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Fungal Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317545/phylogeny-and-pathogenicity-of-lasiodiplodia-species-associated-with-dieback-of-mango-in-peru
#1
Edgar Rodríguez-Gálvez, Pakita Guerrero, Carla Barradas, Pedro W Crous, Artur Alves
Mango, which is an important tropical fruit crop in the region of Piura (Peru), is known to be prone to a range of diseases caused by Lasiodiplodia spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of mango dieback in the region of Piura, and to identify the species of Lasiodiplodia associated with the disease and evaluate their pathogenicity towards mango. Mango dieback was present in all orchards surveyed but incidence varied with location. Identification of fungal isolates was based on morphological and cultural characteristics as well as sequence data of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1-α)...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317544/analysis-of-phylogeny-distribution-and-pathogenicity-of-botryosphaeriaceae-species-associated-with-gummosis-of-anacardium-in-brazil-with-a-new-species-of-lasiodiplodia
#2
Mariote S B Netto, Waléria G Lima, Kamila C Correia, Christiana F B da Silva, Michael Thon, Ricardo B Martins, Robert N G Miller, Sami J Michereff, Marcos P S Câmara
Netto, M. S. B., Lima, W. G., Correia, K. C., da Silva, C. F. B., Thon, M., Martins, R. B., Miller, R. N. G., Michereff, S. J., and Câmara, M. P. S. 2016. Analysis of phylogeny, distribution, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with gummosis of Anacardium in Brazil, with a new species of Lasiodiplodia. We identified Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with gummosis on Anacardium in Brazil. Isolates were sampled and identified on the basis morphology and phylogeny, through analysis of a partial translation elongation factor 1-α sequence, ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers, and β-tubulin gene sequence...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317543/phylogenetic-species-recognition-and-hybridisation-in-lasiodiplodia-a-case-study-on-species-from-baobabs
#3
Elsie M Cruywagen, Bernard Slippers, Jolanda Roux, Michael J Wingfield
Lasiodiplodia species (Botryosphaeriaceae, Ascomycota) infect a wide range of typically woody plants on which they are associated with many different disease symptoms. In this study, we determined the identity of Lasiodiplodia isolates obtained from baobab (Adansonia species) trees in Africa and reviewed the molecular markers used to describe Lasiodiplodia species. Publicly available and newly produced sequence data for some of the type strains of Lasiodiplodia species showed incongruence amongst phylogenies of five nuclear loci...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317542/overlap-of-latent-pathogens-in-the-botryosphaeriaceae-on-a-native-and-agricultural-host
#4
James W M Mehl, Bernard Slippers, Jolanda Roux, Michael J Wingfield
Some species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are capable of infecting a broad range of host plants. We studied the species diversity of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra, Anacardiaceae) trees in South Africa over two seasons, as well as species common to both S. birrea and adjacent mango (Mangifera indica, Anacardiaceae) trees in a subset of sites. Gene flow amongst populations of Botryosphaeriaceae shared on these tree species was tested using microsatellite markers. Twelve species were identified from S...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317541/mating-type-genes-in-the-genus-neofusicoccum-mating-strategies-and-usefulness-in-species-delimitation
#5
Anabela Lopes, Alan J L Phillips, Artur Alves
The genus Neofusicoccum includes species with wide geographical and plant host distribution, some of them of economic importance. The genus currently comprises 27 species that are difficult to identify based on morphological features alone. Thus, species differentiation is based on phylogenetic species recognition using multigene genealogies. In this study, we characterised the mating type genes of Neofusicoccum species. Specific primers were designed to amplify and sequence MAT genes in several species and a PCR-based mating type diagnostic assay was developed...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317540/endophytic-botryosphaeriaceae-including-five-new-species-associated-with-mangrove-trees-in-south-africa
#6
J Alexander Osorio, Casparus J Crous, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Michael J Wingfield, Jolanda Roux
Little is known regarding the fungi, especially fungal pathogens, associated with mangroves in Africa. This includes fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae that comprise numerous opportunistic, stress-associated pathogens often associated with trees affected by environmental and anthropogenically generated stresses, such as those affecting mangroves. We investigated the occurrence of endophytic Botryosphaeriaceae along the entire distribution of mangroves in South Africa. Asymptomatic branches were collected from ten localities and six mangrove species...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317539/botryosphaeriaceae-species-associated-with-dieback-and-canker-disease-of-bay-laurel-in-northern-california-with-the-description-of-dothiorella-californica-sp-nov
#7
Daniel P Lawrence, Francesca Peduto Hand, W Douglas Gubler, Florent P Trouillas
Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae are cosmopolitan fungi that may exist as seemingly innocuous endophytes or as destructive pathogens of numerous woody hosts, including fruit and nut crops, urban ornamental trees and shrubs, and forest trees. Surveys of bay laurel in northern California have revealed symptoms of dieback and branch canker of unknown aetiology. The goals of this study were to identify and clarify the species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with these symptoms and to confirm their pathogenicity...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317538/families-genera-and-species-of-botryosphaeriales
#8
Tao Yang, Johannes Z Groenewald, Ratchadawan Cheewangkoon, Fahimeh Jami, Jafar Abdollahzadeh, Lorenzo Lombard, Pedro W Crous
Members of Botryosphaeriales are ecologically diverse, but most commonly associated with leaf spots, fruit and root rots, die-back or cankers of diverse woody hosts. Based on morphology and DNA sequence data, the Botryosphaeriales have to date been shown to contain eight families, with an additional two, Endomelanconiopsisaceae (Endomelanconiopsis) and Pseudofusicoccumaceae (Pseudofusicoccum) being newly described in this study. Furthermore, Oblongocollomyces is introduced as new genus, while Spencermartinsia is reduced to synonymy under Dothiorella...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317537/diversity-in-the-botryosphaeriales-looking-back-looking-forward
#9
REVIEW
Bernard Slippers, Pedro Willem Crous, Fahimeh Jami, Johannes Zacharias Groenewald, Michael John Wingfield
The Botryosphaeriales are amongst the most widespread, common and important fungal pathogens of woody plants. Many are also known to exist as endophytes in healthy plant tissues. This special issue highlights a number of key themes in the study of this group of fungi. In particular, there have been dramatic taxonomic changes over the past decade; from one family to nine (including two in this special issue) and from 10 to 33 genera known from culture. It is also clear from many studies that neither morphology nor single locus sequence data are sufficient to define taxa...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317536/botryosphaeriaceae-systematics-pathology-and-genetics
#10
EDITORIAL
Pedro W Crous, Bernard Slippers, Johannes Z Groenewald, Michael J Wingfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215355/differential-dna-methylation-may-contribute-to-temporal-and-spatial-regulation-of-gene-expression-and-the-development-of-mycelia-and-conidia-in-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#11
Wanzhen Li, Yulong Wang, Jianyu Zhu, Zhangxun Wang, Guiliang Tang, Bo Huang
Conidia and mycelia are two important developmental stages in the asexual life cycle of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. Despite the crucial role that DNA methylation plays in many biological processes, its role in regulation of gene expression and development in fungi is not yet fully understood. We performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation patterns of an M. robertsii strain with single base pair resolution. Specifically, we examined for changes in methylation patterns between the conidia and mycelia stages...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215354/new-fungal-cephalothecoid-like-fructifications-from-central-european-neogene-deposits
#12
Grzegorz Worobiec, Frank Harald Neumann, Elżbieta Worobiec, Verena Nitz, Christoph Hartkopf-Fröder
Fragments of cephalothecoid fructifications (peridia) were encountered during palynological investigations of Neogene deposits in Mizerna-Nowa/Poland and Adendorf/Germany. Isolated plates of cephalothecoid ascoma in shape and cellular structure similar to the extant members of the family Cephalothecaceae are described as Cephalothecoidomyces neogenicus fossil gen. et sp. nov. while remnants of fungal sporocarps with cephalothecoid walls with indistinct lines of dehiscence, similar in structure to peridia with cephalothecoid morphology of extant representatives the family Chaetomiaceae (mainly genus Chaetomidium) are assigned to Adendorfia miocenica fossil gen...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215353/a-molecular-and-morphological-re-examination-of-the-generic-limits-of-truffles-in-the-tarzetta-geopyxis-lineage-densocarpa-hydnocystis-and-paurocotylis
#13
Leticia M Kumar, Matthew E Smith, Eduardo R Nouhra, Takamichi Orihara, Pablo Sandoval Leiva, Donald H Pfister, David J McLaughlin, James M Trappe, Rosanne A Healy
Truffle species within the /tarzetta-geopyxis lineage share smooth, globose, hyaline spores, but differ in the amount of convolution of hymenia in ascomata. The relationships among truffle species in this lineage have historically been confused. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA from recently collected members of the /tarzetta-geopyxis lineage from Asia, Austral Asia, North America, and South America prompted a reinvestigation of species and generic limits in the truffle genera Hydnocystis, Paurocotylis, and Stephensia...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215352/photoreceptors-in-the-dark-a-functional-white-collar-like-complex-and-other-putative-light-sensing-components-encoded-by-the-genome-of-the-subterranean-fungus-tuber-melanosporum
#14
Raffaele Gerace, Barbara Montanini, Marco Proietto, Elisabetta Levati, Cristina De Luca, Andrea Brenna, Patrizia Filetici, Annegret Kohler, Simone Ottonello, Paola Ballario
Light is perceived and transduced by fungi, where it modulates processes as diverse as growth and morphogenesis, sexual development and secondary metabolism. A special case in point is that of fungi with a subterranean, light-shielded habitat such as Tuber spp. Using as reference the genome sequence of the black truffle Tuber melanosporum, we used bioinformatic prediction tools and expression data to gain insight on the photoreceptor systems of this hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungus. These include a chromophore-less opsin, a putative red-light-sensing phytochrome not expressed at detectable levels in any of the examined lifecycle stages, and a nearly canonical two-component (WC-1/WC-2) photoreceptor system similar to the Neurospora white collar complex (WCC)...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215351/a-genomic-comparison-of-putative-pathogenicity-related-gene-families-in-five-members-of-the-ophiostomatales-with-different-lifestyles
#15
Ljerka Lah, Ulrike Löber, Tom Hsiang, Stefanie Hartmann
Ophiostomatoid fungi are vectored by their bark-beetle associates and colonize different host tree species. To survive and proliferate in the host, they have evolved mechanisms for detoxification and elimination of host defence compounds, efficient nutrient sequestration, and, in pathogenic species, virulence towards plants. Here, we assembled a draft genome of the spruce pathogen Ophiostoma bicolor. For our comparative and phylogenetic analyses, we mined the genomes of closely related species (Ophiostoma piceae, Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, and Grosmannia clavigera)...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215350/species-delimitation-and-phylogeography-of-the-pectenia-species-complex-a-misunderstood-case-of-species-pairs-in-lichenized-fungi-where-reproduction-mode-does-not-delimit-lineages
#16
Mónica A G Otálora, Isabel Martínez, Gregorio Aragón, Mats Wedin
The main goal of this work was to study species boundaries in the genus Pectenia and elucidate the biogeographic history of the four currently accepted species. To accomplish this, we included 92 specimens across the range of Pectenia in Europe and northern Africa. We used three nuclear loci and assessed species circumscription using two Bayesian coalescent-based methods and the Bayes Factor approach. We reviewed the value of reproductive mode and other morphological features as predictors of monophyletic groups...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215349/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-conifer-needle-endophyte-phialocephala-scopiformis-daomc-229536-confirms-evolutionary-division-within-the-fungal-phialocephala-fortinii-s-l-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-acephala-appalanata-species-complex
#17
Brent M Robicheau, Alexander P Young, Kurt LaButti, Igor V Grigoriev, Allison K Walker
Despite the recent surge in mitochondrial (mt) genome sequencing, Kingdom Fungi remains underrepresented with respect to mtDNA. We describe the mt genome of the conifer needle endophyte, Phialocephala scopiformis DAOMC 229536 (Helotiales, Ascomycota). This strain is of interest to the Canadian forestry industry as it produces the anti-insectan compound rugulosin. Sequence was obtained from whole genome shotgun sequencing. Comparison to the only other published Phialocephala mt genome, Phialocephala subalpina, indicates that the suite of common mt genes - cox1-3, cob, nad1-6 and 4L, atp6, 8 and 9, as well as rrnL and rrnS - has retained an identical order...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215348/in%C3%A2-vitro-secretomic-analysis-identifies-putative-pathogenicity-related-proteins-of-sporisorium-scitamineum-the-sugarcane-smut-fungus
#18
Leonard Barnabas, N M R Ashwin, Kalimuthu Kaverinathan, Anna Rita Trentin, Micaela Pivato, Amalraj Ramesh Sundar, Palaniyandi Malathi, Rasappa Viswanathan, Paolo Carletti, Giorgio Arrigoni, Antonio Masi, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal
Sporisorium scitamineum, the sugarcane smut pathogen, relies predominantly on its secretome to successfully colonise its host, in accordance with other related smut fungi. Considering the significance of deciphering its secretome, we have examined alterations in the in vitro secretome of S. scitamineum in response to synthetic and sugarcane meristem tissue-amended growth media, so as to identify host signal responsive secretory proteins. Secretory proteins that were differentially abundant and exclusively secreted in response to host extract media were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089049/variation-in-virulence-of-beauveria-bassiana-and-b-pseudobassiana-to-the-pine-weevil-pissodes-nemorensis-in-relation-to-mycelium-characteristics-and-virulence-genes
#19
Pedro Romón, Hardus Hatting, Arturo Goldarazena, Juan Carlos Iturrondobeitia
Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria spp. have potential applications in the biocontrol of insect pests but little is known regarding their infectivity to the pine weevil Pissodes nemorensis. In this study, five isolates of Beauveria pseudobassiana and five isolates of Beauveria bassiana were tested for characteristics correlating with virulence on P. nemorensis. Isolate UAMH301 had the lowest mean lethal concentration value whereas the highest value was obtained with isolate LRC137. Growth rate was negatively correlated with virulence in B...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089048/identification-of-a-arborescens-a-grandis-and-a-protenta-as-new-members-of-the-european-alternaria-population-on-potato
#20
Sofie Landschoot, Michiel Vandecasteele, Bernard De Baets, Monica Höfte, Kris Audenaert, Geert Haesaert
Alternaria species, primarily the small-spored Alternaria alternata and the large-spored Alternaria solani, are considered a serious threat to potato cultivation. To develop control strategies, it is important to gain insight into the Alternaria population. Based on the sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, the small-spored and large-spored Alternaria isolates could be separated from each other. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the RNA polymerase second largest subunit showed that besides A...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
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