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Fungal Biology

Francesca Rotondo, Soon Gyu Hong, Tobin Peever, Barry M Pryor
This study examined the genetic diversity of small-spored Alternaria species in the southwest desert of the USA by sampling 552 isolates from different habitats (soil and plant debris) in different locations (urban and an undisturbed desert). To estimate the genetic diversity, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting analysis was performed for all isolates. Strains representative of the sampled genotypic diversity (n = 125) were further characterized according their sporulation pattern and the capability to produce allergens...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
Martina Turk, Cene Gostinčar
Intracellular glycerol accumulation is one of the main fungal adaptations to osmotic and also cold stress. We investigated the management of glycerol metabolism in polyextremotolerant black yeasts Aureobasidium pullulans and Aureobasidium subglaciale. We show that increased salinity (5 % and 10 %; w/v), but not cold (10 °C) trigger intracellular glycerol accumulation. The transcriptional response of the genes involved in glycerol synthesis, degradation and import, to increased salinity, low temperature or a combination of both was analysed with real-time PCR...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
Ana Carolina Del V Leguina, Carolina Nieto, Hipólito M Pajot, Elisa V Bertini, Walter Mac Cormack, Lucía I Castellanos de Figueroa, Carlos G Nieto-Peñalver
The inactivation of quorum sensing signals, a phenomenon known as quorum quenching, has been described in diverse microorganisms, though it remains almost unexplored in yeasts. Beyond the well-known properties of these microorganisms for the industry or as eukaryotic models, the role of yeasts in soil or in the inner tissues of a plant is largely unknown. In this report, the wider survey of quorum quenching activities in yeasts isolated from Antarctic soil and the inner tissues of sugarcane, a tropical crop, is presented...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
Valiollah Mahdizadeh, Luis Alberto Parra, Naser Safaie, Ebrahim Mohammadi Goltapeh, Jie Chen, Jacques Guinberteau, Philippe Callac
The genus Agaricus was recently rearranged to accommodate numerous tropical taxa. Accordingly, the genus was split into six subgenera and 22 sections of which 12 are included in A. subg. Pseudochitonia. Preliminary data indicated that three putative new species belong to this subgenus. Our objectives were to describe these species, to determine to which sections they belong, and to experience the interest of some traditional traits in this new context. We morphologically described Agaricus coniferarum from France and Portugal, Agaricus iranicus from Iran, and Agaricus lusitanicus from Portugal...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
Yutaka Tanaka, Masato Sasaki, Fumie Ito, Toshio Aoyama, Michiyo Sato-Okamoto, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Hiroji Chibana, Nobuyuki Shibata
Candida glabrata is the second most common source of Candida infections in humans. In this pathogen, the maintenance of cell wall integrity (CWI) frequently precludes effective pharmacological treatment by antifungal agents. In numerous fungi, cell wall modulation is reported to be controlled by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but how the latter affects CWI maintenance in C. glabrata is not clearly understood. Here, we characterized a C. glabrata strain harboring a mutation in the CNE1 gene, which encodes a molecular chaperone associated with nascent glycoprotein maturation in the ER...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
Miroslav Kolařík, Martin Vohník
The nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuc-rDNA) is widely used for the identification and phylogenetic reconstruction of Agaricomycetes. However, nuc-rDNA-based phylogenies may sometimes be in conflict with phylogenetic relationships derived from protein coding genes. In this study, the taxonomic position of the basidiomycetous mycobiont that forms the recently discovered sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza was investigated, because its nuc-rDNA is highly dissimilar to any other available fungal sequences in terms of nucleotide composition and length, and its nuc-rDNA-based phylogeny is inconclusive and significantly disagrees with protein coding sequences and morphological data...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
Jordana R P de Sousa, Vívian N Gonçalves, Rodrigo A de Holanda, Daniel A Santos, Cinthia F L G Bueloni, Adriana O Costa, Maria V Petry, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
We assessed the diversity of cultivable fungi in the ornithogenic soil nests of bird species like Phalacrocorax atriceps, Macronectes giganteus, Pygoscelis antarcticus, and Pygoscelis papua in the Antarctic islands. From 481 fungi isolated at 15 °C, only 50 displayed growth at 37 °C, and were identified as 14 species of 15 genera. Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were the most abundant species obtained. Fifty taxa grew at 40 °C; displayed haemolytic and phospholipase activities; produced tiny spores, capsule, and melanin; showed growth at different pH; and showed resistance to amphotericin B...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
Marta de Ramón-Carbonell, Paloma Sánchez-Torres
The Slt2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homologue of Penicillium digitatum, the most relevant pathogen-producing citrus green mould decay during postharvest, was identified and explored. The P. digitatum Slt2-MAPK coding gene (PdSlt2) was functionally characterized by homologous gene elimination and transcriptomic evaluation. The absence of PdSlt2 gene resulted in significantly reduced virulence during citrus infection. The ΔPdSlt2 mutants were also defective in asexual reproduction, showing impairment of sporulation during citrus infection...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
Katja Ehlert, Meike Piepenbring, Andreas Kollar
The agent of apple scab disease (Venturia inaequalis) is the most common pathogen in apple cultivation. Its ascospores are released in spring, mainly during daylight hours and triggered by rain events. To investigate the causes of diurnal rhythm of ascospore dissemination of the apple scab fungus ascospore releases were examined continuously with spore traps in the orchard and with laboratory assays. One of the spore traps was illuminated at night with different light sources in each year during 2011-2015. The laboratory assays were performed with different light sources with varying wavelengths and intensities...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
Bastien Barral, Marc Chillet, Jerome Minier, Mathieu Léchaudel, Sabine Schorr-Galindo
Fusarium ananatum causes fruitlet core rot (FCR) in pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) when the fruit reaches maturity. Hidden symptoms make it difficult to assess the disease, regardless of its stage, and basic questions concerning the involvement of the phenolic compounds in response to infection remain unknown. A direct inoculation method of F. ananatum in pineapple fruitlets was developed to monitor the growth of black spots and the changes in phenolic acids and ascorbic acid concentration under controlled conditions...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
Weichuan Qiao, Fei Ling, Lei Yu, Yifang Huang, Ting Wang
Taxol is a curatively effective but rare anti-tumor agent extracted from Taxus (yew) barks; however, the high cost and low production of the extraction method have limited its widespread use. In this study, fungi isolated from Taxus chinensis var. mairei were tested for their ability to produce taxol. High performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that Aspergillus aculeatinus Tax-6, one of the endophytic fungi, could produce taxol in potato dextrose agar liquid medium. NaOAc, Cu(2+), and salicylic acid were introduced into the medium to enhance taxol production of strain Tax-6 because NaOAc is an important precursor of taxol, Cu(2+) may enhance the activity of oxidase and catalyze the formation of taxol, and salicylic acid could be an elicitor signal...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
Zixuan Zhong, Liu Li, Peng Chang, Haiying Xie, Huiting Zhang, Yasuo Igarashi, Nannan Li, Feng Luo
This study provided analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Pleurotus ostreatus under the interaction with Dichomitus squalens and Trametes versicolor, which is valuable for exploration on the fungal defence system against stressful condition caused by interspecific antagonistic interaction. Our result showed significant upregulation of abundant defence-related genes encoding laccase, manganese peroxidase, aldo-keto reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, which all play important roles in oxidative stress-resistant response...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
Brent M Robicheau, Adèle L Bunbury-Blanchette, Kurt LaButti, Igor V Grigoriev, Allison K Walker
We describe the complete mating-type (MAT) locus for Phialocephala scopiformis Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures (DAOMC) 229536 - a basal lineage within Vibrisseaceae. This strain is of interest due to its ability to produce the important antiinsectan rugulosin. We also provide some of the first insights into the genome structure and gene inventory of nonclavicipitalean endophytes. Sequence was obtained through shotgun sequencing of the entire P. scopiformis genome, and the MAT locus was then determined by comparing this genomic sequence to known MAT loci within the Phialocephala fortinii s...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
Longyan Tian, Jun Yu, Yonglin Wang, Chengming Tian
Verticillium dahliae is a notorious pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in numerous plant species worldwide. The fungus produces melanized microsclerotia, which helps it survive adverse environmental conditions that it may encounter within its hosts and in the soil. Previously, we determined that the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is involved in the environmental stress response of V. dahliae. In this study, we investigated the function of VdMsn2, a homologue of the yeast C2H2 transcription factor Msn2, which is predicted to function as a downstream player in the HOG pathway...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
You Li, Craig Christopher Bateman, James Skelton, Michelle Alice Jusino, Zachary John Nolen, David Rabern Simmons, Jiri Hulcr
The ambrosia fungus Flavodon ambrosius is the primary nutritional mutualist of ambrosia beetles Ambrosiodmus and Ambrosiophilus in North America. F. ambrosius is the only known ambrosial basidiomycete, unique in its efficient lignocellulose degradation. F. ambrosius is associated with both native American beetle species and species introduced from Asia. It remains unknown whether F. ambrosius is strictly a North American fungus, or whether it is also associated with these ambrosia beetle genera on other continents...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
Alex Z Zaccaron, Charles P Woloshuk, Burton H Bluhm
Stenocarpella maydis is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes Diplodia ear rot, one of the most destructive diseases of maize. To date, little information is available regarding the molecular basis of pathogenesis in this organism, in part due to limited genomic resources. In this study, a 54.8 Mb draft genome assembly of S. maydis was obtained with Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies, and analyzed. Comparative genomic analyses with the predominant maize ear rot pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium graminearum revealed an expanded set of carbohydrate-active enzymes for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in S...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
Xiao-Guan Zhu, Zhen-Jian Chu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Krs is a class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) that is involved in cytosolic protein synthesis in budding yeast but functionally has not been explored in filamentous fungi. Previous transcriptomic analysis has revealed that a Krs-coding gene is likely involved in pathogenesis of Beauveria bassiana, a classic insect pathogen as a global source of fungal insecticides. Here, we show that Krs is localized in the cytoplasm of hyphal cells and acts as a substantial virulence factor in B. bassiana. Deletion of krs resulted in 10-h delayed germination, decreased (15 %) thermotolerance, and lowered (46 %) UV-B resistance of aerial conidia despite limited impact on conidiation capacity and slight or inconspicuous influence on radial growth on rich and minimal media with different carbon (10 sugars/polyols) and nitrogen (17 amino acids) sources...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
Lucie Vincenot, Flavius Popa, Francisco Laso, Kathrin Donges, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Gerhard Kost, Zhu L Yang, Kazuhide Nara, Marc-André Selosse
Purple Laccaria are ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes associated with temperate forests all over the Northern Hemisphere in at least two taxa: Laccaria amethysteo-occidentalis in North America, and L. amethystina complex in Eurasia, as shown by Vincenot et al. (2012). Here, we combine a further study of the genetic structure of L. amethystina populations from Europe to southwestern China and Japan, using neutral Single Sequence Repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers; and a systematic description of two novel Asian species, namely Laccaria moshuijun and Laccaria japonica, based on ecological, morphological, and molecular criteria (rDNA sequences)...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
Shih-Hung Hsieh, Matthias Brock
Fungi and bacteria can persist in the human gall bladder. Previous studies have shown that bile protects Candida albicans in this cryptic host niche from antifungals, providing a reservoir for intestinal re-colonization after discontinuation of antifungal therapy. Bile and conjugated bile salts trap antifungals in micelles, thereby reducing their bioavailability and possibly promoting the development of drug resistance. Here we show that the protective effect of bile and conjugated bile salts is not limited to C...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
Miguel A Ayala-Zermeño, Adrien Gallou, Angélica M Berlanga-Padilla, Gilda Y Andrade-Michel, José C Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Hugo C Arredondo-Bernal, Roberto Montesinos-Matías
Preservation methods for entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) require effective protocols to ensure uniform processes and to avoid alterations during storage. The aim of this study was to preserve Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium acridum, M. anisopliae, M. rileyi, Isaria javanica, Hirsutella thompsonii, H. citriformis and Lecanicillium lecanii in mineral oil (MO), sterile water (SW), silica gel (SG), lyophilisation (L), ultracold-freezing at -70 °C, and cryopreservation at -196 °C. The viability and purity of the fungi were then verified: phenotypic characteristics were evaluated qualitatively at 6, 12 and 24 m...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
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