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Fungal Biology

Pedro Romón, Hardus Hatting, Arturo Goldarazena, Juan Carlos Iturrondobeitia
Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria spp. have potential applications in the biocontrol of insect pests but little is known regarding their infectivity to the pine weevil Pissodes nemorensis. In this study, five isolates of Beauveria pseudobassiana and five isolates of Beauveria bassiana were tested for characteristics correlating with virulence on P. nemorensis. Isolate UAMH301 had the lowest mean lethal concentration value whereas the highest value was obtained with isolate LRC137. Growth rate was negatively correlated with virulence in B...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
Sofie Landschoot, Michiel Vandecasteele, Bernard De Baets, Monica Höfte, Kris Audenaert, Geert Haesaert
Alternaria species, primarily the small-spored Alternaria alternata and the large-spored Alternaria solani, are considered a serious threat to potato cultivation. To develop control strategies, it is important to gain insight into the Alternaria population. Based on the sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, the small-spored and large-spored Alternaria isolates could be separated from each other. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the RNA polymerase second largest subunit showed that besides A...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
Anthony C Mgbeahuruike, Andriy Kovalchuk, Wimal Ubhayasekera, David R Nelson, Jagjit S Yadav
The molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of the pathogen, Heterobasidion annosum s.l., the conifer tree and the biocontrol fungus, Phlebiopsis gigantea have not been fully elucidated. Members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) protein family may contribute to the detoxification of components of chemical defence of conifer trees by H. annosum during infection. Additionally, they may also be involved in the interaction between H. annosum and P. gigantea. A genome-wide analysis of CYPs in Heterobasidion irregulare was carried out alongside gene expression studies...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
Benjamin W Held, Robert A Blanchette
Very little is known about fungal diversity in Antarctica as compared to other biomes and how these important organisms function in this unusual ecosystem. Perhaps one of the most unusual ecosystems is that of Deception Island; an active volcanic island part of the South Shetland Islands of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here we describe the fungal diversity associated with historic wood from structures on the island, which reveals a diverse fungal assemblage of known wood decay fungi as well as the discovery of undescribed species...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
Mário Cesar Jucoski Bier, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros, Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Aroma and fragrances have high commercial value for use in food, cosmetics and perfumes. The biotransformation of terpenes by microorganisms represents an attractive alternative method for production of flavourings. Endophytic fungi offer a great potential for the production of several groups of compounds; however, few studies have evaluated the biotransformation of limonene. Following preliminary studies on the biotransformation of limonene, submerged fermentation was carried out using an endophytic fungus isolated from Pinus taeda and identified as Phomopsis sp...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
Tomoyuki Osato, Pyoyun Park, Kenichi Ikeda
The Sclerotium is one of the most persistent organs in filamentous fungi. Control of sclerotial formation is promising in the prevention of sclerotial disease. In this study, cytological analyses of sclerotial development were conducted in Sclerotinia minor. Number and size of sclerotia were correlated with nutrient concentration of the media. Interruption of aeration by sealing with parafilm completely suppressed sclerotial formation. We also found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated two phases, i...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
AnnaMaria Vettraino, Clive M Brasier, Joan F Webber, Everett M Hansen, Sarah Green, Cecile Robin, Alessia Tomassini, Natalia Bruni, Andrea Vannini
Following recent discovery of Phytophthora lateralis on native Chamaecyparis obtusa in Taiwan, four phenotypically distinct lineages were discriminated: the Taiwan J (TWJ) and Taiwan K (TWK) in Taiwan, the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in North America and Europe and the UK in west Scotland. Across the four lineages, we analysed 88 isolates from multiple sites for microsatellite diversity. Twenty-one multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were resolved with high levels of diversity of the TWK and PNW lineages. No alleles were shared between the PNW and the Taiwanese lineages...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
Bello Mouhamadou, Lucile Sage, Sophie Périgon, Virginie Séguin, Valérie Bouchart, Patrick Legendre, Mathilde Caillat, Hayet Yamouni, David Garon
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the fungal secondary metabolite displaying several biological properties. Up to now, screening of fungal strains producing MPA has mainly been the result of the search of this molecule in their culture medium by chemical methods. Here we developed a molecular approach by targeting the expression level of the MpaC gene encoding the polyketide synthase, one of the key enzymes involved in the MPA synthesis. Thirty xerophilic Aspergillus strains were identified using the RNA polymerase II subunit and the β-tubulin genes...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
Tao Li, Wen-Tao Hou, Yuan Ruan, Bao-Dong Chen, Li-Guo Yang, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Yong-Guan Zhu
Carbon transport in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is of fundamental importance. However, the role of glycerol transport in AM symbiosis has not yet been resolved. Glycerol transport across the cell membrane is mediated by aquaglyceroporins (AQGPs), whereas our previous study revealed that it was disfavoured by GintAQPF2, an AQGP from AM fungi (AMF). Here, we analysed the function of two amino acid residues in the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) constriction known as the major selectivity filter in AQGPs. Replacement of phenylalanine-94 (Phe-94) by alanine (Ala) enlarged the diameter of the ar/R constriction and resulted in an increased intracellular glycerol accumulation and thus survival rate of yeast cells at high glycerol levels, while individual or joint replacement of Phe-94 and Ala-234 by tryptophan and glycine induced a closed state of GintAQPF2, suggesting that the potential double gates (Phe94-Phe243 and arginine-249) of the ar/R constriction also likely determined solute permeability...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
Stephen J Taerum, Thierry B Hoareau, Tuan A Duong, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Robert Jankowiak, Michael J Wingfield
Appropriate management of invasive fungi requires adequate understanding of their global diversities and movement histories. The fungus Leptographium procerum is associated with root-colonizing forest insects in pine forests throughout the world, and may have contributed to the aggressive behaviour of the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens) in the beetle's invasive range in China. We used microsatellites and mating type loci to investigate the global diversity of L. procerum and the source population of L...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
Alain C Misse, Irene Barnes, Francois Roets, Michael Mbenoun, Michael J Wingfield, Jolanda Roux
Ceratocystis tsitsikammensis was first isolated from bark harvesting wounds on two indigenous tree species in the Afromontane forests of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Inoculation studies indicated that it is a potential pathogen of native Rapanea melanophloeos trees. In this study, we investigated the distribution, ecology and biology of C. tsitsikammensis in the Garden Route National Park of South Africa. Isolates were obtained from wounds on R. melanophloeos, three non-native hosts as well as from nitidulid and staphylinid beetles visiting wounds on these trees...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
Jun Wang, Liqin Kang, Zhonghua Liu, Sheng Yuan
A gene coding endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase (ENG16A) was cloned from Coprinopsis cinerea and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. ENG16A only acts on substrates containing β-1,3 glycosidic bonds but not on substrates containing only β-1,4- or β-1,6-glycosidic bonds. Interestingly, compared to the activity of this enzyme towards carboxymethyl (CM)-pachyman containing only β-1,3-glycosidic bonds, its activity towards barley β-glucan containing both β-1,3-glycosidic and β-1,4-glycosidic bonds was increased by 64...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
Hyemin Choi, Keuk-Jun Kim, Dong Gun Lee
The antifungal activity of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH) was studied against various pathogenic fungi. PHMGH had more potent antifungal activity than amphotericin B, which is a commonly used antifungal drug, and also showed no hemolytic and lactate dehydrogenase release activities in the range of 1.25-40.0 μg mL(-1). PHMGH is a cationic polymer containing an amino group and a polymeric guanidine group. Based on its characteristics such as the cationic charge and hydrophobicity, the antifungal mechanism of PHMGH was investigated using Candida albicans, as a model organism...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
Andrea Vannini, AnnaMaria Vettraino, Diana Martignoni, Carmen Morales-Rodriguez, Mario Contarini, Romina Caccia, Bruno Paparatti, Stefano Speranza
Gnomoniopsis castanea has been reported as the causal agent of necrosis of chestnut wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) galls. The fungus is frequently observed on galls in chestnut stands infested by the insect in Italy. In the present study the impact of gall necrosis and the dynamic of its development have been studied in mature and young Castanea sativa stands in Central Italy during spring and early summer, before the D. kuriphilus adult flies. Results suggest that gall necrosis develops from resident endophytic inoculum of G...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
Yu Zhang, Wenping Wu, Lei Cai
This study investigated 46 Chaetomium strains isolated from soil and compost from China. In total 14 species were recognised, of which seven were described as new species (i.e. Chaetomium angulare, Chaetomium cirrhata, Chaetomium heterothallicum, Chaetomium laterale, Chaetomium longiciliata, Chaetomium microthecia, Chaetomium uniseriatum). Growth temperature profiles of these fungi revealed that 11 species are mesophilic; C. angulare and Chaetomium jodhpurense are thermotolerant; Chaetomium thermophilum var...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
Lianming Liang, Hong Gao, Jinzhou Li, Lu Liu, Zhiheng Liu, Ke-Qin Zhang
The Woronin body is a unique organelle in Pezizomycotina species. Following the injury of hyphae, it can quickly seal the septal pores to reduce the loss of cytoplasm and promote hyphal healing. The Woronin body is also considered a significant factor in efficient pathogenesis in many fungal pathogens. In this study, we identified AoHex1, a homologue of Neurospora crassa Hex1, a main component of the Woronin body in the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. To study the biological function of the AoHex1 gene, the gene was deleted and its phenotypes assessed...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
Peter M Letcher, Joyce E Longcore, C Alisha Quandt, Domingos da Silva Leite, Timothy Y James, Martha J Powell
Rozella is a genus of unwalled endoparasites of a variety of hosts including Oomycota (Stramenopiles), Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota (Fungi), and one green alga (Coleochaete, Chlorophyceae). It currently includes more than 20 formally described species, and no new species of Rozella have been described since 1987. We discovered a new Rozella species parasitizing Rhizoclosmatium globosum (Chytridiales, Chytridiomycota) and investigated its morphology, ultrastructure, and phylogenetic position. Herein named as Rozella rhizoclosmatii sp...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
Brandt Bertrand, María R Trejo-Hernández, Daniel Morales-Guzmán, Luis Caspeta, Ramón Suárez Rodríguez, Fernando Martínez-Morales
A Trametes versicolor laccase was functionally expressed on the membrane surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100. Laccase expression was increased 6.57-fold by medium optimization and surpassed production by the native strain. Maximal laccase and biomass production reached 19 735 ± 1719 Ug(-1) and 6.22 ± 0.53 gL(-1) respectively, after 2 d of culture. Optimum oxidization of all substrates by laccase was observed at pH 3. Laccase showed high affinity towards substrates used with Km (mM) and Vmax (μmol min(-1)) values of 0...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
Julio Cesar Polonio, Marcos Alessandro Dos Santos Ribeiro, Sandro Augusto Rhoden, Maria Helena Sarragiotto, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a nitrogenated compound produced by plants and fungi and has been associated with poisoning episodes in humans, animals, and to induction of Huntington disease symptoms in rats. The production of 3-NPA by endophytes has been reported, but the function and biosynthesis are not well-defined. The specie of endophytic strain G-01 was confirmed as Diaporthe citri using a multilocus sequence analysis, and was verified different concentrations of 3-NPA produced at different initial pHs by these strain...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
Flavia Pinzari, Javier Cuadros, Rosario Napoli, Loredana Canfora, David Baussà Bardají
Fungi dissolve soil minerals by acidification and mechanical disruption. Dissolution may occur at the microscale (contact between fungus and mineral) and medium scale (entire mineral grains). Mineral weathering by fungi and other microorganisms is thought to be of significant global contribution, perhaps producing specific weathering signatures. We report fungal dissolution of phlogopite mica in experiments with three fungal strains (Alternaria tenuissima, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Stilbella sp.) on solid medium for 30 days at 21 °C and 96-100% relative humidity...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
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