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Fungal Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890094/functional-expression-production-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-laccase-using-yeast-surface-display-technology
#1
Brandt Bertrand, María R Trejo-Hernández, Daniel Morales-Guzmán, Luis Caspeta, Ramón Suárez Rodríguez, Fernando Martínez-Morales
A Trametes versicolor laccase was functionally expressed on the membrane surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100. Laccase expression was increased 6.57-fold by medium optimization and surpassed production by the native strain. Maximal laccase and biomass production reached 19 735 ± 1719 Ug(-1) and 6.22 ± 0.53 gL(-1) respectively, after 2 d of culture. Optimum oxidization of all substrates by laccase was observed at pH 3. Laccase showed high affinity towards substrates used with Km (mM) and Vmax (μmol min(-1)) values of 0...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890093/3-nitropropionic-acid-production-by-the-endophytic-diaporthe-citri-molecular-taxonomy-chemical-characterization-and-quantification-under-ph-variation
#2
Julio Cesar Polonio, Marcos Alessandro Dos Santos Ribeiro, Sandro Augusto Rhoden, Maria Helena Sarragiotto, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a nitrogenated compound produced by plants and fungi and has been associated with poisoning episodes in humans, animals, and to induction of Huntington disease symptoms in rats. The production of 3-NPA by endophytes has been reported, but the function and biosynthesis are not well-defined. The specie of endophytic strain G-01 was confirmed as Diaporthe citri using a multilocus sequence analysis, and was verified different concentrations of 3-NPA produced at different initial pHs by these strain...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890092/routes-of-phlogopite-weathering-by-three-fungal-strains
#3
Flavia Pinzari, Javier Cuadros, Rosario Napoli, Loredana Canfora, David Baussà Bardají
Fungi dissolve soil minerals by acidification and mechanical disruption. Dissolution may occur at the microscale (contact between fungus and mineral) and medium scale (entire mineral grains). Mineral weathering by fungi and other microorganisms is thought to be of significant global contribution, perhaps producing specific weathering signatures. We report fungal dissolution of phlogopite mica in experiments with three fungal strains (Alternaria tenuissima, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Stilbella sp.) on solid medium for 30 days at 21 °C and 96-100% relative humidity...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890091/lactarius-subgenus-russularia-basidiomycota-russulales-novel-asian-species-worldwide-phylogeny-and-evolutionary-relationships
#4
Komsit Wisitrassameewong, Brian P Looney, Huyen T Le, Eske De Crop, Kanad Das, Kobeke Van de Putte, Ursula Eberhardt, Guo Jiayu, Dirk Stubbe, Kevin D Hyde, Annemieke Verbeken, Jorinde Nuytinck
Lactarius subg. Russularia is a large group of milkcaps occurring almost worldwide and dominant in many ecosystems. In this study we focus on new diversity, evolutionary relationships, divergence time, and origin of the subgenus. Six conifer symbionts are described as new to science: Lactarius atrii, L. aurantionitidus, L. dombangensis, L. flavigalactus, L. lachungensis, and L. sikkimensis. Species delimitation is assessed based on the concordance between morphological characteristics and an ITS phylogeny. Infrageneric relationships were studied using a phylogeny constructed from concatenated ITS-rpb2 data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890090/guyanagarika-a-new-ectomycorrhizal-genus-of-agaricales-from-the-neotropics
#5
Marisol Sánchez-García, Terry W Henkel, Mary Catherine Aime, Matthew E Smith, Patrick Brandon Matheny
A new genus and three new species of Agaricales are described from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana in the central Guiana Shield. All three of these new species fruit on the ground in association with species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree genus Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) and one species has been shown to form ectomycorrhizas. Multi-locus molecular phylogenetic analyses place Guyanagarika gen. nov. within the Catathelasma clade, a lineage in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890089/a-mid-cretaceous-eccrinales-infesting-a-primitive-wasp-in-myanmar-amber
#6
George Poinar
A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales in Myanmar amber is described as Paleocadus burmiticus gen. et sp. nov. in the family Eccrinaceae. The fossil is represented by two types of sporangiospores formed on different thalli protruding from the anus of a primitive wasp, with secondary infestation spores multinucleate and thin walled. Its presence establishes the Eccrinales in the mid-Cretaceous and shows that at that time, lineages of this group parasitized wasps, an association unknown with extant members of the Order.
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890088/fungal-endophytic-communities-associated-to-the-phyllosphere-of-grapevine-cultivars-under-different-types-of-management
#7
Carla Marisa Reis Varanda, Mônica Oliveira, Patrick Materatski, Miguel Landum, Maria Ivone Esteves Clara, Maria do Rosário Félix
Fungal endophytes present in different asymptomatic grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera L.) located in different vineyards within Alentejo, a highly important viticulture region in Portugal, were identified in this study. Sampled grapevine plants included the three most representative cultivars in the region, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Aragonez, growing under two different modes of management, conventional and biological. Sixteen fungal taxa were identified through sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890087/molecular-phylogeny-diversity-community-structure-and-plant-growth-promoting-properties-of-fungal-endophytes-associated-with-the-corms-of-saffron-plant-an-insight-into-the-microbiome-of-crocus-sativus-linn
#8
Zahoor Ahmed Wani, Dania Nazir Mirza, Palak Arora, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan
A total of 294 fungal endophytes were isolated from the corms of Crocus sativus at two stages of crocus life cycle collected from 14 different saffron growing sites in Jammu and Kashmir (J & K) State, India. Molecular phylogeny assigned them into 36 distinct internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes which spread over 19 genera. The diversity of endophytes was higher at the dormant than at the vegetative stage. The Saffron microbiome was dominated by Phialophora mustea and Cadophora malorum, both are dark septate endophytes (DSEs)...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890086/multiple-isoforms-for-the-catalytic-subunit-of-pka-in-the-basal-fungal-lineage-mucor-circinelloides
#9
Lucas Fernández Núñez, Josefina Ocampo, Alexandra M Gottlieb, Silvia Rossi, Silvia Moreno
Protein kinase A (PKA) activity is involved in dimorphism of the basal fungal lineage Mucor. From the recently sequenced genome of Mucor circinelloides we could predict ten catalytic subunits of PKA. From sequence alignment and structural prediction we conclude that the catalytic core of the isoforms is conserved, and the difference between them resides in their amino termini. This high number of isoforms is maintained in the subdivision Mucoromycotina. Each paralogue, when compared to the ones form other fungi is more homologous to one of its orthologs than to its paralogs...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890085/detection-of-n2o-producing-fungi-in-environment-using-nitrite-reductase-gene-nirk-targeting-primers
#10
Huaihai Chen, Fangbo Yu, Wei Shi
Fungal denitrification has been increasingly investigated, but its community ecology is poorly understood due to the lack of culture-independent tools. In this work, four pairs of nirK-targeting primers were designed and evaluated for primer specificity and efficiency using thirty N2O-producing fungal cultures and an agricultural soil. All primers amplified nirK from fungi and soil, but their efficiency and specificity were different. A primer set, FnirK_F3/R2 amplified ∼80 % of tested fungi, including Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Trichoderma, as compared to ∼40-70 % for other three primers...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742100/cyphobasidium-gen-nov-a-new-lichen-inhabiting-lineage-in-the-cystobasidiomycetes-pucciniomycotina-basidiomycota-fungi
#11
Ana M Millanes, Paul Diederich, Mats Wedin
Pucciniomycotina is a highly diverse group of fungi, showing a remarkably wide range of lifestyles and ecologies. However, lichen-inhabiting fungi are only represented by a few species included in the genera Chionosphaera and Cystobasidium, and their phylogenetic position has never been investigated. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear SSU, ITS, and LSU ribosomal DNA markers reveal that the lichenicolous members of Cystobasidium (C. hypogymniicola, C. usneicola) form a monophyletic group distinct from Cystobasidium and outside the Cystobasidiales...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742099/species-diversity-of-aspergillus-section-versicolores-in-clinical-samples-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#12
João Paulo Zen Siqueira, Deanna A Sutton, Dania García, Josepa Gené, Pamela Thomson, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
Aspergillus section Versicolores includes species of clinical relevance and many others that have been poorly studied but are occasionally found in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a multilocus phylogenetic approach, the spectrum of species of the section Versicolores and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. The study was based on a set of 77 clinical isolates from different USA medical centres, which had been previously identified as belonging to this section...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742098/production-of-antifungal-and-antiinsectan-metabolites-by-the-picea-endophyte-diaporthe-maritima-sp-nov
#13
Joey B Tanney, David R McMullin, Blake D Green, J David Miller, Keith A Seifert
The genus Diaporthe comprises close to 800 species, with around 2000 names attributed to it and its asexual morphs previously recognized in Phomopsis. Diaporthe species are common plant associates, including saprotrophs, pathogens, and endophytes affiliated with a diverse range of hosts worldwide. In this study, an unknown Diaporthe sp. was frequently isolated as an endophyte from healthy Picea mariana and Picea rubens needles in the Acadian forest of Eastern Canada. Morphological observations and the application of the genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition concept using four unlinked loci (internal transcribed spacer (ITS), DNA-lyase (Apn2), translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α), and beta-tubulin (TUB)) support the distinctiveness of this species, described here as Diaporthe maritima...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742097/contribution-to-the-phylogeny-and-taxonomy-of-the-genus-taeniolella-with-a-focus-on-lichenicolous-taxa
#14
Damien Ertz, Bettina Heuchert, Uwe Braun, Colin E Freebury, Ralph S Common, Paul Diederich
Taeniolella is a genus of asexual ascomycetes with saprophytic, endophytic, and lichenicolous life styles. A phylogeny of representative species is presented, with a focus on lichenicolous taxa. We obtained mtSSU and nuLSU sequence data from culture isolates of Taeniolella and from freshly collected specimens of other taxa. Taeniolella is recovered as strongly polyphyletic. The type species, Taeniolella exilis, is placed in Kirschsteiniotheliaceae within Dothideomycetes. Other saprophytic/endophytic Taeniolella species previously assigned to Sordariomycetes based on sequences were found to represent either contaminants or species that cannot be assigned to Taeniolella for morphological reasons...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742096/they-seldom-occur-alone
#15
Pedro W Crous, Johannes Z Groenewald
Species of Coleophoma have been reported as plant pathogenic, saprobic or endophytic on a wide host range. The genus is characterised by having pycnidial conidiomata, phialidic conidiogenous cells intermingled among paraphyses, and cylindrical conidia. Coleophoma has had a confusing taxonomic history with numerous synonyms, and its phylogeny has remained unresolved. The aim of the present study was to use a polyphasic approach incorporating morphology, ecology, and molecular data of the partial large subunit of nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742095/hidden-diversity-before-our-eyes-delimiting-and-describing-cryptic-lichen-forming-fungal-species-in-camouflage-lichens-parmeliaceae-ascomycota
#16
Steven D Leavitt, Theodore L Esslinger, Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Molecular data provide unprecedented insight into diversity of lichenized fungi, although morphologically cryptic species-level lineages circumscribed from sequence data often remain undescribed even in well-studies groups. Using diagnostic characters from DNA sequence data and support from the multispecies coalescent model, we formally describe a total of eleven new species and resurrect two others in the hyperdiverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae. These include: four in the genus Melanelixia - M...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742094/taxonomy-and-phylogeny-of-laburnicola-gen-nov-and-paramassariosphaeria-gen-nov-didymosphaeriaceae-massarineae-pleosporales
#17
Dhanushka N Wanasinghe, Evan Benjamin Gareth Jones, Erio Camporesi, Asha J Dissanayake, Sutakorn Kamolhan, Peter E Mortimer, Jianchu Xu, Kamel A Abd-Elsalam, Kevin D Hyde
Laburnicola gen. nov., with four new species, Paramassariosphaeria gen. nov., with a new species and Montagnula saikhuensis sp. nov. are introduced in this paper. The phylogeny of these taxa and genera of Didymosphaeriaceae are resolved based on analysis of combined LSU, SSU, and ITS sequence data. Laburnicola is characterized by obpyriform, immersed ascomata, with a peridium fused to the host tissues, long pedicellate asci and ellipsoidal to fusoid ascospores, whose central cells have longitudinal septa and a rugged surface...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742093/arthonia-parietinaria-a-common-but-frequently-misunderstood-lichenicolous-fungus-on-species-of-the-xanthoria-parietina-group
#18
Antonia Fleischhacker, Martin Grube, Andreas Frisch, Walter Obermayer, Josef Hafellner
Arthonia parietinaria is described as new to science. Host of the type and at the same time the only confirmed host species is the foliose macrolichen Xanthoria parietina. Sequence data of nucLSU rRNA genes reveal a close relationship to Arthonia molendoi. A. parietinaria is recorded for many countries in Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa.
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742092/hawksworthiomyces-gen-nov-ophiostomatales-illustrates-the-urgency-for-a-decision-on-how-to-name-novel-taxa-known-only-from-environmental-nucleic-acid-sequences-enas
#19
Z Wilhelm de Beer, Seonju Marincowitz, Tuan A Duong, Jae-Jin Kim, Andre Rodrigues, Michael J Wingfield
There have been many recent studies using environmental nucleic acid sequences (ENAS) to assess fungal diversity. As a result, more than a third of all fungal sequences in GenBank are of environmental origin. But inconsistent annotation of the thousands of undescribed taxa represented by these sequences limits access to these data. Consequently, these ENAS and the taxa they represent are rarely considered in other studies, and especially not in taxonomic treatments. This problem is confounded by the fact that the current version of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (Melbourne Code) prohibits the description of novel taxa known only from ENAS...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742091/redefining-common-endophytes-and-plant-pathogens-in-neofabraea-pezicula-and-related-genera
#20
Chen Chen, Gerard J M Verkley, Guangyu Sun, Johannes Z Groenewald, Pedro W Crous
Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. Based on morphology and molecular data of the partial large subunit nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), partial β-tubulin region (tub2), and the partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit region (rpb2), the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi were investigated...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
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