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Molecular Syndromology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232784/williams-syndrome-and-15q-duplication-coincidence-versus-association
#1
Aditi Khokhar, Swashti Agarwal, Sheila Perez-Colon
Williams syndrome is a multisystem disorder caused by contiguous gene deletion in 7q11.23, commonly associated with distinctive facial features, supravalvular aortic stenosis, short stature, idiopathic hypercalcemia, developmental delay, joint laxity, and a friendly personality. The clinical features of 15q11q13 duplication syndrome include autism, mental retardation, ataxia, seizures, developmental delay, and behavioral problems. We report a rare case of a girl with genetically confirmed Williams syndrome and coexisting 15q duplication syndrome...
January 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232783/complex-mosaic-ring-chromosome-11-associated-with-hemizygous-loss-of-8-6-mb-of-11q24-2qter-in-atypical-jacobsen-syndrome
#2
Alexandra Galvão Gomes, Carlos H Paiva Grangeiro, Luiz R Silva, Flávia G Oliveira-Gennaro, Ciro S Pereira, Tatiana M Joaquim, Rodrigo A Panepucci, Jeremy A Squire, Lucia Martelli
Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving terminal chromosome 11q. The haploinsufficiency of multiple genes contributes to the overall clinical phenotype, which can include the variant Paris-Trousseau syndrome, a transient thrombocytopenia related to FLI1 hemizygous deletion. We investigated a boy with features of JBS using classic cytogenetic methods, FISH and high-resolution array CGH. The proband was found to have a mosaic ring chromosome 11 resulting in a hemizygous 11q terminal deletion of 8...
January 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232782/an-11-4-mb-interstitial-deletion-in-a-fetus-with-no-apparent-phenotypic-alterations
#3
Paolo Guanciali-Franchi, Claudio Celentano, Melissa Alfonsi, Chiara Palka, Giulietta Di Pasqua, Barbara Matarrelli, Giandomenico Palka
A prenatal case of a de novo interstitial deletion distal to 8q24 was reported. Ultrasound examination and postmortem evaluation demonstrated no apparent phenotypic alterations. Array CGH showed an 11.4-Mb loss in chromosome 8 ranging from 8q24.13 to 8q24.23. This case partially overlaps the 2 cases previously described in the literature.
January 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232781/17p13-3-microdeletion-insights-on-genotype-phenotype-correlation
#4
Marshall I Barros Fontes, Ana P Dos Santos, Fábio Rossi Torres, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Fernando Cendes, Simone Appenzeller, Tânia Kawasaki de Araujo, Isabella Lopes Monlleó, Vera L Gil-da-Silva-Lopes
Microdeletions in the chromosomal region 17p13.3 are associated with neuronal migration disorders, and PAFAB1H1 is the main gene involved. The largest genomic imbalances, including the YWHAE and CRK genes, cause more severe structural abnormalities of the brain and other associated dysmorphic features. Here, we describe a 3-year-old boy with a microdeletion in 17p13.3 presenting with minor facial dysmorphisms, a cleft palate, neurodevelopmental delay, and behavioral disorder with no structural malformation of the brain...
January 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232780/chromosome-1p31-1p31-3-deletion-in-a-patient-with-craniosynostosis-central-nervous-system-and-renal-malformation-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Carlos I Rivera-Pedroza, Jimena Barraza-García, Beatriz Paumard-Hernández, Julian Nevado, Carlos Orbea-Gallardo, Jaime Sánchez Del Pozo, Karen E Heath
Interstitial deletions in the short arm of chromosome 1 are infrequent. We report a female with a 1p31.1p31.3 deletion and cloverleaf skull, who presented with renal and central nervous system malformations, cleft palate, severe ocular anomalies, and cutis laxa, in addition to the previously described clinical data present in other cases with deletions encompassing this region, such as developmental delay, seizures, round face with a prominent nose, micro/retrognathia, half-opened mouth, short neck, hand/foot malformations, hernia, congenital heart malformations, and abnormal external genitalia...
January 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232779/de-novo-kat6b-mutation-identified-with-whole-exome-sequencing-in-a-girl-with-say-barber-biesecker-young-simpson-syndrome
#6
Malene Lundsgaard, Vang Q Le, Anja Ernst, Hans C Laugaard-Jacobsen, Kirsten Rasmussen, Inge S Pedersen, Michael B Petersen
Say-Barber/Biesecker/Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS; OMIM 603736) is a rare syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies/malformations. The clinical diagnosis is usually based on a phenotype with a mask-like face and severe blepharophimosis and ptosis as well as other distinctive facial traits. We present a girl with dysmorphic features, an atrial septal defect, and developmental delay. Previous genetic testing (array-CGH, 22q11 deletion, PTPN11 and MLL2 mutation analysis) gave normal results. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and identified a heterozygous nonsense mutation in the KAT6B gene, NM_001256468...
January 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232778/bloom-s-syndrome-clinical-spectrum-molecular-pathogenesis-and-cancer-predisposition
#7
REVIEW
Christopher Cunniff, Jennifer A Bassetti, Nathan A Ellis
Bloom's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, photosensitive skin changes, immune deficiency, insulin resistance, and a greatly increased risk of early onset of cancer and for the development of multiple cancers. Loss-of-function mutations of BLM, which codes for a RecQ helicase, cause Bloom's syndrome. The absence of a functional BLM protein causes chromosome instability, excessive homologous recombination, and a greatly increased number of sister chromatid exchanges that are pathognomonic of the syndrome...
January 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232777/recombine-and-associate-to-prevent-genomic-instability-and-premature-aging
#8
EDITORIAL
Martin Poot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920638/interstitial-1q21-1-microdeletion-is-associated-with-severe-skeletal-anomalies-dysmorphic-face-and-moderate-intellectual-disability
#9
Bruno F Gamba, Roseli M Zechi-Ceide, Nancy M Kokitsu-Nakata, Siulan Vendramini-Pittoli, Carla Rosenberg, Ana C V Krepischi Santos, Lucilene Ribeiro-Bicudo, Antonio Richieri-Costa
We report on a Brazilian patient with a 1.7-Mb interstitial microdeletion in chromosome 1q21.1. The phenotypic characteristics include microcephaly, a peculiar facial gestalt, cleft lip/palate, and multiple skeletal anomalies represented by malformed phalanges, scoliosis, abnormal modeling of vertebral bodies, hip dislocation, abnormal acetabula, feet anomalies, and delayed neuropsychological development. Deletions reported in this region are clinically heterogeneous, ranging from subtle phenotypic manifestations to severe congenital heart defects and/or neurodevelopmental findings...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920637/endocrinological-abnormalities-are-a-main-feature-of-17p13-1-microduplication-syndrome-a-new-case-and-literature-review
#10
Ilenia Maini, Ivan Ivanovski, Alessandro Iodice, Simonetta Rosato, Marzia Pollazzon, Manuela Mussini, Elga F Belligni, Charles Coutton, Maria Marinelli, Veronica Barbieri, Manuela Napoli, Rosario Pascarella, Chiara Sartori, Francesca Madia, Carlo Fusco, Fabrizia Franchi, Maria E Street, Livia Garavelli
To date, 5 cases of 17p13.1 microduplications have been described in the literature. Intellectual disability was reported as the core feature, together with minor facial dysmorphisms and obesity, but a characteristic phenotype for 17p13.1 microduplication has not been delineated. Here, we describe a patient with a 1.56-Mb de novo duplication in 17p13.1, affected by mild intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, obesity, and diabetes. By comparing the different phenotypes of currently described cases, we delineated the main clinical features of 17p13...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920636/identifying-cnvs-in-15q11q13-and-16p11-2-of-patients-with-seizures-increases-the-rates-of-detecting-pathogenic-changes
#11
Gabrielle S Vianna, Mariana L Freitas, Valdirene T de Oliveira, Rafaella X Pietra, Michele da S Gonçalves, Patrícia P O Rocha, Rejane A C Monteiro, Luana C A Ferreira, Rosana R Xavier, Andréia M Carvalho, Patrícia R de M Lima, Maria Augusta N P Monteiro, Elvis C Mateo, Juliana G Giannetti, Giovana da C César, Joziele de S Lima, Paula F V Medeiros, Fernanda S Jehee
Chromosomal changes are frequently observed in patients with syndromic seizures. Understanding the genetic etiology of this pathology is crucial for the guidance and genetic counseling of families as well as for the establishment of appropriate treatment. A combination of MLPA kits was used to identify pathogenic CNVs in a group of 70 syndromic patients with seizures. Initially, a screening was performed for subtelomeric changes (MLPA P036 and P070 kits) and for the regions most frequently related to microdeletion/microduplication syndromes (MLPA P064)...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920635/clinical-and-molecular-characterisation-of-children-with-pierre-robin-sequence-and-additional-anomalies
#12
Jessie X Xu, Nicky Kilpatrick, Naomi L Baker, Anthony Penington, Peter G Farlie, Tiong Yang Tan
Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) is usually classified into syndromic and nonsyndromic groups, with a further subclassification of the nonsyndromic group into isolated PRS and PRS with additional anomalies (PRS-Plus). The aim of this research is to provide an accurate phenotypic characterisation of nonsyndromic PRS, specifically the PRS-Plus subgroup. We sought to examine the frequency of sequence variants in previously defined conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) in the putative enhancer region upstream of SOX9, the regulation of which has been associated with PRS phenotypes...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920634/frontonasal-dysplasia-towards-an-understanding-of-molecular-and-developmental-aetiology
#13
REVIEW
Peter G Farlie, Naomi L Baker, Patrick Yap, Tiong Y Tan
The complex anatomy of the skull and face arises from the requirement to support multiple sensory and structural functions. During embryonic development, the diverse component elements of the neuro- and viscerocranium must be generated independently and subsequently united in a manner that sustains and promotes the growth of the brain and sensory organs, while achieving a level of structural integrity necessary for the individual to become a free-living organism. While each of these individual craniofacial components is essential, the cranial and facial midline lies at a structural nexus that unites these disparately derived elements, fusing them into a whole...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920633/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-models-theories-and-therapies
#14
REVIEW
Scott Bell, Ilaria Kolobova, Liam Crapper, Carl Ernst
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare X-linked disorder caused by mutations in HPRT1, an important enzyme in the purine salvage pathway. Symptoms of LNS include dystonia, gout, intellectual disability, and self-mutilation. Despite having been characterized over 50 years ago, it remains unclear precisely how deficits in hypoxanthine and guanine recycling can lead to such a profound neurological phenotype. Several studies have proposed different hypotheses regarding the etiology of this disease, and several treatments have been tried in patients, though none have led to a satisfactory explanation of the disease...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920632/discovering-patterns-of-structural-variation-by-mining-molecular-fossils
#15
EDITORIAL
Martin Poot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867345/language-impairment-resulting-from-a-de-novo-deletion-of-7q32-1q33
#16
María S Jiménez-Romero, Montserrat Barcos-Martínez, Isabel Espejo-Portero, Antonio Benítez-Burraco
We report on a girl who presents with hearing loss, behavioral disturbances (according to the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning) as well as motor and cognitive delay (according to Battelle Developmental Inventories) which have a significant impact on her speech and language abilities [according to the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (ed 3), and the Prueba de Lenguaje Oral de Navarra-Revisada (Navarra Oral Language Test, Revised)]. Five copy number variations (CNVs) were identified in the child: arr[hg18] 7q32...
October 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867344/distal-7q11-23-duplication-an-emerging-microduplication-syndrome-a-case-report-and-further-characterisation
#17
Víctor Faundes, Lorena Santa María, Paulina Morales, Bianca Curotto, María M Parraguez
Chromosome 7q11.23 duplication syndrome is a well-recognised syndrome which involves the duplication of the same genes located in the Williams-Beuren critical region. However, in 2010, 4 patients were reported with a microduplication only in the HIP1 and YWHAG genes. We refer to this as a distal 7q11.23 duplication (dup7q11.23D). Here, we report the fifth de novo patient with dup7q11.23D, whose symptoms may be explained by YWHAG overexpression as was demonstrated recently in mice and obese patients. Finally, further studies will be necessary to delineate this emerging microduplication syndrome...
October 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867343/park2-microduplication-clinical-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-further-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Orazio Palumbo, Pietro Palumbo, Maria P Leone, Raffaella Stallone, Teresa Palladino, Marcella Vendemiale, Stefano Palladino, Francesco Papadia, Massimo Carella, Rira Fischetto
We report on a patient with psychomotor deficits, language delay, dyspraxia, skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms (hirsutism, right palpebral ptosis, a bulbous nasal tip with enlarged and anteverted nares, and a mild prominent antihelix stem). Using high-resolution SNP array analysis, we identified a 0.49-Mb microduplication in chromosome 6q26 inherited from the mother involving the PARK2 gene: arr[hg19] 6q26(162,672,821-163,163,143)×3 mat. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third patient to date described in whom a 6q26 microduplication encompassing only the PARK2 gene has been reported in medical literature...
October 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867342/the-family-of-crumbs-genes-and-human-disease
#19
REVIEW
Anne M Slavotinek
The family of vertebrate Crumbs proteins, homologous to Drosophila Crumbs (Crb), share large extracellular domains with epidermal growth factor-like repeats and laminin-globular domains, a single transmembrane domain, and a short intracellular C-terminus containing a single membrane proximal 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin-binding domain and PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1-binding motifs. There are 3 Crb genes in humans - Crumbs homolog-1 (CRB1), Crumbs homolog-2 (CRB2), and Crumbs homolog-3 (CRB3). Bilallelic loss-of-function mutations in CRB1 cause visual impairment, with Leber's congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa, whereas CRB2 mutations are associated with raised maternal serum and amniotic fluid alpha feto-protein levels, ventriculomegaly/hydrocephalus, and renal disease, ranging from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis to congenital Finnish nephrosis...
October 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867341/disorders-of-transcriptional-regulation-an-emerging-category-of-multiple-malformation-syndromes
#20
REVIEW
Kosuke Izumi
Some genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding components of the transcriptional machinery as well as proteins involved in epigenetic modification of the genome share many overlapping features, such as facial dysmorphisms, growth problems and developmental delay/intellectual disability. As a basis for some shared phenotypic characteristics in these syndromes, a similar transcriptome disturbance, characterized by global transcriptional dysregulation, is believed to play a major role. In this review article, a general overview of gene transcription is provided, and the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying some disorders of transcriptional regulation, such as Rubinstein- Taybi, Coffin-Siris, Cornelia de Lange, and CHOPS syndromes, are discussed...
October 2016: Molecular Syndromology
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