surfaces. This review article summarizes recent progress in the spontaneous directional transportation of droplets on surfaces with structure gradients. Currently, surfaces with structure gradients can be divided into three types: wedge corners with a gradient opening angle, wedge-shaped surfaces, and conical substrates...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Vesna Stanic, Francisco Carlos Barbosa Maia, Raul de Oliveira Freitas, Fabiano Emmanuel Montoro, Kenneth Evans-Lutterodt
In situ characterization of the chemical and structural properties of black and white sheep hair was performed with a spatial resolution of 25 nm using infrared nano-spectroscopy. Comparing data sets from two types of hair allowed us to isolate the keratin FTIR fingerprint and so mark off chemical properties of the hair's melanosomes. From a polarization sensitive analysis of the nano-FTIR spectra, we showed that keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) present anisotropic molecular ordering. In stark contrast with white hair which does not contain melanosomes, in black hair, we spatially resolved single melanosomes and achieved unprecedented assignment of the vibrational modes of pheomelanin and eumelanin...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Andrea Longatti, Christina Schindler, Andie Collinson, Lesley Jenkinson, Carl Matthews, Laura Fitzpatrick, Margaret Blundy, Ralph Minter, Tristan Vaughan, Michael Shaw, Natalie Tigue
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that mediate cell-to-cell communication by transferring biological cargo, such as DNA, RNA and proteins. Through genetic engineering of exosome-producing cells or manipulation of purified exosomes, it is possible to load exosomes with therapeutic molecules and target them to specific cells via the display of targeting moieties on their surface. This provides an opportunity to exploit a naturally-occurring biological process for therapeutic purposes. In this study, we explored the potential of single chain variable fragments (scFv) as targeting domains to achieve delivery of exosomes to cells expressing a cognate antigen...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Guoqiang Gu, Jun Song, Ming Chen, Xiao Peng, Hongda Liang, Junle Qu
A novel method of detecting single nanoparticles (NPs) in a microfluidic channel directly using a photonic nanojet (PNJ) was investigated. The theoretical model comprised a plane wave-illuminated, liquid-filled hollow-microcylinder (LFHM) and a single Au NP. Relevant studies were implemented and demonstrated with a finite element method (FEM)-based numerical simulation and explained physically through a ray-optics theoretical analysis with the assistance of energy flow line shifts. When depicting the optical-field distribution by gradually altered contour lines for LFHMs with or without a single Au NP, the outward distances of the specific points on the right end of each contour line, for a LFHM with a single Au NP relative to a LFHM without a NP, increased exponentially with decreasing contour levels...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Jie Gao, Qian Jiang, Yuefeng Liu, Wei Liu, Wei Chu, Dang Sheng Su
Oxygenated functionalized carbon nanotube (oCNT) supported LaOx-promoted Ni nanoparticles (10Ni-xLa/oCNT) were prepared by the co-impregnation method and tested for synthetic natural gas from the CO2 reduction reaction. Several advanced characterization methods, including atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), temperature programmed experiments (TPSR, CO2-TPD, and H2-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were applied to explore, for the first time, the origin of structure modulation of LaOx species on oCNT supported Ni-LaOx hybrids and the structure-activity relationship over the CO2 reduction reaction...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Weidong Zhao, Shuyuan Xiao, Yuxian Zhang, Dong Pan, Jiahui Wen, Ximei Qian, Dong Wang, Hui Cao, Wanli He, Maohua Quan, Zhou Yang
We have demonstrated a facile and low-cost approach for the fabrication of binary "island" shaped arrays (BISA) with high-density hot spots as reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by depositing a self-assembled monolayer Au nanoparticle (AuNP) film with small gaps onto a two-dimensional (2D) silica microsphere opal structure. By varying the size of silica spheres, the SERS performance of the BISA substrate with an enhancement factor (EF) of 3.74 × 1010 magnitude and the corresponding signal intensity deviation of below 8% using 770 nm silica sphere arrays were achieved...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Guoqiang Guan, Xin Wang, Xiaojuan Huang, Wenlong Zhang, Zhe Cui, Yongfang Zhang, Xinwu Lu, Rujia Zou, Junqing Hu
Transition-metal chalcogenides with an imaging element and tunable optical property are strongly desired as ideal high-efficiency photothermal theranostic agents to diagnose and eliminate tumors. Herein, we report on a one-pot solvothermal strategy to synthesize various porous cobalt sulfide hollow nanospheres (PCSH NSs) and elucidate the relation between PCSH NSs and their optical absorption as a guide to obtain optimal photothermal therapy (PTT) agents. After PEG modification, PEG-PCSH NSs show superexcellent photothermal conversion efficiency (∼70...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhili Zhu, Ping Cui, Xiaolin Cai, Mengjiao Xia, Yu Jia, Shengbai Zhang, Zhenyu Zhang
First-principles calculations within density functional theory reveal the preferred structures of red phosphorus in the two-dimensional (2D) limit to be porous with intriguing structural, electronic, and chemical properties. These few-atomic-layer structures are stabilized as novel 2D clathrates with tunable pore sizes and varying semiconducting band gaps, labelled as V-Hex, P-Monoclinic, P-Hex, and V-Tetr in descending energetic stabilities. The cohesive energies of the 2D clathrates are all substantially higher than that of white phosphorus...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Hao Ma, Erica O'Donnel, Zhiting Tian
Two-dimensional (2D) polymers are organic analogues of graphene. Compared to graphene, 2D polymers offer a higher degree of tunability in regards to structure, topology, and physical properties. The thermal transport properties of 2D polymers play a crucial role in their applications, yet remain largely unexplored. Using the equilibrium molecular dynamics method, we study the in-plane thermal conductivity of dubbed porous graphene that is comprised of π-conjugated phenyl rings. In contrast to the conventional notion that π-conjugation leads to high thermal conductivity, we demonstrate, for the first time, that π-conjugated 2D polymers can have either high or low thermal conductivity depending on their porosity and structural orientation...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Youzhang Huang, Liang Quan, Tianqing Liu, Qidi Chen, Daoping Cai, Hongbing Zhan
Mixed transition metal sulfides with hollow structures hold great promise for energy-related applications. However, most of them are in the powder form, which should be mixed with unwanted polymer binders and conductive agents. In this study, a facile two-step strategy has been developed to grow mesoporous and hollow Ni-Zn-Co-S nanosword arrays (NSAs) on a nickel foam (NF) substrate with robust adhesion, which involves the hydrothermal growth of bimetallic Zn-Co-ZIF NSAs on NF and subsequent transformation into hollow Ni-Zn-Co-S NSAs through the sulfurization process...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Mthulisi Khuphe, Nicola Ingram, Paul D Thornton
Biodegradable poly(α-hydroxy acid) copolyesters consisting of benzyl-protected glutamic acid and carboxybenzyl-protected lysine derived blocks possess the capability to self-assemble to form stable nanoparticles in aqueous solution (pH 7.4), that are able to withhold doxorubicin, prior to its directed release in acidic solution. Such pH-responsive nanoparticles are non-toxic against a panel of human breast cancer cell lines, but demonstrated comparable toxicities to free doxorubicin when loaded with doxorubicin...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Lingping Kong, Xiaoteng Liu, Jinjia Wei, Steven Wang, Ben Bin Xu, Donghui Long, Fei Chen
Orthorhombic Nb2O5 (T-Nb2O5) nanocrystallites are successfully fabricated through an evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method guided by a commercialised triblock copolymer - Pluronic F127. We demonstrate a morphology transition of T-Nb2O5 from continuous porous nanofilms to monodisperse nanoparticles by changing the content of Pluronic F127. The electrochemical results show that the optimized monodisperse Nb-2 with a particle size of 20 nm achieves premier Li-ion intercalation kinetics and higher rate capability than mesoporous T-Nb2O5 nanofilms...
July 16, 2018: Nanoscale
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