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Molecular Oral Microbiology

J L Ebersole, R Peyyala, O A Gonzalez
This study examined the oral epithelial immunotranscriptome response patterns modulated by oral bacterial planktonic or biofilm challenge METHODS: We assessed gene expression patterns when epithelial cells were challenged with a multispecies biofilm composed of S. gordonii, F. nucleatum, and P. gingivalis representing a type of periodontopathic biofilm compared to challenge with the same species of planktonic bacteria RESULTS: Of the 579 human immunology genes, a substantial signal of the epithelial cells was observed to 181 genes...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Yixiao Xing, Yunpeng Zhang, Linglu Jia, Xin Xu
Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), a type of dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), can be clinically applied in periodontal tissue regeneration to treat periodontitis, which is initiated and sustained by bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a pertinent deleterious factor in the oral microenvironment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LPS on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs, as well as the mechanisms involved...
November 2, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Naresh V R Mutha, Waleed K Mohammed, Natalio Krasnogor, Geok Y A Tan, Siew Woh Choo, Nicholas S Jakubovics
Cell-cell interactions between genetically distinct bacteria, known as coaggregation, are important for the formation of mixed-species biofilms such as dental plaque. Interactions lead to gene regulation in the partner organisms that may be critical for adaptation and survival in mixed-species biofilms. Here, gene regulation responses to coaggregation between Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum were studied using dual RNA-Seq. Initially, S. gordonii DL1 was shown to coaggregate strongly with F...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Tao Gong, Boyu Tang, Xuedong Zhou, Jumei Zeng, Miao Lu, Xiaoxin Guo, Xian Peng, Lei Lei, Bo Gong, Yuqing Li
Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. Its major virulence factors, glucosyltransferases (Gtfs), utilize sucrose to synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), leading to the formation of dental plaque biofilm. The current study was designed to develop a novel self-targeting gene editing technology that targeted gtfs to inhibit biofilms formation. The CRISPR-Cas system (ie, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat, with CRISPR-associated proteins) provides sequence-specific protection against foreign genetic materials in archaea and bacteria, and has been widely developed for genomic engineering...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Meng-Hsuan Ho, Richard J Lamont, Walter J Chazin, Huiqing Chen, Daphne F Young, Prashant Kumar, Hua Xie
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone bacterium in the oral microbial communities that elicits a dysbiosis between the microbiota and the host. Therefore, inhibition of this organism in dental plaques has been one of the strategies for preventing and treating chronic periodontitis. We previously identified a Streptococcal ArcA derived Anti-P gingivalils Peptide (SAPP) that in vitro, is capable of repressing the expression of several virulence genes in the organism. This leads to a significant reduction in P gingivalis virulence potential, including its ability to colonize on the surface of Streptococcus gordonii, to invade human oral epithelial cells, and to produce gingipains...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Delphine Dufour, Alexandra Mankovskaia, Yuki Chan, Kamyar Motavaze, Siew-Ging Gong, Céline M Lévesque
The oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans communicates using a canonical Gram-positive quorum sensing system, CSP-ComDE. The CSP pheromone already known to be involved in the development of genetic competence positively influences the formation of persisters, dormant variants of regular cells that are highly tolerant to antimicrobial therapy. It is now believed that the persistence phenotype is the end result of a stochastic switch in the expression of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules. TAs consist of a pair of genes that encode two components, a stable toxin and its cognate labile antitoxin...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Susan Yost, Ana E Duran-Pinedo
In this study, we characterized a serine protease from Tannerella forsythia that degrades gelatin, type I, and III collagen. Tannerella forsythia is associated with periodontitis progression and severity. The primary goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms by which T. forsythia contributes to periodontitis progression. One of our previous metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that during periodontitis progression T. forsythia highly expressed the bfor_1659 ORF. The N-terminal end is homologous to dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP IV)...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
S Biswas, L Turner, I Biswas
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium with a diverse ecological habitat. We recently isolated a L. rhamnosus strain (LRB) from a healthy baby-tooth that had naturally fallen out. We determined the whole genome sequence of LRB and found that the isolate is closely genetically related to an intestinal isolate, L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103). However, the LRB genome had lost about a 75-kb segment and undergone a genomic rearrangement. We assessed LRB's capacity to survive in the gut environment, at least temporarily...
October 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
S Yu, L Ding, D Liang, L Luo
Reprograming of metabolic pathways is critical in governing the polarization of macrophages into classical proinflammatory M1 or alternative anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen of periodontitis, causes an imbalance in M1/M2 activation, resulting in a hyperinflammatory environment that promotes the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, whether P. gingivalis infection modulates metabolic pathways to alter macrophage polarization remains unclear...
October 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
K Sturød, G Salvadori, R Junges, F C Petersen
Streptococcus pneumoniae transformation occurs within a short competence window, during which the alternative sigma factor X (SigX) is activated to orchestrate the expression of genes allowing extracellular DNA uptake and recombination. Importantly, antibiotic stress promotes transcriptional changes that may affect more than 20% of the S. pneumoniae genome, including competence genes. These can be activated or repressed, depending on the antibiotic agent. For most antibiotics, however, it remains unknown whether transcriptional effects on competence translate into altered transformability...
October 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
D P Miller, Q Wang, A Weinberg, R J Lamont
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial, opportunistic pathogen that causes several serious conditions including meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. It can be found in the oral biofilm, which may be a reservoir for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subgingival colonization by A. baumannii is associated with chronic and aggressive periodontitis as well as refractory periodontal disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen localized to subgingival plaque, is also implicated in several chronic conditions including aspiration pneumonia...
October 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Sylvio Redanz, Xingqun Cheng, Rodrigo A Giacaman, Carmen S Pfeifer, Justin Merritt, Jens Kreth
The majority of commensal oral streptococci are able to generate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) during aerobic growth, which can diffuse through the cell membrane and inhibit competing species in close proximity. Competing H2 O2 production is mainly dependent upon the pyruvate oxidase SpxB, and to a lesser extent the lactate oxidase LctO, both of which are important for energy generation in aerobic environments. Several studies point to a broad impact of H2 O2 production in the oral environment, including a potential role in biofilm homeostasis, signaling, and interspecies interactions...
October 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Zezhang T Wen, Kathleen Scott-Anne, Sumei Liao, Arpan De, Meng Luo, Christopher Kovacs, Brendaliz S Narvaez, Roberta C Faustoferri, Qingzhao Yu, Christopher M Taylor, Robert G Quivey
Our recent studies have shown that BrpA in Streptococcus mutans plays a critical role in cell envelope biogenesis, stress responses, and biofilm formation. In this study, a 10-species consortium was used to assess how BrpA deficiency influences the establishment, persistence, and competitiveness of S. mutans during growth in a community under conditions typical of the oral cavity. Results showed that, like the wild-type, the brpA mutant was able to colonize and establish on the surfaces tested. Relative to the wild-type, however, the brpA mutant had a reduced ability to persist and grow in the 10-species consortium (P < ...
October 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
J L Brown, E A Yates, M Bielecki, T Olczak, J W Smalley
Streptococcus gordonii, an accessory pathogen and early colonizer of plaque, co-aggregates with many oral species including Porphyromonas gingivalis. It causes α-hemolysis on blood agar, a process mediated by H2 O2 and thought to involve concomitant oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb). Porphyromonas gingivalis has a growth requirement for heme, which is acquired mainly from Hb. The paradigm for Hb heme acquisition involves the initial oxidation of oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) to methemoglobin (metHb), followed by heme release and extraction through the actions of K-gingipain protease and/or the HmuY hemophore-like protein...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
N Buduneli, D A Scott
Cigarette smoking presents oral health professionals with a clinical and research conundrum: reduced periodontal vascular responsiveness to the oral biofilm accompanied by increased susceptibility to destructive periodontal diseases. This presents a significant problem, hampering diagnosis and complicating treatment planning. The aim of this review is to summarize contemporary hypotheses that help to explain mechanistically the phenomenon of a suppressed bleeding response to dysbiotic plaque in the periodontia of smokers...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
S Liang, H Ren, H Guo, W Xing, C Liu, Y Ji, H Jiang, P Zhang, M Du
Preterm birth (PTB), accompanied by low birth weight (LBW) or not, is a syndrome with tremendous risk factors and long-term health consequences for children. In recent decades, overwhelming studies have shown that periodontitis contributes to prematurity and LBW. This study was conducted to determine the link between maternal periodontitis and the pathogenesis of PTB and/or LBW through a rat infection model induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontopathic bacterium. The murine model was established by surgically ligating the left mandibular first molars and inoculating with P...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
A Saeki, M Sugiyama, A Hasebe, T Suzuki, K Shibata
The NLRP3 inflammasome, an intracellular sensor consisting of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), and procaspase-1, plays critical roles in host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells activated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) to induce production of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-18...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
R P Settem, K Honma, M Shankar, M Li, M LaMonte, D Xu, R J Genco, R W Browne, A Sharma
The periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia has the unique ability to produce methylglyoxal (MGO), an electrophilic compound which can covalently modify amino acid side chains and generate inflammatory adducts known as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In periodontitis, concentrations of MGO in gingival-crevicular fluid are increased and are correlated with the T. forsythia load. However, the source of MGO and the extent to which MGO may contribute to periodontal inflammation has not been fully explored...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
C Yang, J Scoffield, R Wu, C Deivanayagam, J Zou, H Wu
Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are frequently co-isolated from dental plaque of children with early childhood caries (ECC) and are only rarely found in children without ECC, suggesting that these species interact in a manner that contributes to the pathogenesis of ECC. Previous studies have demonstrated that glucans produced by S. mutans are crucial for promoting the formation of biofilm and cariogenicity with C. albicans; however, it is unclear how non-glucan S. mutans biofilm factors contribute to increased biofilm formation in the presence of C...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
A Avilés-Reyes, I A Freires, J K Kajfasz, D Barbieri, J H Miller, J A Lemos, J Abranches
We report the whole genome sequence of the serotype e Cbm+ strain LAR01 of Streptococcus mutans, a dental pathogen frequently associated with extra-oral infections. The LAR01 genome is a single circular chromosome of 2.1 Mb with a GC content of 36.96%. The genome contains 15 phosphotransferase system gene clusters, seven cell wall-anchored (LPxTG) proteins, all genes required for the development of natural competence and genes coding for mutacins VI and K8. Interestingly, the cbm gene is genetically linked to a putative type VII secretion system that has been found in Mycobacteria and few other Gram-positive bacteria...
June 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
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