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Fungal Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889913/phylogenetic-relationships-of-chlamydomyces-harzia-olpitrichum-and-their-sexual-allies-melanospora-and-sphaerodes
#1
Neil P Schultes, Besnik Murtishi, De-Wei Li
Phylogenetic analyses using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit rRNA (LSU), and small subunit (SSU) sequence data showed that Harzia, Chlamydomyces, and Olpitrichum are con-generic. Thus, Chlamydomyces, and Olpitrichum were reduced to synonymy of Harzia. The generic concept was amended and expanded accordingly. Eight new combinations were proposed. Melanospora and Sphaerodes are phylogenetically related to Harzia. However, several members of Melanospora and Sphaerodes are polyphyletic and belong to Hypocreales or Microascales in Sordariomycetes...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889912/a-systematic-overview-of-descolea-agaricales-in-the-nothofagaceae-forests-of-patagonia
#2
Francisco Kuhar, Matthew E Smith, Alija Mujic, Camille Truong, Eduardo Nouhra
The descolea clade includes species of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes in the genera Descolea, Setchelliogaster, Descomyces, and Timgrovea that are known primarily from the Southern Hemisphere. Taxa in this group produce basidiomes that range in morphology from typical epigeous mushrooms (Descolea) and secotioid taxa (Setchelliogaster) to fully gasteroid species (Descomyces and Timgrovea). High intraspecific morphological variation has been reported in several species within this clade, suggesting that careful morphological and molecular studies are needed to refine species concepts...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889911/fpd-a-comprehensive-phosphorylation-database-in-fungi
#3
Youhuang Bai, Bin Chen, Mingzhu Li, Yincong Zhou, Silin Ren, Qin Xu, Ming Chen, Shihua Wang
Protein phosphorylation, one of the most classic post-translational modification, plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes including cell cycle, growth, and signal transduction pathways. However, the available information about phosphorylation in fungi is limited. Here, we provided a Fungi Phosphorylation Database (FPD) that comprises high-confidence in vivo phosphosites identified by MS-based proteomics in various fungal species. This comprehensive phosphorylation database contains 62 272 non-redundant phosphorylation sites in 11 222 proteins across eight organisms, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Cryptococcus neoformans...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889910/phylogenetic-study-of-the-colletotrichum-species-on-imported-citrus-fruits-uncovers-a-low-diversity-and-a-new-species-in-the-colletotrichum-gigasporum-complex
#4
Clovis Douanla-Meli, Jens-Georg Unger
Colletotrichum species associated with citrus fruits are fragmentarily known and it lacks accordingly accurate information on the diversity carried alongside the trade of these commodities from producer countries to Europe. In this study, we investigated the molecular phylogenetic diversity, colonisation, and prevalence of Colletotrichum isolated from asymptomatic and diseased tissues of nine citrus fruit species from 17 geographically diverse countries. Totally 454 isolates were morphoculturally characterised, and multilocus analyses (ACT, ApMat, CHS-1, GAPDH, ITS, TUB2) was performed on a subset of representative morphotype isolates...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889909/organization-and-evolution-of-mating-type-genes-in-three-stagonosporopsis-species-causing-gummy-stem-blight-of-cucurbits-and-leaf-spot-and-dry-rot-of-papaya
#5
Hao-Xi Li, Thomas M Gottilla, Marin Talbot Brewer
Population divergence and speciation of closely related lineages can result from reproductive differences leading to genetic isolation. An increasing number of fungal diseases of plants and animals have been determined to be caused by morphologically indistinguishable species that are genetically distinct, thereby representing cryptic species. We were interested in identifying if mating systems among three Stagonosporopsis species (S. citrulli, S. cucurbitacearum, and S. caricae) causing gummy stem blight (GSB) of cucurbits or leaf spot and dry rot of papaya differed, possibly underlying species divergence...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889908/resistance-of-fusarium-poae-in-arabidopsis-leaves-requires-mainly-functional-ja-and-et-signaling-pathways
#6
María Inés Dinolfo, Eliana Castañares, Sebastián A Stenglein
Fusarium poae has been considered as a minor species among those that cause the FHB disease but in recent years several researchers have documented a high frequency of occurrence in several crops. We evaluated the ability of F. poae to produce symptoms in A. thaliana leaves. Moreover, we analyzed the defense of A. thaliana against F. poae using SA, JA, and ET mutants and we monitored the expression level of genes involved in the main signaling pathways related to plant defense. Symptoms were observed in the inoculated leaves demonstrating the ability of F...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889907/are-thraustochytrids-algae
#7
REVIEW
Ben Leyland, Stefan Leu, Sammy Boussiba
Thraustochytrids, a heterotrophic fungus-like clade of Stramenopiles, are becoming an increasingly important source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for biotechnological industries. PUFA rich oils from these organisms are subsequently referred to in some literature and marketing sources as being derived from 'algae', in spite of their non-photosynthetic source organism. In this review, we attempt to disentangle the evolutionary relationship of the Thraustochytrids from other Protists, demonstrating that there is no scientific basis for the aforementioned misnomer...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800852/growth-of-amanita-caesarea-in-the-presence-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-and-bacillus-cereus
#8
J M Cano, M Berrocal-Lobo, J A Domínguez-Núñez
The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Amanita caesarea CECT 20127 was tested in vitro with two potentially mycorrhizal-promoting bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 and Bacillus cereus CECT 148. Although P. fluorescens showed spatial and temporal compatibility with A. caesarea, it did not affect growth of the fungus. Conversely, B. cereus exhibited no such compatibility and also inhibited fungal growth. The expression pattern of the A. caesarea gene AcMST-1 was analysed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at three time points...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800851/a-revised-family-level-classification-of-the-polyporales-basidiomycota
#9
Alfredo Justo, Otto Miettinen, Dimitrios Floudas, Beatriz Ortiz-Santana, Elisabet Sjökvist, Daniel Lindner, Karen Nakasone, Tuomo Niemelä, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Leif Ryvarden, David S Hibbett
Polyporales is strongly supported as a clade of Agaricomycetes, but the lack of a consensus higher-level classification within the group is a barrier to further taxonomic revision. We amplified nrLSU, nrITS, and rpb1 genes across the Polyporales, with a special focus on the latter. We combined the new sequences with molecular data generated during the PolyPEET project and performed Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Analyses of our final 3-gene dataset (292 Polyporales taxa) provide a phylogenetic overview of the order that we translate here into a formal family-level classification...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800850/characterization-of-the-autophagy-related-gene-bmatg8-in-bipolaris-maydis
#10
Takuya Sumita, Kosuke Izumitsu, Chihiro Tanaka
Autophagy is involved in cellular development and the maintenance of viability under nutrient deprivation in a wide range of eukaryotes. A filamentous ascomycete Bipolaris maydis, responsible for southern corn leaf blight, is also studied as a model fungus for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes that form filiform ascospores. In order to clarify the roles of autophagy in various stages of the life cycle of B. maydis, we constructed null mutants of BmATG8, an orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae autophagy gene ATG8 in B...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800849/rnai-mediated-silencing-of-map-kinase-signalling-genes-fmk1-hog1-and-pbs2-in-fusarium-oxysporum-reduces-pathogenesis-on-tomato-plants
#11
Manish Pareek, Manchikatla Venkat Rajam
Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne plant fungal pathogen, and causes colossal losses in several crop plants including tomato. Effective control measures include the use of harmful fungicides and resistant cultivars, but these methods have shown limited success. Conventional methods to validate fungal pathogenic genes are labour intensive. Therefore, an alternative strategy is required to efficiently characterize unknown pathogenic genes. RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potential tool to functionally characterize novel fungal pathogenic genes and also to control fungal diseases...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800848/cold-generation-of-smoke-flavour-by-the-first-phenolic-acid-decarboxylase-from-a-filamentous-ascomycete-isaria-farinosa
#12
Diana Linke, Stephanie J L Riemer, Silke Schimanski, Annabel Nieter, Ulrich Krings, Ralf G Berger
A decarboxylase (IfPAD) from the ascomycete Isaria farinosa converted ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), a volatile which imparts the distinct "smoke flavor" of pyrolized wood. The activity was enhanced by adding (E)-ferulic acid to the culture medium and peaked with 3.6 U g(-1) mycelium (1 μmol 4-VG min(-1)). The coding sequence of 543 bp was translated into a 25 kDa protein with a homology of 91 % to putative phenolic acid decarboxylases of its teleomorph, Cordyceps militaris, and Beauveria bassiana, the anamorph of Cordyceps bassiana...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800847/heterotrimeric-g-protein-alpha-subunit-controls-growth-stress-response-extracellular-protease-activity-and-cyclopiazonic-acid-production-in-penicillium-camemberti
#13
Ramón O García-Rico, Carlos Gil-Durán, Juan F Rojas-Aedo, Inmaculada Vaca, Luis Figueroa, Gloria Levicán, Renato Chávez
The fungus Penicillium camemberti is widely used in the ripening of various bloomy-rind cheeses. Several properties of P. camemberti are important in cheese ripening, including conidiation, growth and enzyme production, among others. However, the production of mycotoxins such as cyclopiazonic acid during the ripening process by P. camemberti has raised concerns among consumers that demand food with minimal contamination. Here we show that overexpressing an α-subunit from the subgroup I of the heterotrimeric G protein (Gαi) influences several of these processes: it negatively affects growth in a media-dependent manner, triggers conidial germination, reduces the rate of sporulation, affects thermal and osmotic stress resistance, and also extracellular protease and cyclopiazonic acid production...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800846/saprotrophic-proteomes-of-biotypes-of-the-witches-broom-pathogen-moniliophthora-perniciosa
#14
Sandra Pierre, Gareth W Griffith, Russell M Morphew, Luis A J Mur, Ian M Scott
Nine geographically diverse Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease pathogen) isolates were cultured in vitro. They included six C-biotypes differing in virulence on cacao (Theobroma cacao), two S-biotypes (solanaceous hosts), and an L-biotype (liana hosts). Mycelial growth rates and morphologies differed considerably, but no characters were observed to correlate with virulence or biotype. In plant inoculations using basidiospores, one C-biotype caused symptoms on tomato (an S-biotype host), adding to evidence of limited host adaptation in these biotypes...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705399/monoblepharidomycetes-diversity-includes-new-parasitic-and-saprotrophic-species-with-highly-intronized-rdna
#15
Sergey A Karpov, Karomat S Mamanazarova, Olga V Popova, Vladimir V Aleoshin, Timothy Y James, Maria A Mamkaeva, Victoria S Tcvetkova, Andrey E Vishnyakov, Joyce E Longcore
The Monoblepharidomycetes is the sister class to the Chytridiomycetes in the phylum Chytridiomycota. The six known genera have thalli that are either monocentric and without rhizoids or produce hyphae with an independent evolutionary origin from the hyphae of higher fungi. On the basis of morphological characters and phylogenetic evidence from the small and large subunits of nuclear ribosomal RNA, we established two new genera, Sanchytrium and Telasphaerula, each with a single species. We re-analyzed intergeneric relationships within the monoblephs, and established two new families...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705398/very-long-chain-aldehydes-induce-appressorium-formation-in-ascospores-of-the-wheat-powdery-mildew-fungus-blumeria-graminis
#16
Mo Zhu, Markus Riederer, Ulrich Hildebrandt
Asexually produced conidia of the wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) are known to perceive cuticular very-long-chain aldehydes as signal substances strongly stimulating germination and differentiation of infection structures in a concentration- and chain-length-dependent manner. Conidial germination and appressorium formation are widely prevented by the presence of free water on the host surface. However, sexually produced ascospores can differentiate immersed in water. Applying a Formvar(®)-based in vitro-system showed that ascospore appressorium formation was strongly induced by the presence of wheat leaf cuticular wax...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705397/taxonomy-and-phylogeny-of-the-auriculariales-agaricomycetes-basidiomycota-with-stereoid-basidiocarps
#17
Vera Malysheva, Viacheslav Spirin
In the present study, we investigate taxonomy of the Auriculariales with effused or cupulate, persistent basidiocarps; generic and species concepts are revised based on morphological and DNA evidences. The genus Eichleriella is reinstated to embrace ten closely related species with ellipsoid-ovoid basidia, and the genus type, Eichleriella incarnata, is placed to the synonyms of Eichleriella leucophaea. Eichleriella bactriana, Eichleriella desertorum and Eichleriella sicca are described as new to science. In addition, four species earlier treated as members of Exidiopsis or Heterochaete are combined to the genus...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705396/host-extracts-induce-changes-in-the-proteome-of-plant-pathogen-fusarium-proliferatum
#18
Karolina Górna, Dawid Perlikowski, Arkadiusz Kosmala, Łukasz Stępień
Fusarium proliferatum is a polyphagous pathogenic fungus able to infect many crop plants worldwide. Differences in proteins accumulated were observed when maize- and asparagus-derived F. proliferatum strains were exposed to host extracts prepared from asparagus, maize, garlic, and pineapple tissues. Seventy-three unique proteins were up-regulated in extract-supplemented cultures compared to the controls. They were all identified using mass spectrometry and their putative functions were assigned. A major part of identified proteins was involved in sugar metabolism and basic metabolic processes...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705395/targeted-disruption-of-the-polyketide-synthase-gene-pks15-affects-virulence-against-insects-and-phagocytic-survival-in-the-fungus-beauveria-bassiana
#19
Wachiraporn Toopaang, Suranat Phonghanpot, Juntira Punya, Cheerapha Panyasiri, Kewarin Klamchao, Rudsamee Wasuwan, Chettida Srisuksam, Duangjai Sangsrakru, Chutima Sonthirod, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Morakot Tanticharoen, Alongkorn Amnuaykanjanasin
The reducing clade III polyketide synthase genes, including pks15, are highly conserved among entomopathogenic fungi. To examine the function of pks15, we used targeted disruption to investigate the impact of Beauveria bassiana pks15 on insect pathogenesis. Southern analysis verified that the Δpks15 mutant was disrupted by a single integration of the transformation cassette at the pks15 locus. The Δpks15 mutant had a slight reduction in radial growth, and it produced fewer spores. Our insect bioassays indicated the Δpks15 mutant to be significantly reduced in virulence against beet armyworms compared to wild type (WT), which could be partially accounted for by its markedly decreased ability to survive phagocytosis...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705394/melanization-and-ageing-are-not-drawbacks-for-successful-agro-transformation-of-dark-septate-endophytes
#20
Charlotte Berthelot, Yoann Perrin, Corinne Leyval, Damien Blaudez
Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) are melanin-enriched ascomycetous fungi that are abundant in stressed environments. However, little is known about their physiology and metabolism, and DSE genes have not been functionally characterized yet. Therefore developing molecular genetic tools to investigate the biological function of genes of interest in DSEs is of major significance. We investigated Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) efficiency in eight DSE strains belonging to Cadophora sp., Cadophora malorum, Leptodontidium sp...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
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