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Molecular Oral Microbiology

Susan Yost, Ana E Duran-Pinedo
In this study, we characterized a serine protease from Tannerella forsythia that degrades gelatin, type I and III collagen. T. forsythia is associated with periodontitis progression and severity. The primary goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms by which T. forsythia contributes to periodontitis progression. One of our previous metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that during periodontitis progression T. forsythia highly expressed the bfor_1659 ORF. The N-terminal end is homologous to dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase IV (DPP IV)...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Saswati Biswas, Lance Turner, Indranil Biswas
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium with a diverse ecological habitat. We recently isolated a L. rhamnosus strain (LRB) from a healthy baby-tooth that had naturally fallen out. We determined the whole genome sequence of LRB and found that the isolate is closely genetically related to an intestinal isolate, L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103). However, the LRB genome had lost about a 75-kb segment and undergone a genomic rearrangement. We assessed LRB's capacity to survive in the gut environment, at least temporarily...
August 7, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
S Yu, L Ding, D Liang, L Luo
Reprograming of metabolic pathways is critical in governing the polarization of macrophages into classical proinflammatory M1 or alternative anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a keystone pathogen of periodontitis, causes an imbalance in M1/M2 activation, resulting in a hyperinflammatory environment that promotes the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, whether P. gingivalis infection modulates metabolic pathways to alter macrophage polarization remains unclear...
July 14, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
K Sturød, G Salvadori, R Junges, F C Petersen
Streptococcus pneumoniae transformation occurs within a short competence window, during which the alternative sigma factor X (SigX) is activated to orchestrate the expression of genes allowing extracellular DNA uptake and recombination. Importantly, antibiotic stress promotes transcriptional changes that may affect more than 20% of the S. pneumoniae genome, including competence genes. These can be activated or repressed, depending on the antibiotic agent. For most antibiotics, however, it remains unknown whether transcriptional effects on competence translate into altered transformability...
July 2, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
D P Miller, Q Wang, A Weinberg, R J Lamont
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial, opportunistic pathogen that causes several serious conditions including meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. It can be found in the oral biofilm, which may be a reservoir for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subgingival colonization by A. baumannii is associated with chronic and aggressive periodontitis as well as refractory periodontal disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen localized to subgingival plaque, is also implicated in several chronic conditions including aspiration pneumonia...
June 25, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
J L Brown, E A Yates, M Bielecki, T Olczak, J W Smalley
Streptococcus gordonii, an accessory pathogen and early colonizer of plaque, co-aggregates with many oral species including Porphyromonas gingivalis. It causes α-hemolysis on blood agar, a process mediated by H2 O2 and thought to involve concomitant oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb). Porphyromonas gingivalis has a growth requirement for heme, which is acquired mainly from Hb. The paradigm for Hb heme acquisition involves the initial oxidation of oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) to methemoglobin (metHb), followed by heme release and extraction through the actions of K-gingipain protease and/or the HmuY hemophore-like protein...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
N Buduneli, D A Scott
Cigarette smoking presents oral health professionals with a clinical and research conundrum: reduced periodontal vascular responsiveness to the oral biofilm accompanied by increased susceptibility to destructive periodontal diseases. This presents a significant problem, hampering diagnosis and complicating treatment planning. The aim of this review is to summarize contemporary hypotheses that help to explain mechanistically the phenomenon of a suppressed bleeding response to dysbiotic plaque in the periodontia of smokers...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
S Liang, H Ren, H Guo, W Xing, C Liu, Y Ji, H Jiang, P Zhang, M Du
Preterm birth (PTB), accompanied by low birth weight (LBW) or not, is a syndrome with tremendous risk factors and long-term health consequences for children. In recent decades, overwhelming studies have shown that periodontitis contributes to prematurity and LBW. This study was conducted to determine the link between maternal periodontitis and the pathogenesis of PTB and/or LBW through a rat infection model induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontopathic bacterium. The murine model was established by surgically ligating the left mandibular first molars and inoculating with P...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
A Saeki, M Sugiyama, A Hasebe, T Suzuki, K Shibata
The NLRP3 inflammasome, an intracellular sensor consisting of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), and procaspase-1, plays critical roles in host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells activated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) to induce production of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-18...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
R P Settem, K Honma, M Shankar, M Li, M LaMonte, D Xu, R J Genco, R W Browne, A Sharma
The periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia has the unique ability to produce methylglyoxal (MGO), an electrophilic compound which can covalently modify amino acid side chains and generate inflammatory adducts known as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In periodontitis, concentrations of MGO in gingival-crevicular fluid are increased and are correlated with the T. forsythia load. However, the source of MGO and the extent to which MGO may contribute to periodontal inflammation has not been fully explored...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
C Yang, J Scoffield, R Wu, C Deivanayagam, J Zou, H Wu
Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are frequently co-isolated from dental plaque of children with early childhood caries (ECC) and are only rarely found in children without ECC, suggesting that these species interact in a manner that contributes to the pathogenesis of ECC. Previous studies have demonstrated that glucans produced by S. mutans are crucial for promoting the formation of biofilm and cariogenicity with C. albicans; however, it is unclear how non-glucan S. mutans biofilm factors contribute to increased biofilm formation in the presence of C...
August 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Sylvio Redanz, Xingqun Cheng, Rodrigo A Giacaman, Carmen S Pfeifer, Justin Merritt, Jens Kreth
The majority of commensal oral streptococci are able to generate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) during aerobic growth, which can diffuse through the cell membrane and inhibit competing species in close proximity. Competing H2 O2 production is mainly dependent upon the pyruvate oxidase SpxB, and to a lesser extent the lactate oxidase LctO, both of which are important for energy generation in aerobic environments. Several studies point to a broad impact of H2 O2 production in the oral environment, including a potential role in biofilm homeostasis, signaling, and interspecies interactions...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Zezhang T Wen, Kathleen Scott-Anne, Sumei Liao, Arpan De, Meng Luo, Christopher Kovacs, Brendaliz S Narvaez, Roberta C Faustoferri, Qingzhao Yu, Christopher M Taylor, Robert G Quivey
Our recent studies have shown that BrpA in Streptococcus mutans plays a critical role in cell envelope biogenesis, stress responses, and biofilm formation. In this study, a 10-species consortium was used to assess how BrpA deficiency influences the establishment, persistence, and competitiveness of S. mutans during growth in a community under conditions typical of the oral cavity. Results showed that, like the wild-type, the brpA mutant was able to colonize and establish on the surfaces tested. Relative to the wild-type, however, the brpA mutant had a reduced ability to persist and grow in the 10-species consortium (P < ...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
A Avilés-Reyes, I A Freires, J K Kajfasz, D Barbieri, J H Miller, J A Lemos, J Abranches
We report the whole genome sequence of the serotype e Cbm+ strain LAR01 of Streptococcus mutans, a dental pathogen frequently associated with extra-oral infections. The LAR01 genome is a single circular chromosome of 2.1 Mb with a GC content of 36.96%. The genome contains 15 phosphotransferase system gene clusters, seven cell wall-anchored (LPxTG) proteins, all genes required for the development of natural competence and genes coding for mutacins VI and K8. Interestingly, the cbm gene is genetically linked to a putative type VII secretion system that has been found in Mycobacteria and few other Gram-positive bacteria...
June 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
B K Tegels, L D Oliver, D P Miller, R T Marconi
Treponema denticola is a proteolytic-anaerobic spirochete whose abundance in the subgingival crevice correlates with periodontal disease severity. Treponema denticola evades serum-mediated killing through the binding of factor H (FH), a negative regulator of the complement system. The T. denticolaFH receptor has been identified as FhbB, an 11.4kDa immunodominant lipoprotein. Three distinct subfamilies of FhbB proteins have been delineated and designated as FhbB1, FhbB2 and FhbB3. In this study we demonstrate that all FhbB variants bind human plasminogen (Plg)...
June 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
M Eckert, D Mizgalska, A Sculean, J Potempa, A Stavropoulos, S Eick
Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia secrete proteases, gingipains and KLIKK-proteases. In addition, T. forsythia produces a serpin (miropin) with broad inhibitory spectrum. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the level of expression of miropin and individual proteases in vivo in periodontal and peri-implant health and disease conditions. Biofilm and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)/ peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) samples were taken from healthy tooth and implant sites (n = 10), gingivitis and mucositis sites (n = 12), and periodontitis and peri-implantitis sites (n = 10)...
June 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
K Shibata
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is produced as inactive proIL-1β and then processed by caspase-1 to become active. In 2002, it was demonstrated that the intracellular multiprotein complex known as the inflammasome functions as a molecular platform to trigger activation of caspase-1. Inflammasomes are known to function as intracellular sensors for a broad spectrum of various pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular patterns. In 1985, it was demonstrated that Porphyromonas gingivalis, a representative bacterium causing chronic periodontitis, induces IL-1 production by murine peritoneal macrophages...
June 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
T Thurnheer, G N Belibasakis
Bacteria residing in oral biofilms live in a state of dynamic equilibrium with one another. The intricate synergistic or antagonistic interactions between them are crucial for determining this balance. Using the six-species Zürich "supragingival" biofilm model, this study aimed to investigate interactions regarding growth and localization of the constituent species. As control, an inoculum containing all six strains was used, whereas in each of the further five inocula one of the bacterial species was alternately absent, and in the last, both streptococci were absent...
June 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
B Schneider, W Weigel, M Sztukowska, D R Demuth
Type II toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems contribute to the formation of persister cells and biofilm formation for many organisms. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans thrives in the complex oral microbial community subjected to continual environmental flux. Little is known regarding the presence and function of type II TA systems in this organism or their contribution to adaptation and persistence in the biofilm. We identified 11 TA systems that are conserved across all seven serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans and represent the RelBE, MazEF and HipAB families of type II TA systems...
June 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
T Sobue, M Bertolini, A Thompson, D E Peterson, P I Diaz, A Dongari-Bagtzoglou
Oral mucositis is a common side effect of cancer chemotherapy, with significant adverse impact on the delivery of anti-neoplastic treatment. There is a lack of consensus regarding the role of oral commensal microorganisms in the initiation or progression of mucositis because relevant experimental models are non-existent. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro mucosal injury model that mimics chemotherapy-induced mucositis, where the effect of oral commensals can be studied. A novel organotypic model of chemotherapy-induced mucositis was developed based on a human oral epithelial cell line and a fibroblast-embedded collagen matrix...
June 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
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