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Fungal Biology

Peter M Letcher, Martha J Powell, William J Davis
The purpose of our research is to investigate morphology, zoospore ultrastructure, and molecular placement of six strains in the Asterophlyctis (Chytridiales) lineage. In previous molecular analyses strain JEL 186, putatively Asterophlyctis sarcoptoides, placed as basal in family Chytriomycetaceae. Recent sampling for chytrids resulted in isolation of five strains (WJD 209, MP 058, JEL 524, JEL 857, and JEL 885) molecularly related to strain JEL 186. Our morphological evaluations reveal that strains JEL 186 and WJD 209 are members of Asterophlyctis...
November 2018: Fungal Biology
Young Sang Kwon, Chang-Wook Jeon, Dong-Won Bae, Jong-Su Seo, Linda S Thomashow, David M Weller, Youn-Sig Kwak
Take-all disease, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), is one of the most serious root diseases in wheat production. In this study, a proteomic platform based on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) was used to construct the first proteome database reference map of G. graminis var. tritici and to identify the response of the pathogen to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), which is a natural antibiotic produced by antagonistic Pseudomonas spp...
November 2018: Fungal Biology
María Eugenia Salgado Salomón, Philipp Dresch, Egon Horak, Felipe Galleguillos, Carolina Barroetaveña, Ursula Peintner
Cortinarius magellanicus Speg. is an edible, ectomycorrhizal fungus, widely distributed in Argentina, Chile and New Zealand. However, earlier studies already indicated that the epithet 'magellanicus' might have been applied in a wide sense, thus circumscribing several species. A neotype was designated by Moser and Horak (1975) due Spegazzini's type was lost. Argentinian Nothofagaceae forests' samples, from autumn of 2017, morphologically recognized as C. magellanicus were used for a phylogenetic analysis, including sequences from type material and closely related species...
November 2018: Fungal Biology
Erika Paola Grijalba, Carlos Espinel, Paola Emilia Cuartas, Martha Liliana Chaparro, Laura Fernanda Villamizar
The insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium rileyi is highly sensitive to nutritional and environmental conditions which makes it difficult to produce as a stable biopesticide. In this study, a Colombian isolate of this fungus was produced in bulk, and conidia were formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The stability of formulated conidia was studied. Conidial viability was maintained at >85 % viability for 12 m under refrigeration and for >three months at 18 °C. The pH values were stable, while contaminant content was significantly reduced...
November 2018: Fungal Biology
Jeanne D Mihail, Landon Bilyeu, Sara R Lalk
Unlike most bioluminescent fungi, mycelia of Armillaria and Desarmillaria are constitutively bioluminescent while mature mushrooms are not. The absence of the luciferin, 3-hydroxyhispidin, and its precursor hispidin in mature mushrooms have been proposed to explain the lack of bioluminescence from Armillaria mushrooms. Using three North American species, A. gallica, A. mellea and D. tabescens (syn., Armillaria tabescens), we documented a decline in luminescence of ten fold during the transition from mycelia to, immature mushrooms (i...
November 2018: Fungal Biology
Stefan Kusch, Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Hannah Thieron, Ralph Panstruga
Small RNAs (sRNAs) play a key role in eukaryotic gene regulation, for example by gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi). The biogenesis of sRNAs depends on proteins that are generally conserved in all eukaryotic lineages, yet some species that lack part or all the components of the mechanism exist. Here we explored the presence of the RNAi machinery and its expression as well as the occurrence of sRNA candidates and their putative endogenous as well as host targets in phytopathogenic powdery mildew fungi...
November 2018: Fungal Biology
Martha J Powell, Peter M Letcher, Joyce E Longcore, Will H Blackwell
While surveying chytrid diversity in lakes and streams, we found on cellulosic bait a chytrid that had both monocentric and polycentric thallus forms. We brought this chytrid into axenic culture from three sites in eastern North America, studied its thallus development and zoospore ultrastructure, and compared its 28S rDNA sequence with those of other members of the Chytridiomycota. Thallus morphology matched that described for the rare chytrid, Cladochytrium polystomum Zopf. Sporangia were spherical and produced numerous long discharge tubes...
November 2018: Fungal Biology
W J Nel, T A Duong, M J Wingfield, B D Wingfield, A Hammerbacher, Z W de Beer
Berkeleyomyces basicola and Berkeleyomyces rouxiae, two sister species previously treated collectively as Thielaviopsis basicola, reside in the Ceratocystidaceae (Microascales, Ascomycota). Both species are important root pathogens of many important agricultural crops and ornamental plants. Although T. basicola has been known for more than 150y, a sexual state has never been found and it has been assumed to be an asexual pathogen. The aim of this study was to determine the mating strategy of the two Berkeleyomyces species...
November 2018: Fungal Biology
M Rashmi, Himani Meena, Chetan Meena, J S Kushveer, Siddhardha Busi, A Murali, V V Sarma
In the present study, secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus, Alternaria alternata, colonizing Carica papaya, demonstrated antiquorum sensing properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study reports the antagonistic effects of fungal crude extract of A. alternata against the various quorum sensing (QS) associated virulent factors such as percentage decrease in production of pyocyanin, alginate, chitinase and rhamnolipid; significant decrease in proteases activity such as LasA protease activity, staphylolytic activity, Las B elastase; and a marked decrease in biofilm formation and associated factors such as exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH)...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Miriam Ahuactzin-Pérez, Saúl Tlécuitl-Beristain, Jorge García-Dávila, Ericka Santacruz-Juárez, Manuel González-Pérez, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruíz, Carmen Sánchez
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a plasticizer, whose presence in the environment as a pollutant has attained a great deal of attention due to its reported association with endocrine system disturbances on animals. Growth parameters, glucose uptake, percentage of removal efficiency (%E) of DBP, biodegradation constant of DBP (k) and half-life of DBP biodegradation (t1/2 ) were evaluated for Pleurotus ostreatus grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DBP (0, 500 and 1000 mg l-1 ). P. ostreatus degraded 99...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Norma Silvia Sánchez, Martha Calahorra, Jorge Ramírez, Antonio Peña
The physiological behavior of Debaryomyces hansenii in response to saline stress and elevated pH was studied. The combination of 1 M NaCl salt and pH 8.0 was required to produce significant changes in the lag phase of growth and a consequent effect on viability. pH 8.0 in the absence or presence of 1 M NaCl produced changes in physiological functions such as respiration, acidification, rubidium transport, transmembrane potential, and fermentation. Our data indicated a stimulation of the H+ -ATPase of the plasma membrane at pH 8...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Sahadevan Seena, Ludmila Marvanová, Allan Letourneau, Felix Bärlocher
The taxonomy of the aquatic hyphomycete genus Articulospora (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotima, Leotiales, Helotiaceae) is based on the morphology of the generative phase of its lifecycle. The type species is Articulospora tetracladia, which is distributed worldwide. Its most frequent populations in nature have dimorphic conidia, differing by the extent of conidial branching (i.e., one or two levels of branching). Some strains, stable in culture, produce exclusively conidia of one type. With the molecular analyses employed here and the relatively low number of available isolates (20), separation based on branching of conidia has not been fully supported...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Yumei Tan, Hai Wang, Yaping Wang, Yongyi Ge, Xiuxiu Ren, Chunguang Ren, Yuchen Wang, Xiyi Ren, Yongxiang Liu, Zuoyi Liu
veA belongs to the velvet regulatory system that regulates the development and secondary metabolism of many fungi. To identify the function of veA in Aspergillus cristatus, veA deletion mutants were constructed by homologous recombination via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Deletion of veA led to increased conidial production and reduced sexual sporulation. The regulatory role of veA in A. cristatus was not light-dependent, and this differed from its role in other Aspergilli. Furthermore, veA deletion mutants were more sensitive to environmental stressors, including salt, osmotic pressure, temperature and pH...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Xin Zhong, Li Gu, Haizhen Wang, Danhong Lian, Yimei Zheng, Sha Zhou, Wei Zhou, Jinlei Gu, Guren Zhang, Xin Liu
Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a Chinese complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), is an entomopathogenic, fungus, parasitizing larvae of the moth genus Thitarodes. It has three stages of the life cycle, i.e., the anamorph mycelia prior to infection (Cm_Os), the mycelia sclerotium forming in the caterpillar (Te_Ca), and the fruiting bodies or stromata (Te_St). Characterization of the O. sinensis transcriptome among these stages could provide a better understanding of the underlying biology processes. Transcriptomics of the O...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Matthew Kolp, Dennis W Fulbright, Andrew M Jarosz
Chestnut blight cankers, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, are prone to invasion by other microorganisms as the canker ages. This microbial community has the potential to alter canker expansion, which may influence the probability that the canker girdles the infected stem. Hypoviruses infect the pathogen mycelium directly and are known to decrease pathogen virulence (i.e. hypovirulent). These viral infections can slow pathogen growth, decreasing the rate of canker expansion and lowering the probability of girdling...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Nancy E Lozoya-Pérez, Sergio Casas-Flores, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Luz A López-Ramírez, Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Bernardo Franco, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporotrichosis is an infection caused by members of the Sporothrix genus, and among them, Sporothrix schenckii is one of the etiological agents. Both, the disease and the causative agent have gained interest in the recent years, because of the report of epidemic outbreaks, and the description of the disease transmission from animals to human beings. Despite the relevance of S. schenckii in the clinical field, there are basic aspects of its biology poorly explored. So far, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation has been reported as an alternative for genetic manipulation of this fungal pathogen...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Aimei Wang, Minna Haapalainen, Satu Latvala, Merete Edelenbos, Anders Johansen
Basal rot is a common onion disease and is mainly caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Fusarium proliferatum. To study the possibility of using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as biomarkers for these fungi, pathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum from onions were cultivated in onion medium and VOCs were measured by solid phase microextraction (SPME). Forty-two compounds were detected, and thirty of these compounds were highly related to fungal metabolic activity. Allyl mercaptan was specific to F...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Josephine Zimudzi, Jacquie E van der Waals, Teresa A Coutinho, Don A Cowan, Angel Valverde
Soil fungal communities perform important ecological roles determining, at least in part, agricultural productivity. This study aimed at examining the fungal community dynamics in the potato rhizosphere across different development stages in two consecutive growing seasons (winter and summer). Microbial fingerprinting of rhizosphere soil samples collected at pre-planting, tuber initiation, flowering and at senescence was performed using ARISA in conjunction with Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). The epiphytic fungal communities on tubers at harvest were also investigated...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Maria Valdirene Leite Pedone-Bonfim, Danielle Karla Alves da Silva, Angélica Ricarte da Silva-Batista, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Adriana Mayumi Yano-Melo, Leonor Costa Maia
In this study, we report the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and increasing doses of phosphorus (P) on the growth and production of secondary metabolites in Mimosa tenuiflora, a medicinal species native to Brazil. We used a completely randomized design with four inoculation treatments: Control not inoculated (1); Claroideoglomus etunicatum (2); Gigaspora albida (3); and C. etunicatum + G. albida (4) and four doses of P; P0 - baseline dose, P8, P16 and P32. After 70 d in a greenhouse, growth, mycorrhizal variables, biochemical and phytochemical parameters were evaluated...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Andrea Vannini, Carmen Morales-Rodriguez, MariaPia Aleandri, Natalia Bruni, Matteo Dalla Valle, Tommaso Mazzetto, Diana Martignoni, AnnaMaria Vettraino
In the 2015-2016 growing seasons, two novel symptoms were assessed on the crown of trees in orchards and coppices of chestnut groves in Central Italy. The first symptom was flagging of annual shoots with green leaves undergoing sudden wilt and turning brown later in the season. The second symptom consisted of leaves on annual shoots turning yellow before wilting in absence of flagging represented the second symptom. Samples were collected along transects in early summer, late summer and winter, and processed in the laboratory...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
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