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Fungal Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390508/ptr2-peptide-transporters-in-fusarium-graminearum-influence-secondary-metabolite-production-and-sexual-development
#1
Aida Droce, Jens Laurids Sørensen, Teis Esben Sondergaard, Janus Jagd Rasmussen, Erik Lysøe, Henriette Giese
Putative proton coupled di-peptide transporters, PTR2s, are found in filamentous fungi in different numbers and their function during fungal development and plant infection is unresolved. In Fusarium graminearum, the cause of head blight in cereals, we identified four putative PTR2 transporters (FgPTR2A-D). The genes did not cluster together in phylogenetic analyses and only FgPTR2A and FgPTR2C were able to complement a PTR2 deficient yeast mutant in uptake of di-peptides. All FgPTR2s are continuously expressed throughout the fungal lifecycle, although at different levels...
May 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390507/a-cytosine-methyltransferase-ortholog-dmta-is-involved-in-the-sensitivity-of-aspergillus-flavus-to-environmental-stresses
#2
Qing-Qing Zhi, Jie-Ying Li, Qiu-Yun Liu, Zhu-Mei He
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that depends on DNA methyltransferases (DMT). However, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus has no detectable methylation, and role of a DMT homologue, DmtA, is undefined. Here we describe the role of the dmtA gene responding to changes in the environment by comparing knockout, point mutation, over-expression and wild type strains. Deletion of dmtA differentially affected conidia development in a media-dependent fashion, which suggests that dmtA plays an important role in conidiation...
May 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390506/diversity-of-opportunistic-black-fungi-on-babassu-coconut-shells-a-rich-source-of-esters-and-hydrocarbons
#3
Mariana M F Nascimento, Vania A Vicente, Juliana V M Bittencourt, Jane Mary L Gelinski, Francesc X Prenafeta-Boldú, Maycoll Romero-Güiza, Gheniffer Fornari, Renata R Gomes, Germana D Santos, A H G Gerrits Van Den Ende, Conceição D M P S de Azevedo, G Sybren De Hoog
The present study assessed the diversity of black yeast-like fungi present on babassu coconut shells, a substrate rich in lipids and several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aromatic hydrocarbons. Using different isolation methods, one-hundred-six isolates were obtained and were identified by ITS sequencing as members of the genera Exophiala, Cladophialophora, Veronaea, and Rhinocladiella. Two novel species were discovered. Eight strains were selected for assessing their ability to grow on toluene and phenyl acetate as the sole carbon and energy source...
May 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390505/root-endophytic-fungal-communities-associated-with-pitch-pine-switchgrass-and-rosette-grass-in-the-pine-barrens-ecosystem
#4
Jing Luo, Emily Walsh, Stephen Miller, David Blystone, John Dighton, Ning Zhang
Almost all plants in nature harbour fungi in their roots but the knowledge on distribution and the underlying principles of assemblage is still poorly developed for the root-associated fungi. In this study we analysed the root endophytic fungal communities associated with switchgrass, rosette grass, and pitch pine in the acidic, oligotrophic pine barrens ecosystem. A total of 434 fungal isolates were obtained from 600 root segments of 60 plant samples. DNA barcoding and morphological analyses identified 92 fungal species, which belong to 39 genera in six classes...
May 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390504/characterization-of-phytophthora-infestans-populations-in-northwestern-algeria-during-2008-2014
#5
Fatma Zohra Rekad, David Edward Llewelyn Cooke, Ivana Puglisi, Eva Randall, Yamina Guenaoui, Zouaoui Bouznad, Maria Evoli, Antonella Pane, Leonardo Schena, Gaetano Magnano di San Lio, Santa Olga Cacciola
A total of 161 Phytophthora infestans isolates, collected from infected potato and tomato plants during 2008-2014, were characterized based on mating type, metalaxyl sensitivity and polymorphism at 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, in order to investigate the population of P. infestans in the north-west of Algeria, an emerging potato production region. The majority of isolates were of A2 mating type (112 isolates). A high percentage (89 %) of resistance to metalaxyl among isolates was detected. The metalaxyl resistant phenotype was present in both mating types with a higher percentage in A2 mating type isolates...
May 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317545/phylogeny-and-pathogenicity-of-lasiodiplodia-species-associated-with-dieback-of-mango-in-peru
#6
Edgar Rodríguez-Gálvez, Pakita Guerrero, Carla Barradas, Pedro W Crous, Artur Alves
Mango, which is an important tropical fruit crop in the region of Piura (Peru), is known to be prone to a range of diseases caused by Lasiodiplodia spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of mango dieback in the region of Piura, and to identify the species of Lasiodiplodia associated with the disease and evaluate their pathogenicity towards mango. Mango dieback was present in all orchards surveyed but incidence varied with location. Identification of fungal isolates was based on morphological and cultural characteristics as well as sequence data of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1-α)...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317544/analysis-of-phylogeny-distribution-and-pathogenicity-of-botryosphaeriaceae-species-associated-with-gummosis-of-anacardium-in-brazil-with-a-new-species-of-lasiodiplodia
#7
Mariote S B Netto, Waléria G Lima, Kamila C Correia, Christiana F B da Silva, Michael Thon, Ricardo B Martins, Robert N G Miller, Sami J Michereff, Marcos P S Câmara
Netto, M. S. B., Lima, W. G., Correia, K. C., da Silva, C. F. B., Thon, M., Martins, R. B., Miller, R. N. G., Michereff, S. J., and Câmara, M. P. S. 2016. Analysis of phylogeny, distribution, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with gummosis of Anacardium in Brazil, with a new species of Lasiodiplodia. We identified Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with gummosis on Anacardium in Brazil. Isolates were sampled and identified on the basis morphology and phylogeny, through analysis of a partial translation elongation factor 1-α sequence, ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers, and β-tubulin gene sequence...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317543/phylogenetic-species-recognition-and-hybridisation-in-lasiodiplodia-a-case-study-on-species-from-baobabs
#8
Elsie M Cruywagen, Bernard Slippers, Jolanda Roux, Michael J Wingfield
Lasiodiplodia species (Botryosphaeriaceae, Ascomycota) infect a wide range of typically woody plants on which they are associated with many different disease symptoms. In this study, we determined the identity of Lasiodiplodia isolates obtained from baobab (Adansonia species) trees in Africa and reviewed the molecular markers used to describe Lasiodiplodia species. Publicly available and newly produced sequence data for some of the type strains of Lasiodiplodia species showed incongruence amongst phylogenies of five nuclear loci...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317542/overlap-of-latent-pathogens-in-the-botryosphaeriaceae-on-a-native-and-agricultural-host
#9
James W M Mehl, Bernard Slippers, Jolanda Roux, Michael J Wingfield
Some species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are capable of infecting a broad range of host plants. We studied the species diversity of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra, Anacardiaceae) trees in South Africa over two seasons, as well as species common to both S. birrea and adjacent mango (Mangifera indica, Anacardiaceae) trees in a subset of sites. Gene flow amongst populations of Botryosphaeriaceae shared on these tree species was tested using microsatellite markers. Twelve species were identified from S...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317541/mating-type-genes-in-the-genus-neofusicoccum-mating-strategies-and-usefulness-in-species-delimitation
#10
Anabela Lopes, Alan J L Phillips, Artur Alves
The genus Neofusicoccum includes species with wide geographical and plant host distribution, some of them of economic importance. The genus currently comprises 27 species that are difficult to identify based on morphological features alone. Thus, species differentiation is based on phylogenetic species recognition using multigene genealogies. In this study, we characterised the mating type genes of Neofusicoccum species. Specific primers were designed to amplify and sequence MAT genes in several species and a PCR-based mating type diagnostic assay was developed...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317540/endophytic-botryosphaeriaceae-including-five-new-species-associated-with-mangrove-trees-in-south-africa
#11
J Alexander Osorio, Casparus J Crous, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Michael J Wingfield, Jolanda Roux
Little is known regarding the fungi, especially fungal pathogens, associated with mangroves in Africa. This includes fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae that comprise numerous opportunistic, stress-associated pathogens often associated with trees affected by environmental and anthropogenically generated stresses, such as those affecting mangroves. We investigated the occurrence of endophytic Botryosphaeriaceae along the entire distribution of mangroves in South Africa. Asymptomatic branches were collected from ten localities and six mangrove species...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317539/botryosphaeriaceae-species-associated-with-dieback-and-canker-disease-of-bay-laurel-in-northern-california-with-the-description-of-dothiorella-californica-sp-nov
#12
Daniel P Lawrence, Francesca Peduto Hand, W Douglas Gubler, Florent P Trouillas
Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae are cosmopolitan fungi that may exist as seemingly innocuous endophytes or as destructive pathogens of numerous woody hosts, including fruit and nut crops, urban ornamental trees and shrubs, and forest trees. Surveys of bay laurel in northern California have revealed symptoms of dieback and branch canker of unknown aetiology. The goals of this study were to identify and clarify the species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with these symptoms and to confirm their pathogenicity...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317538/families-genera-and-species-of-botryosphaeriales
#13
Tao Yang, Johannes Z Groenewald, Ratchadawan Cheewangkoon, Fahimeh Jami, Jafar Abdollahzadeh, Lorenzo Lombard, Pedro W Crous
Members of Botryosphaeriales are ecologically diverse, but most commonly associated with leaf spots, fruit and root rots, die-back or cankers of diverse woody hosts. Based on morphology and DNA sequence data, the Botryosphaeriales have to date been shown to contain eight families, with an additional two, Endomelanconiopsisaceae (Endomelanconiopsis) and Pseudofusicoccumaceae (Pseudofusicoccum) being newly described in this study. Furthermore, Oblongocollomyces is introduced as new genus, while Spencermartinsia is reduced to synonymy under Dothiorella...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317537/diversity-in-the-botryosphaeriales-looking-back-looking-forward
#14
REVIEW
Bernard Slippers, Pedro Willem Crous, Fahimeh Jami, Johannes Zacharias Groenewald, Michael John Wingfield
The Botryosphaeriales are amongst the most widespread, common and important fungal pathogens of woody plants. Many are also known to exist as endophytes in healthy plant tissues. This special issue highlights a number of key themes in the study of this group of fungi. In particular, there have been dramatic taxonomic changes over the past decade; from one family to nine (including two in this special issue) and from 10 to 33 genera known from culture. It is also clear from many studies that neither morphology nor single locus sequence data are sufficient to define taxa...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317536/botryosphaeriaceae-systematics-pathology-and-genetics
#15
EDITORIAL
Pedro W Crous, Bernard Slippers, Johannes Z Groenewald, Michael J Wingfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215355/differential-dna-methylation-may-contribute-to-temporal-and-spatial-regulation-of-gene-expression-and-the-development-of-mycelia-and-conidia-in-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#16
Wanzhen Li, Yulong Wang, Jianyu Zhu, Zhangxun Wang, Guiliang Tang, Bo Huang
Conidia and mycelia are two important developmental stages in the asexual life cycle of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. Despite the crucial role that DNA methylation plays in many biological processes, its role in regulation of gene expression and development in fungi is not yet fully understood. We performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation patterns of an M. robertsii strain with single base pair resolution. Specifically, we examined for changes in methylation patterns between the conidia and mycelia stages...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215354/new-fungal-cephalothecoid-like-fructifications-from-central-european-neogene-deposits
#17
Grzegorz Worobiec, Frank Harald Neumann, Elżbieta Worobiec, Verena Nitz, Christoph Hartkopf-Fröder
Fragments of cephalothecoid fructifications (peridia) were encountered during palynological investigations of Neogene deposits in Mizerna-Nowa/Poland and Adendorf/Germany. Isolated plates of cephalothecoid ascoma in shape and cellular structure similar to the extant members of the family Cephalothecaceae are described as Cephalothecoidomyces neogenicus fossil gen. et sp. nov. while remnants of fungal sporocarps with cephalothecoid walls with indistinct lines of dehiscence, similar in structure to peridia with cephalothecoid morphology of extant representatives the family Chaetomiaceae (mainly genus Chaetomidium) are assigned to Adendorfia miocenica fossil gen...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215353/a-molecular-and-morphological-re-examination-of-the-generic-limits-of-truffles-in-the-tarzetta-geopyxis-lineage-densocarpa-hydnocystis-and-paurocotylis
#18
Leticia M Kumar, Matthew E Smith, Eduardo R Nouhra, Takamichi Orihara, Pablo Sandoval Leiva, Donald H Pfister, David J McLaughlin, James M Trappe, Rosanne A Healy
Truffle species within the /tarzetta-geopyxis lineage share smooth, globose, hyaline spores, but differ in the amount of convolution of hymenia in ascomata. The relationships among truffle species in this lineage have historically been confused. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA from recently collected members of the /tarzetta-geopyxis lineage from Asia, Austral Asia, North America, and South America prompted a reinvestigation of species and generic limits in the truffle genera Hydnocystis, Paurocotylis, and Stephensia...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215352/photoreceptors-in-the-dark-a-functional-white-collar-like-complex-and-other-putative-light-sensing-components-encoded-by-the-genome-of-the-subterranean-fungus-tuber-melanosporum
#19
Raffaele Gerace, Barbara Montanini, Marco Proietto, Elisabetta Levati, Cristina De Luca, Andrea Brenna, Patrizia Filetici, Annegret Kohler, Simone Ottonello, Paola Ballario
Light is perceived and transduced by fungi, where it modulates processes as diverse as growth and morphogenesis, sexual development and secondary metabolism. A special case in point is that of fungi with a subterranean, light-shielded habitat such as Tuber spp. Using as reference the genome sequence of the black truffle Tuber melanosporum, we used bioinformatic prediction tools and expression data to gain insight on the photoreceptor systems of this hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungus. These include a chromophore-less opsin, a putative red-light-sensing phytochrome not expressed at detectable levels in any of the examined lifecycle stages, and a nearly canonical two-component (WC-1/WC-2) photoreceptor system similar to the Neurospora white collar complex (WCC)...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215351/a-genomic-comparison-of-putative-pathogenicity-related-gene-families-in-five-members-of-the-ophiostomatales-with-different-lifestyles
#20
Ljerka Lah, Ulrike Löber, Tom Hsiang, Stefanie Hartmann
Ophiostomatoid fungi are vectored by their bark-beetle associates and colonize different host tree species. To survive and proliferate in the host, they have evolved mechanisms for detoxification and elimination of host defence compounds, efficient nutrient sequestration, and, in pathogenic species, virulence towards plants. Here, we assembled a draft genome of the spruce pathogen Ophiostoma bicolor. For our comparative and phylogenetic analyses, we mined the genomes of closely related species (Ophiostoma piceae, Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, and Grosmannia clavigera)...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
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