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Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430048/purification-and-assembly-of-thermostable-cy5-labeled-%C3%AE-pnas-into-a-3d-dna-nanocage
#1
Justin D Flory, Trey Johnson, Chad D Simmons, Su Lin, Giovanna Ghirlanda, Petra Fromme
PNA is hybrid molecule ideally suited for bridging the functional landscape of polypeptides with the structural diversity that can be engineered with DNA nanostructures. However, PNA can be more challenging to work with in aqueous solvents due to its hydrophobic nature. A solution phase method using strain promoted, copper free click chemistry was developed to conjugate the fluorescent dye Cy5 to 2 bifunctional PNA strands as a first step toward building cyclic PNA-polypeptides that can be arranged within 3D DNA nanoscaffolds...
December 15, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865404/effect-of-2-o-methyl-thiophosphonoacetate-modified-antisense-oligonucleotides-on-huntingtin-expression-in-patient-derived-cells
#2
Masayuki Matsui, Richard N Threlfall, Marvin H Caruthers, David R Corey
Optimizing oligonucleotides as therapeutics will require exploring how chemistry can be used to enhance their effects inside cells. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to fully explore chemical space around the native DNA/RNA framework to define the potential of diverse chemical modifications. In this report we examine the potential of thiophosphonoacetate (thioPACE)-modified 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides as inhibitors of human huntingtin (HTT) expression. Inhibition occurred, but was less than with analogous locked nucleic acid (LNA)-substituted oligomers lacking the thioPACE modification...
December 15, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26752710/insights-on-chiral-backbone-modified-peptide-nucleic-acids-properties-and-biological-activity
#3
Maria Moccia, Mauro F A Adamo, Michele Saviano
PNAs are emerging as useful synthetic devices targeting natural miRNAs. In particular 3 classes of structurally modified PNAs analogs are herein described, namely α, β and γ, which differ by their backbone modification. Their mode and binding affinity for natural nucleic acids and their use in medicinal chemistry as potential miRNA binders is discussed.
December 15, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26744220/chemical-modifications-of-artificial-restriction-dna-cutter-arcut-to-promote-its-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-applications
#4
Makoto Komiyama
Recently, completely chemistry-based tools for site-selective scission of DNA (ARCUT) have been prepared by combining 2 strands of pseudo-complementary PNA (pcPNA: site-selective activator) and a Ce(IV)-EDTA complex (molecular scissors). Its site-specificity is sufficient to cut the whole human genome at one predetermined site. In this first-generation ARCUT, however, there still remain several problems to be solved for wider applications. This review presents recent approaches to solve these problems. They are divided into (i) covalent modification of pcPNA with other functional groups and (ii) new strategies using conventional PNA, in place of pcPNA, as site-selective activator...
December 15, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26744081/effect-of-chirality-in-gamma-pna-pna-interaction-another-piece-in-the-picture
#5
Alex Manicardi, Roberto Corradini
Modification of the PNA backbone can be used to broaden their utility by introducing new functional groups. In particular, gamma-modified PNA have been found to be quite effective in a number of applications, and exhibit particularly high DNA binding affinity. The introduction of one side chain imply that the achiral backbone of PNA becomes chiral, and binding properties depend on the stereochemistry. A new paper on gamma-modified PNA by Ly and co-workers complete the existing knowledge by displaying that in binding to complementary PNA stereochemical orthogonality can be demonstrated...
December 15, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24937253/the-genetic-code-rewritten-revised-repurposed
#6
Roy D Sleator
Despite remaining apparently frozen through the millennia, the genetic code is far more flexible than previously believed and can be extended and repurposed with relative ease.
June 17, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24831095/synthesis-and-spectral-characterization-of-environmentally-responsive-fluorescent-deoxycytidine-analogs
#7
Adam Ah Elmehriki, Mojmír Suchý, Kirby J Chicas, Filip Wojciechowski, Robert He Hudson
Herein, we describe the synthesis and spectroscopic properties of five novel pyrrolodeoxycytidine analogs, and the related 5-(1-pyrenylethynyl)-2'-deoxycytidine analog; as well as fluorescence characterization of 5-(p-methoxyphenylethynyl)-2'-deoxyuridine. Within this series of compounds, rigidification of the structure from 6-phenylpyrrolodeoxycytidine to 5,6-benzopyrroldeoxycytidine made remarkable improvement of the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ ~1, EtOH) and substantially increased the Stokes shift. Exchange of the phenyl group of 6-phenylpyrrolodeoxycytidine for other heterocycles (benzofuryl or indolyl) produced an increase in the extinction coefficient at the excitation wavelength while preserving high quantum yields...
May 15, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24622343/anomeric-dna-quadruplexes-modified-thrombin-aptamers
#8
Natalia A Kolganova, Anna M Varizhuk, Roman A Novikov, Vladimir L Florentiev, Galina E Pozmogova, Olga F Borisova, Anna K Shchyolkina, Igor P Smirnov, Dmitry N Kaluzhny, Edward N Timofeev
Thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) is a 15-nt DNA oligomer that efficiently inhibits thrombin. It has been shown that TBA folds into an anti-parallel unimolecular G-quadruplex. Its three-dimensional chair-like structure consists of two G-tetrads connected by TT and TGT loops. TBA undergoes fast degradation by nucleases in vivo. To improve the nuclease resistance of TBA, a number of modified analogs have been proposed. Here, we describe anomeric modifications of TBA. Non-natural α anomers were used to replace selected nucleotides in the loops and core...
March 12, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24535472/investigation-of-b-z-transitions-with-dna-oligonucleotides-containing-8-methylguanine
#9
Yu-Hsiao Chen, Soyoung Park, Haruka Otomo, Sohei Sakashita, Hiroshi Sugiyama
Among various Z-form DNA inducers, such as transition metal complexes, polyamines and high ionic concentrations, 8-methylguanine have received attention as efficient chemical modifications. Although it is clear that m8-modified guanine base markedly stabilizes the Z conformation of short oligonucleotides under physiological salt conditions, how sequence composition affects the preference of Z-DNA is still not well established. In this study, various oligomers of d(CG)n or d(GC)n containing either 8-methylguanine in a different position were synthesized and their capacity of stabilizing Z-DNA were evaluated by CD spectra and then compared with each other...
February 17, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24488125/universal-strategies-for-the-dna-encoding-of-libraries-of-small-molecules-using-the-chemical-ligation-of-oligonucleotide-tags
#10
Alexander Litovchick, Matthew A Clark, Anthony D Keefe
The affinity-mediated selection of large libraries of DNA-encoded small molecules is increasingly being used to initiate drug discovery programs. We present universal methods for the encoding of such libraries using the chemical ligation of oligonucleotides. These methods may be used to record the chemical history of individual library members during combinatorial synthesis processes. We demonstrate three different chemical ligation methods as examples of information recording processes (writing) for such libraries and two different cDNA-generation methods as examples of information retrieval processes (reading) from such libraries...
January 31, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24451846/improved-bioactivity-of-g-rich-triplex-forming-oligonucleotides-containing-modified-guanine-bases
#11
Faye A Rogers, Janice A Lloyd, Meetu Kaushik Tiwari
Triplex structures generated by sequence-specific triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) have proven to be promising tools for gene targeting strategies. In addition, triplex technology has been highly utilized to study the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair, recombination and mutagenesis. However, triplex formation utilizing guanine-rich oligonucleotides as third strands can be inhibited by potassium-induced self-association resulting in G-quadruplex formation. We report here that guanine-rich TFOs partially substituted with 8-aza-7-deazaguanine (PPG) have improved target site binding in potassium compared with TFOs containing the natural guanine base...
January 22, 2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25760314/purification-and-assembly-of-thermostable-cy5-labeled-%C3%AE-pnas-into-a-3d-dna-nanocage
#12
Justin D Flory, Trey Johnson, Chad R Simmons, Su Lin, Giovanna Ghirlanda, Petra Fromme
PNA is hybrid molecule ideally suited for bridging the functional landscape of polypeptides with the structural diversity that can be engineered with DNA nanostructures. However, PNA can be more challenging to work with in aqueous solvents due to its hydrophobic nature. A solution phase method using strain promoted, copper free click chemistry was developed to conjugate the fluorescent dye Cy5 to 2 bifunctional PNA strands as a first step toward building cyclic PNA-polypeptides that can be arranged within 3D DNA nanoscaffolds...
2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25483933/the-genetic-code-rewritten-revised-repurposed
#13
LETTER
Roy D Sleator
Despite remaining apparently frozen through the millennia, the genetic code is far more flexible than previously believed and can be extended and repurposed with relative ease.
2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25483932/synthesis-and-spectral-characterization-of-environmentally-responsive-fluorescent-deoxycytidine-analogs
#14
Adam A H Elmehriki, Mojmír Suchý, Kirby J Chicas, Filip Wojciechowski, Robert H E Hudson
Herein, we describe the synthesis and spectroscopic properties of five novel pyrrolodeoxycytidine analogs, and the related 5-(1-pyrenylethynyl)-2'-deoxycytidine analog; as well as fluorescence characterization of 5-(p-methoxyphenylethynyl)-2'-deoxyuridine. Within this series of compounds, rigidification of the structure from 6-phenylpyrrolodeoxycytidine to 5,6-benzopyrroldeoxycytidine made remarkable improvement of the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ ~1, EtOH) and substantially increased the Stokes shift. Exchange of the phenyl group of 6-phenylpyrrolodeoxycytidine for other heterocycles (benzofuryl or indolyl) produced an increase in the extinction coefficient at the excitation wavelength while preserving high quantum yields...
2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25483931/anomeric-dna-quadruplexes
#15
Natalia A Kolganova, Anna M Varizhuk, Roman A Novikov, Vladimir L Florentiev, Galina E Pozmogova, Olga F Borisova, Anna K Shchyolkina, Igor P Smirnov, Dmitry N Kaluzhny, Edward N Timofeev
Thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) is a 15-nt DNA oligomer that efficiently inhibits thrombin. It has been shown that TBA folds into an anti-parallel unimolecular G-quadruplex. Its three-dimensional chair-like structure consists of two G-tetrads connected by TT and TGT loops. TBA undergoes fast degradation by nucleases in vivo. To improve the nuclease resistance of TBA, a number of modified analogs have been proposed. Here, we describe anomeric modifications of TBA. Non-natural α anomers were used to replace selected nucleotides in the loops and core...
2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25483842/investigation-of-b-z-transitions-with-dna-oligonucleotides-containing-8-methylguanine
#16
Frederic Y-H Chen, Soyoung Park, Haruka Otomo, Sohei Sakashita, Hiroshi Sugiyama
Among various Z-form DNA inducers, such as transition metal complexes, polyamines and high ionic concentrations, 8-methylguanine have received attention as efficient chemical modifications. Although it is clear that m8-modified guanine base markedly stabilizes the Z conformation of short oligonucleotides under physiological salt conditions, how sequence composition affects the preference of Z-DNA is still not well established. In this study, various oligomers of d(CG)n or d(GC)n containing either 8-methylguanine in a different position were synthesized and their capacity of stabilizing Z-DNA were evaluated by CD spectra and then compared with each other...
2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25483841/universal-strategies-for-the-dna-encoding-of-libraries-of-small-molecules-using-the-chemical-ligation-of-oligonucleotide-tags
#17
Alexander Litovchick, Matthew A Clark, Anthony D Keefe
The affinity-mediated selection of large libraries of DNA-encoded small molecules is increasingly being used to initiate drug discovery programs. We present universal methods for the encoding of such libraries using the chemical ligation of oligonucleotides. These methods may be used to record the chemical history of individual library members during combinatorial synthesis processes. We demonstrate three different chemical ligation methods as examples of information recording processes (writing) for such libraries and two different cDNA-generation methods as examples of information retrieval processes (reading) from such libraries...
2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25483840/improved-bioactivity-of-g-rich-triplex-forming-oligonucleotides-containing-modified-guanine-bases
#18
Faye A Rogers, Janice A Lloyd, Meetu Kaushik Tiwari
Triplex structures generated by sequence-specific triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) have proven to be promising tools for gene targeting strategies. In addition, triplex technology has been highly utilized to study the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair, recombination and mutagenesis. However, triplex formation utilizing guanine-rich oligonucleotides as third strands can be inhibited by potassium-induced self-association resulting in G-quadruplex formation. We report here that guanine-rich TFOs partially substituted with 8-aza-7-deaza-guanine (PPG) have improved target site binding in potassium compared with TFOs containing the natural guanine base...
2014: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24300385/enhanced-splice-correction-by-3-5-serinol-and-2-%C3%AF-o-methylserinol-guarded-ome-rna-dna-mixmers-in-cells
#19
Venubabu Kotikam, Andrey A Arzumanov, Michael J Gait, Vaijayanti A Kumar
Development of artificial nucleic acids for therapeutic applications warrants that the oligomers be endowed with high specificity, enzymatic stability and with no/reduced off-target effects. The balance between strength of the duplex with target RNA and enzyme stability is therefore the key factor for the designed modification. The chiral serinol derivative combines the attributes of amino- and methoxy- substitution when at 2'- position and at 3'- and 5'- ends, effectively balancing the duplex stability and resistance to hydrolytic enzymes...
July 2013: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24104925/improvement-of-sequence-selectivity-in-triple-helical-recognition-of-rna-by-phenylalanine-derived-pna
#20
Thomas Zengeya, Artem Gindin, Eriks Rozners
Modified peptide nucleic acids (PNA) containing one or two thymine PNA monomers derived from phenylalanine were synthesized. Triple helix formation by these modified PNAs with RNA and DNA hairpins having a variable base pair in the middle of the helix were studied using isothermal titration calorimetry and compared with triple helix formation by non-modified PNAs. While unmodified PNA had low sequence selectivity against mismatched hairpins, introduction of one or two phenylalanine-derived monomers significantly increased the mismatch discrimination and sequence selectivity of the modified PNA...
July 2013: Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA
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