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Fungal Biology

Ana M Millanes, Paul Diederich, Mats Wedin
Pucciniomycotina is a highly diverse group of fungi, showing a remarkably wide range of lifestyles and ecologies. However, lichen-inhabiting fungi are only represented by a few species included in the genera Chionosphaera and Cystobasidium, and their phylogenetic position has never been investigated. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear SSU, ITS, and LSU ribosomal DNA markers reveal that the lichenicolous members of Cystobasidium (C. hypogymniicola, C. usneicola) form a monophyletic group distinct from Cystobasidium and outside the Cystobasidiales...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
João Paulo Zen Siqueira, Deanna A Sutton, Dania García, Josepa Gené, Pamela Thomson, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
Aspergillus section Versicolores includes species of clinical relevance and many others that have been poorly studied but are occasionally found in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a multilocus phylogenetic approach, the spectrum of species of the section Versicolores and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. The study was based on a set of 77 clinical isolates from different USA medical centres, which had been previously identified as belonging to this section...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Joey B Tanney, David R McMullin, Blake D Green, J David Miller, Keith A Seifert
The genus Diaporthe comprises close to 800 species, with around 2000 names attributed to it and its asexual morphs previously recognized in Phomopsis. Diaporthe species are common plant associates, including saprotrophs, pathogens, and endophytes affiliated with a diverse range of hosts worldwide. In this study, an unknown Diaporthe sp. was frequently isolated as an endophyte from healthy Picea mariana and Picea rubens needles in the Acadian forest of Eastern Canada. Morphological observations and the application of the genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition concept using four unlinked loci (internal transcribed spacer (ITS), DNA-lyase (Apn2), translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α), and beta-tubulin (TUB)) support the distinctiveness of this species, described here as Diaporthe maritima...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Damien Ertz, Bettina Heuchert, Uwe Braun, Colin E Freebury, Ralph S Common, Paul Diederich
Taeniolella is a genus of asexual ascomycetes with saprophytic, endophytic, and lichenicolous life styles. A phylogeny of representative species is presented, with a focus on lichenicolous taxa. We obtained mtSSU and nuLSU sequence data from culture isolates of Taeniolella and from freshly collected specimens of other taxa. Taeniolella is recovered as strongly polyphyletic. The type species, Taeniolella exilis, is placed in Kirschsteiniotheliaceae within Dothideomycetes. Other saprophytic/endophytic Taeniolella species previously assigned to Sordariomycetes based on sequences were found to represent either contaminants or species that cannot be assigned to Taeniolella for morphological reasons...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Pedro W Crous, Johannes Z Groenewald
Species of Coleophoma have been reported as plant pathogenic, saprobic or endophytic on a wide host range. The genus is characterised by having pycnidial conidiomata, phialidic conidiogenous cells intermingled among paraphyses, and cylindrical conidia. Coleophoma has had a confusing taxonomic history with numerous synonyms, and its phylogeny has remained unresolved. The aim of the present study was to use a polyphasic approach incorporating morphology, ecology, and molecular data of the partial large subunit of nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Steven D Leavitt, Theodore L Esslinger, Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Molecular data provide unprecedented insight into diversity of lichenized fungi, although morphologically cryptic species-level lineages circumscribed from sequence data often remain undescribed even in well-studies groups. Using diagnostic characters from DNA sequence data and support from the multispecies coalescent model, we formally describe a total of eleven new species and resurrect two others in the hyperdiverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae. These include: four in the genus Melanelixia - M...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Dhanushka N Wanasinghe, Evan Benjamin Gareth Jones, Erio Camporesi, Asha J Dissanayake, Sutakorn Kamolhan, Peter E Mortimer, Jianchu Xu, Kamel A Abd-Elsalam, Kevin D Hyde
Laburnicola gen. nov., with four new species, Paramassariosphaeria gen. nov., with a new species and Montagnula saikhuensis sp. nov. are introduced in this paper. The phylogeny of these taxa and genera of Didymosphaeriaceae are resolved based on analysis of combined LSU, SSU, and ITS sequence data. Laburnicola is characterized by obpyriform, immersed ascomata, with a peridium fused to the host tissues, long pedicellate asci and ellipsoidal to fusoid ascospores, whose central cells have longitudinal septa and a rugged surface...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Antonia Fleischhacker, Martin Grube, Andreas Frisch, Walter Obermayer, Josef Hafellner
Arthonia parietinaria is described as new to science. Host of the type and at the same time the only confirmed host species is the foliose macrolichen Xanthoria parietina. Sequence data of nucLSU rRNA genes reveal a close relationship to Arthonia molendoi. A. parietinaria is recorded for many countries in Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa.
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Z Wilhelm de Beer, Seonju Marincowitz, Tuan A Duong, Jae-Jin Kim, Andre Rodrigues, Michael J Wingfield
There have been many recent studies using environmental nucleic acid sequences (ENAS) to assess fungal diversity. As a result, more than a third of all fungal sequences in GenBank are of environmental origin. But inconsistent annotation of the thousands of undescribed taxa represented by these sequences limits access to these data. Consequently, these ENAS and the taxa they represent are rarely considered in other studies, and especially not in taxonomic treatments. This problem is confounded by the fact that the current version of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (Melbourne Code) prohibits the description of novel taxa known only from ENAS...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Chen Chen, Gerard J M Verkley, Guangyu Sun, Johannes Z Groenewald, Pedro W Crous
Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. Based on morphology and molecular data of the partial large subunit nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), partial β-tubulin region (tub2), and the partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit region (rpb2), the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi were investigated...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Patricia E J Wiltshire
Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Ana Crespo, Pedro W Crous, Pradeep K Divakar, H Thorsten Lumbsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L Scharfenstein, Kenneth C Ehrlich, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus is able to synthesize a variety of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites including the hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1. The fungus reproduces and disseminates predominantly by production of conidia. It also produces hardened mycelial aggregates called sclerotia that are used to cope with unfavourable growth environments. In the present study, we examined the role of A. flavus fluP, the backbone polyketide synthase gene of secondary metabolite gene cluster 41, on fungal development. The A...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
Maranda Esterhuizen-Londt, Katrin Schwartz, Stephan Pflugmacher
The increasing anthropogenic pollution of aquatic environments and fresh water scarcity worldwide have prompted the development of low-cost and effective water treatment alternatives. One example of a highly released anthropogenic xenobiotics is acetaminophen (APAP), which has been detected in surface waters at concentrations as high as 5 μg L(-1). To date, traditional water treatment plants were unable to remove all pharmaceutical xenobiotics and as in the case with APAP, the breakdown products are toxic...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
Yi-Ting Yang, Se Jin Lee, Yu-Shin Nai, Sihyeon Kim, Jae Su Kim
Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used as an environment-friendly biopesticide. However, the molecular mechanisms of Bb-host interactions are not well understood. Herein, RNA isolated from B. bassiana (Bb JEF-007) and Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) infected with this strain were firstly subjected to high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare transcriptomes. Due to lack of fungal and host genome information, fungal transcriptome was processed to partially exclude non-infection specific genes and host-flora...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
Victoria E González-Rodríguez, Carlos Garrido, Jesús M Cantoral, Julia Schumacher
Filamentous (F-) actin is an integral part of the cytoskeleton allowing for cell growth, intracellular motility, and cytokinesis of eukaryotic cells. Its assembly from G-actin monomers and its disassembly are tightly regulated processes involving a number of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) such as F-actin nucleators and cross-linking proteins. F-actin capping protein (CP) is an alpha/beta heterodimer known from yeast and higher eukaryotes to bind to the fast growing ends of the actin filaments stabilizing them...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
Lucas Nojosa Oliveira, Luciana Casaletti, Sônia Nair Báo, Clayton Luiz Borges, Patrícia de Sousa Lima, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares
Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by thermo dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Although previous proteome analyses of Paracoccidioides spp. have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this pathogen has not been described. In this way, we aimed to characterize the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides species, in the yeast form. For that, yeast cells were disrupted and submitted to cell fractionation. The purity of the nuclear fraction was confirmed by fluorescence and electron microscopy...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
Sophie S Steinhäuser, Ólafur S Andrésson, Arnar Pálsson, Silke Werth
Organisms have evolved different cellular mechanisms to deal with environmental stress, primarily through complex molecular mechanisms including protein refolding and DNA repair. As mutualistic symbioses, lichens offer the possibility of analyzing molecular stress responses in a particularly tight interspecific relationship. We study the widespread cyanolichen Peltigera membranacea, a key player in carbon and nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems at northern latitudes. We ask whether increased temperature is reflected in mRNA levels of selected damage control genes, and do the response patterns show geographical associations? Using real-time PCR quantification of 38 transcripts, differential expression was demonstrated for nine cyanobacterial and nine fungal stress response genes (plus the fungal symbiosis-related lec2 gene) when the temperature was increased from 5 °C to 15 °C and 25 °C...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
Aline Cristina Velho, Mathias F Rockenbach, Pedro Mondino, Marciel J Stadnik
Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) can be caused by Colletotrichum fructicola. Although both diseases can occur simultaneously in orchards, some isolates show clear organ specialization. Thus, this work was aimed to compare microscopically the development of preinfective structures of ABR- and GLS isolates and their impact on the enzymatic oxidant defense system during the leaf infection process. On leaves, conidial germlings of GLS-isolate formed appressoria mostly sessile. In contrast, those of ABR-isolate were pedicellate and formed multiple melanized appressoria probably as a sign of unsuccessful infection attempts...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
Franciele Pereira Camargo, Ana Carolina Vieira Araujo, Evandro Marsola de Moraes, André Cordeiro Alves Dos Santos
In the cactus-yeast-Drosophila model system, the necrotic cladode is used as substrate by a diverse and specific microbiota, which is utilized as food source by Drosophila. Although this association has been the focus of many studies in arid regions of North America, little is known of its composition in South America. This study analysed yeast communities isolated from two South American cacti species: Cereus hildmannianus and Praecereus euchlorus. Fourteen yeast species were isolated and identified by their morpho-physiological character and partial rRNA gene sequencing...
October 2016: Fungal Biology
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