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Fungal Biology

Vivien Krell, Desirée Jakobs-Schoenwandt, Stefan Vidal, Anant V Patel
The recent discovery that entomopathogenic fungi can grow endophytically in plant tissues has spurred research into novel plant protection measures. However, current applications of fungi aiming at endophytism mostly lack targeted formulation strategies resulting in low efficacy. Here, we aimed at enhancing Metarhizium brunneum CB15 endophytism in potato plants by (i) improvement of fungal growth from beads and (ii) cellulase formation or addition to encapsulated mycelium. We found that beads supplemented with cellulose alone or in addition with inactivated baker's yeast exhibited cellulase activity and increased mycelial growth by 12...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Natalia Pozdnyakova, Ekaterina Dubrovskaya, Marina Chernyshova, Oleg Makarov, Sergey Golubev, Svetlana Balandina, Olga Turkovskaya
The degradation of two isomeric three-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D1 and the litter-decomposing fungus Agaricus bisporus F-8 was studied. Despite some differences, the degradation of phenanthrene and anthracene followed the same scheme, forming quinone metabolites at the first stage. The further fate of these metabolites was determined by the composition of the ligninolytic enzyme complexes of the fungi. The quinone metabolites of phenanthrene and anthracene produced in the presence of only laccase were observed to accumulate, whereas those formed in presence of laccase and versatile peroxidase were metabolized further to form products that were further included in basal metabolism (e...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Konstantin V Moiseenko, Daria V Vasina, Katerina T Farukshina, Olga S Savinova, Olga A Glazunova, Tatiana V Fedorova, Tatiana V Tyazhelova
Laccase (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC is an enzyme that has been studied for over 100 y and is present in virtually all fungi. As increasing numbers of fungal genomes have been sequenced, it has become apparent that the laccase genes in white-rot fungi commonly form multigene families consisting of many nonallelic genes. Although a number of reports focussing on laccase gene expression in different fungal species were published over the decades, the fundamental questions of why fungi need such a redundant array of genes and how they manage this array to perform biological function(s) remain far from answered...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Sophie Stroheker, Vivanne Dubach, Thomas N Sieber
Dark septate endophytes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. - Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are presumed to be the most abundant root colonizing endophytes of conifers across the Northern hemisphere. To test the competitiveness of different PAC strains, PAC-free Picea abies saplings were inoculated with five different PAC strains by planting them in pre-colonized substrates. Saplings were left to grow for six weeks and then transplanted crosswise into a substrate colonized by one of the other four strains for a further two weeks...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Aleksandra Zielonka, Ewa Żymańczyk-Duda, Małgorzata Brzezińska-Rodak, Maciej Duda, Jakub Grzesiak, Magdalena Klimek-Ochab
Rice husks (RHs) are plant waste materials abundant in phytoliths silica bodies. These were used as starting material for fungal-mediated biotransformation leading to the synthesis of a high-value added product. A strain of Aspergillus parasiticus was capable of transforming the amorphous silica conglomerates into structured nanoparticles (NPs) in the process of RHs biotransformation. Silica NPs were produced extracellularly and their size ranged from 3 to 400 nm depending on the biotransformation conditions and the post-biotransformation supernatant processing...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Chenjiaozi Wang, Lei Pi, Shaofeng Jiang, Mei Yang, Canwei Shu, Erxun Zhou
Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA is the causal agent of rice sheath blight (RSB) and causes severe economic losses in rice-growing regions around the world. The sclerotia play an important role in the disease cycle of RSB. In this study, we report the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and trehalose on the sclerotial development of R. solani AG-1 IA. Correlation was found between the level of ROS in R. solani AG-1 IA and sclerotial development. Moreover, we have shown the change of ROS-related enzymatic activities and oxidative burst occurs at the sclerotial initial stage...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Hui Chen, Haibo Hai, Hong Wang, Qian Wang, Mingjie Chen, Zhiyong Feng, Ming Ye, Jinjing Zhang
Hypsizygus marmoreus is an important industrialized mushroom, yet the lack of basic research on this fungus has hindered further development of its economic value. In this study, mycelia injured by scratching were treated with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) to investigate the involvement of the redox system in fruiting body development. Compared to the control group, damaged mycelia treated with HRW regenerated earlier and showed significantly enhanced fruiting body production. Antioxidant capacity increased significantly in damaged mycelia after HRW treatment, as indicated by higher antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant contents; the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also reduced at the mycelial regeneration stage after treatment with HRW...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Pedro H Mainardi, Valker A Feitosa, Livia B Brenelli de Paiva, Rafaella C Bonugli-Santos, Fabio M Squina, Adalberto Pessoa, Lara D Sette
Laccase production in saline conditions is still poorly studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the production of laccase in two different types of bioreactors by the marine-derived basidiomycete Peniophora sp. CBMAI 1063. The highest laccase activity and productivity were obtained in the Stirred Tank (ST) bioreactor, while the highest biomass concentration in Air-lift (AL) bioreactor. The main laccase produced was purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography and appeared to be monomeric with molecular weight of approximately 55 kDa...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Surya Sudheer, Zain Taha, Sivakumar Manickam, Asgar Ali, Poh Guat Cheng
Following the importance of antler-type fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, in this study, the impact of main growth parameters such as ventilation and light on the development of antler-type fruiting bodies has been investigated together with the determination of physico-chemical properties of antler fruiting bodies. For this, the primordia bags of G. lucidum were kept under controlled ventilation to adjust the CO2 produced by the mushrooms owing to its respiration under light and dark conditions. The bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, water-soluble polysaccharides and ganoderic acid showed a two-fold increase in the antler-type fruiting bodies as compared to normal kidney-shaped fruiting bodies...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Laurence A N Egue, Florent K N'guessan, Solange Aka-Gbezo, Jean-Paul K M Bouatenin, Marina Koussemon-Camara
The increase of infections due to non-Candida albicans species made it very necessary to conduct adequate characterization to be able to identify the species of Candida isolated from traditional fermented foods. In this study, based on their hue on Candida Chromogenic Agar medium, a total of 136 yeast strains were isolated from tchapalo and bangui. Molecular identification based on PCR-RFLP of internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS) and sequencing of the ITS and the D1/D2 regions allowed us to assign these isolates to seven species: Candida tropicalis, Candida inconspicua, Candida rugosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Trichosporon asahii...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Niloofar Vaghefi, Julie R Kikkert, Frank S Hay, Gavriela D Carver, Lori B Koenick, Melvin D Bolton, Linda E Hanson, Gary A Secor, Sarah J Pethybridge
The taxonomy and evolutionary species boundaries in a global collection of Cercospora isolates from Beta vulgaris was investigated based on sequences of six loci. Species boundaries were assessed using concatenated multi-locus phylogenies, Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC), Poisson Tree Processes (PTP), and Bayes factor delimitation (BFD) framework. Cercospora beticola was confirmed as the primary cause of Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) on B. vulgaris. Cercospora apii, C. cf. flagellaris, Cercospora sp...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Andrew L Loyd, Benjamin W Held, Eric R Linder, Jason A Smith, Robert A Blanchette
The laccate (shiny or varnished) Ganoderma contain fungi that are important wood decay fungi of living trees and decomposers of woody debris. They are also an important group of fungi for their degradative enzymes and bioprocessing potential. Laboratory decay microcosms (LDMs) were used to study the relative decay ability of G anoderma curtisii, Ganoderma meredithiae, Ganoderma sessile, and G anoderma zonatum, which are four commonly encountered Ganoderma species in the U.S., across four wood types (Pinus taeda, Quercus nigra, Q uercus virginiana, and Sabal palmetto)...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Romina Gazis, Laura Poplawski, William Klingeman, Sarah L Boggess, Robert N Trigiano, Andrew D Graves, Steven J Seybold, Denita Hadziabdic
Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) affects Juglans and Pterocarya species. This disease poses not only a major threat to the nut and timber industries but also to native stands of walnut trees. Galleries created by Pityophthorus juglandis (vector) are colonized by the fungus Geosmithia morbida (causal agent of necrosis). It is unknown if other fungi colonizing these galleries might act antagonistically towards G. morbida. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the fungal community associated with TCD-infected trees and (2) develop a pilot study addressing their potential antagonism towards G...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Hector Urbina, Martin F Breed, Weizhou Zhao, Kanaka Lakshmi Gurrala, Siv G E Andersson, Jon Ågren, Sandra Baldauf, Anna Rosling
Biotic and abiotic conditions in soil pose major constraints on growth and reproductive success of plants. Fungi are important agents in plant soil interactions but the belowground mycobiota associated with plants remains poorly understood. We grew one genotype each from Sweden and Italy of the widely-studied plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under controlled conditions in organic topsoil local to the Swedish genotype, and harvested after ten weeks. Total DNA was extracted from three belowground compartments: endosphere (sonicated roots), rhizosphere and bulk soil, and fungal communities were characterized from each by amplification and sequencing of the fungal barcode region ITS2...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Dong-Hyeon Lee, Jolanda Roux, Brenda D Wingfield, Michael J Wingfield
The African fungal tree pathogen, Ceratocystis albifundus, undergoes uni-directional mating type switching, giving rise to either self-fertile or self-sterile progeny. Self-sterile isolates lack the MAT1-2-1 gene and have reduced fitness such as slower growth and reduced pathogenicity, relative to self-fertile isolates. While it has been hypothesized that there is a 1:1 ratio of self-fertile to self-sterile ascospore progeny in relatives of C. albifundus, some studies have reported a significant bias in this ratio...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Sean Doyle, Gary W Jones, Stephen K Dolan
Gliotoxin is an epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) class toxin, contains a disulfide bridge that mediates its toxic effects via redox cycling and is produced by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The gliotoxin bis-thiomethyltransferase, GtmA, attenuates gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus by conversion of dithiol gliotoxin to bis-thiomethylgliotoxin (BmGT). Here we show that disruption of dithiol gliotoxin bis-thiomethylation functionality in A. fumigatus results in significant remodelling of the A...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Alfred Mitema, Sheila Okoth, Mohamed S Rafudeen
Toxigenic Aspergillus species produce mycotoxins that are carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and teratogenic immunosuppressing agents in both human and animals. Kenya frequently experiences outbreaks of aflatoxicosis with the worst occurring in 2010, which resulted in 215 deaths. We examined the possible reasons for these frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Kenya by studying Aspergillus flavus diversity, phenotypes and mycotoxin profiles across various agricultural regions. Using diagonal transect random sampling, maize kernels were collected from Makueni, Homa Bay, Nandi, and Kisumu counties...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Victor C Ujor, Emmanuel C Adukwu, Christopher C Okonkwo
Non-self contact between fungi elicits strong morphological and biochemical reactions in the mycelia of interacting species. Although these reactions appear to be species- and interaction-specific, some responses such as pigmentation, increased secretion of phenol-oxidases, barrage formation and sealing of the mycelia front are common responses in most interactions. Hence, some species recruit similar molecular machineries in response to non-self. Increasing number of fully sequenced and annotated fungal genomes and advances in genome-wide and global proteome analytical tools now allow researchers to use techniques such as RNA sequencing, micro and macroarray analysis, 2-dimensional protein gel profiling, and differential display of mRNA to probe the underlying molecular mechanisms of combative mycelial interactions...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Lauren Goldmann, Alex Weir
A first molecular-based phylogeny is presented for the Laboulbeniomycetes, a group of ascomycete fungi that utilize arthropods for nutrition and/or dispersal. Morphological diversification and life-history evolution has made it difficult to resolve relationships within the group, and to identify close relatives. Here, we infer a preliminary phylogeny based on acquisition of 51 new SSU rDNA sequences, representing a total of 65 taxa. The results of this study demonstrate that Laboulbeniomycetes is monophyletic, and related to Sordariomycetes...
February 2018: Fungal Biology
Andreas Wuensch, Franziska Trusch, Nurul A Iberahim, Pieter van West
Oomycetes are eukaryotic pathogens infecting animals and plants. Amongst them Saprolegnia parasitica is a fish pathogenic oomycete causing devastating losses in the aquaculture industry. To secure fish supply, new drugs are in high demand and since fish experiments are time consuming, expensive and involve animal welfare issues the search for adequate model systems is essential. Galleria mellonella serves as a heterologous host model for bacterial and fungal infections. This study extends the use of G. mellonella for studying infections with oomycetes...
February 2018: Fungal Biology
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