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Fungal Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122179/pathogenic-potential-of-environmental-resident-fungi-from-ornithogenic-soils-of-antarctica
#1
Jordana R P de Sousa, Vívian N Gonçalves, Rodrigo A de Holanda, Daniel A Santos, Cinthia F L G Bueloni, Adriana O Costa, Maria V Petry, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
We assessed the diversity of cultivable fungi in the ornithogenic soil nests of bird species like Phalacrocorax atriceps, Macronectes giganteus, Pygoscelis antarcticus, and Pygoscelis papua in the Antarctic islands. From 481 fungi isolated at 15 °C, only 50 displayed growth at 37 °C, and were identified as 14 species of 15 genera. Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were the most abundant species obtained. Fifty taxa grew at 40 °C; displayed haemolytic and phospholipase activities; produced tiny spores, capsule, and melanin; showed growth at different pH; and showed resistance to amphotericin B...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122178/pdslt2-penicillium-digitatum-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-controls-sporulation-and-virulence-during-citrus-fruit-infection
#2
Marta de Ramón-Carbonell, Paloma Sánchez-Torres
The Slt2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homologue of Penicillium digitatum, the most relevant pathogen-producing citrus green mould decay during postharvest, was identified and explored. The P. digitatum Slt2-MAPK coding gene (PdSlt2) was functionally characterized by homologous gene elimination and transcriptomic evaluation. The absence of PdSlt2 gene resulted in significantly reduced virulence during citrus infection. The ΔPdSlt2 mutants were also defective in asexual reproduction, showing impairment of sporulation during citrus infection...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122177/ascospore-release-in-apple-scab-underlies-infrared-sensation
#3
Katja Ehlert, Meike Piepenbring, Andreas Kollar
The agent of apple scab disease (Venturia inaequalis) is the most common pathogen in apple cultivation. Its ascospores are released in spring, mainly during daylight hours and triggered by rain events. To investigate the causes of diurnal rhythm of ascospore dissemination of the apple scab fungus ascospore releases were examined continuously with spore traps in the orchard and with laboratory assays. One of the spore traps was illuminated at night with different light sources in each year during 2011-2015. The laboratory assays were performed with different light sources with varying wavelengths and intensities...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122176/evaluating-the-response-to-fusarium-ananatum-inoculation-and-antifungal-activity-of-phenolic-acids-in-pineapple
#4
Bastien Barral, Marc Chillet, Jerome Minier, Mathieu Léchaudel, Sabine Schorr-Galindo
Fusarium ananatum causes fruitlet core rot (FCR) in pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) when the fruit reaches maturity. Hidden symptoms make it difficult to assess the disease, regardless of its stage, and basic questions concerning the involvement of the phenolic compounds in response to infection remain unknown. A direct inoculation method of F. ananatum in pineapple fruitlets was developed to monitor the growth of black spots and the changes in phenolic acids and ascorbic acid concentration under controlled conditions...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122175/enhancing-taxol-production-in-a-novel-endophytic-fungus-aspergillus-aculeatinus-tax-6-isolated-from-taxus-chinensis-var-mairei
#5
Weichuan Qiao, Fei Ling, Lei Yu, Yifang Huang, Ting Wang
Taxol is a curatively effective but rare anti-tumor agent extracted from Taxus (yew) barks; however, the high cost and low production of the extraction method have limited its widespread use. In this study, fungi isolated from Taxus chinensis var. mairei were tested for their ability to produce taxol. High performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that Aspergillus aculeatinus Tax-6, one of the endophytic fungi, could produce taxol in potato dextrose agar liquid medium. NaOAc, Cu(2+), and salicylic acid were introduced into the medium to enhance taxol production of strain Tax-6 because NaOAc is an important precursor of taxol, Cu(2+) may enhance the activity of oxidase and catalyze the formation of taxol, and salicylic acid could be an elicitor signal...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122174/differential-gene-expression-profiling-analysis-in-pleurotus-ostreatus-during-interspecific-antagonistic-interactions-with-dichomitus-squalens-and-trametes-versicolor
#6
Zixuan Zhong, Liu Li, Peng Chang, Haiying Xie, Huiting Zhang, Yasuo Igarashi, Nannan Li, Feng Luo
This study provided analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Pleurotus ostreatus under the interaction with Dichomitus squalens and Trametes versicolor, which is valuable for exploration on the fungal defence system against stressful condition caused by interspecific antagonistic interaction. Our result showed significant upregulation of abundant defence-related genes encoding laccase, manganese peroxidase, aldo-keto reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, which all play important roles in oxidative stress-resistant response...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122173/the-homothallic-mating-type-locus-of-the-conifer-needle-endophyte-phialocephala-scopiformis-daomc-229536-order-helotiales
#7
Brent M Robicheau, Adèle L Bunbury-Blanchette, Kurt LaButti, Igor V Grigoriev, Allison K Walker
We describe the complete mating-type (MAT) locus for Phialocephala scopiformis Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures (DAOMC) 229536 - a basal lineage within Vibrisseaceae. This strain is of interest due to its ability to produce the important antiinsectan rugulosin. We also provide some of the first insights into the genome structure and gene inventory of nonclavicipitalean endophytes. Sequence was obtained through shotgun sequencing of the entire P. scopiformis genome, and the MAT locus was then determined by comparing this genomic sequence to known MAT loci within the Phialocephala fortinii s...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122172/the-c2h2-transcription-factor-vdmsn2-controls-hyphal-growth-microsclerotia-formation-and-virulence-of-verticillium-dahliae
#8
Longyan Tian, Jun Yu, Yonglin Wang, Chengming Tian
Verticillium dahliae is a notorious pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in numerous plant species worldwide. The fungus produces melanized microsclerotia, which helps it survive adverse environmental conditions that it may encounter within its hosts and in the soil. Previously, we determined that the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is involved in the environmental stress response of V. dahliae. In this study, we investigated the function of VdMsn2, a homologue of the yeast C2H2 transcription factor Msn2, which is predicted to function as a downstream player in the HOG pathway...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029704/wood-decay-fungus-flavodon-ambrosius-basidiomycota-polyporales-is-widely-farmed-by-two-genera-of-ambrosia-beetles
#9
You Li, Craig Christopher Bateman, James Skelton, Michelle Alice Jusino, Zachary John Nolen, David Rabern Simmons, Jiri Hulcr
The ambrosia fungus Flavodon ambrosius is the primary nutritional mutualist of ambrosia beetles Ambrosiodmus and Ambrosiophilus in North America. F. ambrosius is the only known ambrosial basidiomycete, unique in its efficient lignocellulose degradation. F. ambrosius is associated with both native American beetle species and species introduced from Asia. It remains unknown whether F. ambrosius is strictly a North American fungus, or whether it is also associated with these ambrosia beetle genera on other continents...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029703/comparative-genomics-of-maize-ear-rot-pathogens-reveals-expansion-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-and-secondary-metabolism-backbone-genes-in-stenocarpella-maydis
#10
Alex Z Zaccaron, Charles P Woloshuk, Burton H Bluhm
Stenocarpella maydis is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes Diplodia ear rot, one of the most destructive diseases of maize. To date, little information is available regarding the molecular basis of pathogenesis in this organism, in part due to limited genomic resources. In this study, a 54.8 Mb draft genome assembly of S. maydis was obtained with Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies, and analyzed. Comparative genomic analyses with the predominant maize ear rot pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium graminearum revealed an expanded set of carbohydrate-active enzymes for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in S...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029702/lysyl-trna-synthetase-krs-acts-a-virulence-factor-of-beauveria-bassiana-by-its-vital-role-in-conidial-germination-and-dimorphic-transition
#11
Xiao-Guan Zhu, Zhen-Jian Chu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Krs is a class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) that is involved in cytosolic protein synthesis in budding yeast but functionally has not been explored in filamentous fungi. Previous transcriptomic analysis has revealed that a Krs-coding gene is likely involved in pathogenesis of Beauveria bassiana, a classic insect pathogen as a global source of fungal insecticides. Here, we show that Krs is localized in the cytoplasm of hyphal cells and acts as a substantial virulence factor in B. bassiana. Deletion of krs resulted in 10-h delayed germination, decreased (15 %) thermotolerance, and lowered (46 %) UV-B resistance of aerial conidia despite limited impact on conidiation capacity and slight or inconspicuous influence on radial growth on rich and minimal media with different carbon (10 sugars/polyols) and nitrogen (17 amino acids) sources...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029701/out-of-asia-biogeography-of-fungal-populations-reveals-asian-origin-of-diversification-of-the-laccaria-amethystina-complex-and-two-new-species-of-violet-laccaria
#12
Lucie Vincenot, Flavius Popa, Francisco Laso, Kathrin Donges, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Gerhard Kost, Zhu L Yang, Kazuhide Nara, Marc-André Selosse
Purple Laccaria are ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes associated with temperate forests all over the Northern Hemisphere in at least two taxa: Laccaria amethysteo-occidentalis in North America, and L. amethystina complex in Eurasia, as shown by Vincenot et al. (2012). Here, we combine a further study of the genetic structure of L. amethystina populations from Europe to southwestern China and Japan, using neutral Single Sequence Repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers; and a systematic description of two novel Asian species, namely Laccaria moshuijun and Laccaria japonica, based on ecological, morphological, and molecular criteria (rDNA sequences)...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029700/lipid-components-of-bile-increase-the-protective-effect-of-conjugated-bile-salts-against-antifungal-drugs
#13
Shih-Hung Hsieh, Matthias Brock
Fungi and bacteria can persist in the human gall bladder. Previous studies have shown that bile protects Candida albicans in this cryptic host niche from antifungals, providing a reservoir for intestinal re-colonization after discontinuation of antifungal therapy. Bile and conjugated bile salts trap antifungals in micelles, thereby reducing their bioavailability and possibly promoting the development of drug resistance. Here we show that the protective effect of bile and conjugated bile salts is not limited to C...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029699/viability-purity-and-genetic-stability-of-entomopathogenic-fungi-species-using-different-preservation-methods
#14
Miguel A Ayala-Zermeño, Adrien Gallou, Angélica M Berlanga-Padilla, Gilda Y Andrade-Michel, José C Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Hugo C Arredondo-Bernal, Roberto Montesinos-Matías
Preservation methods for entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) require effective protocols to ensure uniform processes and to avoid alterations during storage. The aim of this study was to preserve Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium acridum, M. anisopliae, M. rileyi, Isaria javanica, Hirsutella thompsonii, H. citriformis and Lecanicillium lecanii in mineral oil (MO), sterile water (SW), silica gel (SG), lyophilisation (L), ultracold-freezing at -70 °C, and cryopreservation at -196 °C. The viability and purity of the fungi were then verified: phenotypic characteristics were evaluated qualitatively at 6, 12 and 24 m...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029698/intrinsic-disorder-is-a-common-structural-characteristic-of-rxlr-effectors-in-oomycete-pathogens
#15
Danyu Shen, Qingling Li, Peng Sun, Meixiang Zhang, Daolong Dou
Intrinsic disorder is common in nature and has been studied to play important biological roles in bacterial effectors. However, disorder in oomycete RxLR effectors has not been investigated previously and the roles are unknown. Our results of PONDR VL-XT disorder analysis showed that predicted oomycete RxLR effectors were significantly more disordered than other effectors and secretome. The distribution of disorder content presented preference that RxLR-dEER regions were enriched in disordered residues, suggesting potential role of disorder in effector translocation...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029697/the-identification-of-transcriptional-regulation-related-gene-of-laccase-poxc-through-yeast-one-hybrid-screening-from-pleurotus-ostreatus
#16
Yuancheng Qi, Chao Liu, Xiankai Sun, Liyou Qiu, Jinwen Shen
Pleurotus ostreatus laccase gene poxc is transcriptionally induced by copper, and several putative MREs have been found and confirmed in its promoter region. However, the related transcription factors mediating copper response via MREs have not been reported. To isolate MRE binding proteins, we carried out yeast one-hybrid screens. Reporter genes containing two trimers of the cMRE2 and cMRE3 element were prepared and introduced into a yeast strain. The yeast was transformed with library cDNA that represents RNA isolated from CuSO4-treated fungi of P...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889913/phylogenetic-relationships-of-chlamydomyces-harzia-olpitrichum-and-their-sexual-allies-melanospora-and-sphaerodes
#17
Neil P Schultes, Besnik Murtishi, De-Wei Li
Phylogenetic analyses using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit rRNA (LSU), and small subunit (SSU) sequence data showed that Harzia, Chlamydomyces, and Olpitrichum are con-generic. Thus, Chlamydomyces, and Olpitrichum were reduced to synonymy of Harzia. The generic concept was amended and expanded accordingly. Eight new combinations were proposed. Melanospora and Sphaerodes are phylogenetically related to Harzia. However, several members of Melanospora and Sphaerodes are polyphyletic and belong to Hypocreales or Microascales in Sordariomycetes...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889912/a-systematic-overview-of-descolea-agaricales-in-the-nothofagaceae-forests-of-patagonia
#18
Francisco Kuhar, Matthew E Smith, Alija Mujic, Camille Truong, Eduardo Nouhra
The descolea clade includes species of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes in the genera Descolea, Setchelliogaster, Descomyces, and Timgrovea that are known primarily from the Southern Hemisphere. Taxa in this group produce basidiomes that range in morphology from typical epigeous mushrooms (Descolea) and secotioid taxa (Setchelliogaster) to fully gasteroid species (Descomyces and Timgrovea). High intraspecific morphological variation has been reported in several species within this clade, suggesting that careful morphological and molecular studies are needed to refine species concepts...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889911/fpd-a-comprehensive-phosphorylation-database-in-fungi
#19
Youhuang Bai, Bin Chen, Mingzhu Li, Yincong Zhou, Silin Ren, Qin Xu, Ming Chen, Shihua Wang
Protein phosphorylation, one of the most classic post-translational modification, plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes including cell cycle, growth, and signal transduction pathways. However, the available information about phosphorylation in fungi is limited. Here, we provided a Fungi Phosphorylation Database (FPD) that comprises high-confidence in vivo phosphosites identified by MS-based proteomics in various fungal species. This comprehensive phosphorylation database contains 62 272 non-redundant phosphorylation sites in 11 222 proteins across eight organisms, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Cryptococcus neoformans...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889910/phylogenetic-study-of-the-colletotrichum-species-on-imported-citrus-fruits-uncovers-a-low-diversity-and-a-new-species-in-the-colletotrichum-gigasporum-complex
#20
Clovis Douanla-Meli, Jens-Georg Unger
Colletotrichum species associated with citrus fruits are fragmentarily known and it lacks accordingly accurate information on the diversity carried alongside the trade of these commodities from producer countries to Europe. In this study, we investigated the molecular phylogenetic diversity, colonisation, and prevalence of Colletotrichum isolated from asymptomatic and diseased tissues of nine citrus fruit species from 17 geographically diverse countries. Totally 454 isolates were morphoculturally characterised, and multilocus analyses (ACT, ApMat, CHS-1, GAPDH, ITS, TUB2) was performed on a subset of representative morphotype isolates...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
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