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Fungal Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007220/structural-features-of-the-aromatic-arginine-constriction-in-the-aquaglyceroporin-gintaqpf2-are-responsible-for-glycerol-impermeability-in-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#1
Tao Li, Wen-Tao Hou, Yuan Ruan, Bao-Dong Chen, Li-Guo Yang, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Yong-Guan Zhu
Carbon transport in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is of fundamental importance. However, the role of glycerol transport in AM symbiosis has not yet been resolved. Glycerol transport across the cell membrane is mediated by aquaglyceroporins (AQGPs), whereas our previous study revealed that it was disfavoured by GintAQPF2, an AQGP from AM fungi (AMF). Here, we analysed the function of two amino acid residues in the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) constriction known as the major selectivity filter in AQGPs. Replacement of phenylalanine-94 (Phe-94) by alanine (Ala) enlarged the diameter of the ar/R constriction and resulted in an increased intracellular glycerol accumulation and thus survival rate of yeast cells at high glycerol levels, while individual or joint replacement of Phe-94 and Ala-234 by tryptophan and glycine induced a closed state of GintAQPF2, suggesting that the potential double gates (Phe94-Phe243 and arginine-249) of the ar/R constriction also likely determined solute permeability...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007219/putative-origins-of-the-fungus-leptographium-procerum
#2
Stephen J Taerum, Thierry B Hoareau, Tuan A Duong, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Robert Jankowiak, Michael J Wingfield
Appropriate management of invasive fungi requires adequate understanding of their global diversities and movement histories. The fungus Leptographium procerum is associated with root-colonizing forest insects in pine forests throughout the world, and may have contributed to the aggressive behaviour of the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens) in the beetle's invasive range in China. We used microsatellites and mating type loci to investigate the global diversity of L. procerum and the source population of L...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007218/ecology-and-population-structure-of-a-tree-wound-infecting-fungus-in-a-native-south-african-forest-environment
#3
Alain C Misse, Irene Barnes, Francois Roets, Michael Mbenoun, Michael J Wingfield, Jolanda Roux
Ceratocystis tsitsikammensis was first isolated from bark harvesting wounds on two indigenous tree species in the Afromontane forests of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Inoculation studies indicated that it is a potential pathogen of native Rapanea melanophloeos trees. In this study, we investigated the distribution, ecology and biology of C. tsitsikammensis in the Garden Route National Park of South Africa. Isolates were obtained from wounds on R. melanophloeos, three non-native hosts as well as from nitidulid and staphylinid beetles visiting wounds on these trees...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007217/gene-cloning-heterologous-expression-and-characterization-of-a-coprinopsis-cinerea-endo-%C3%AE-1-3-4-glucanase
#4
Jun Wang, Liqin Kang, Zhonghua Liu, Sheng Yuan
A gene coding endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase (ENG16A) was cloned from Coprinopsis cinerea and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. ENG16A only acts on substrates containing β-1,3 glycosidic bonds but not on substrates containing only β-1,4- or β-1,6-glycosidic bonds. Interestingly, compared to the activity of this enzyme towards carboxymethyl (CM)-pachyman containing only β-1,3-glycosidic bonds, its activity towards barley β-glucan containing both β-1,3-glycosidic and β-1,4-glycosidic bonds was increased by 64...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007216/antifungal-activity-of-the-cationic-antimicrobial-polymer-polyhexamethylene-guanidine-hydrochloride-and-its-mode-of-action
#5
Hyemin Choi, Keuk-Jun Kim, Dong Gun Lee
The antifungal activity of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH) was studied against various pathogenic fungi. PHMGH had more potent antifungal activity than amphotericin B, which is a commonly used antifungal drug, and also showed no hemolytic and lactate dehydrogenase release activities in the range of 1.25-40.0 μg mL(-1). PHMGH is a cationic polymer containing an amino group and a polymeric guanidine group. Based on its characteristics such as the cationic charge and hydrophobicity, the antifungal mechanism of PHMGH was investigated using Candida albicans, as a model organism...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007215/does-gnomoniopsis-castanea-contribute-to-the-natural-biological-control-of-chestnut-gall-wasp
#6
Andrea Vannini, AnnaMaria Vettraino, Diana Martignoni, Carmen Morales-Rodriguez, Mario Contarini, Romina Caccia, Bruno Paparatti, Stefano Speranza
Gnomoniopsis castanea has been reported as the causal agent of necrosis of chestnut wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) galls. The fungus is frequently observed on galls in chestnut stands infested by the insect in Italy. In the present study the impact of gall necrosis and the dynamic of its development have been studied in mature and young Castanea sativa stands in Central Italy during spring and early summer, before the D. kuriphilus adult flies. Results suggest that gall necrosis develops from resident endophytic inoculum of G...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007214/polyphasic-characterisation-of-chaetomium-species-from-soil-and-compost-revealed-high-number-of-undescribed-species
#7
Yu Zhang, Wenping Wu, Lei Cai
This study investigated 46 Chaetomium strains isolated from soil and compost from China. In total 14 species were recognised, of which seven were described as new species (i.e. Chaetomium angulare, Chaetomium cirrhata, Chaetomium heterothallicum, Chaetomium laterale, Chaetomium longiciliata, Chaetomium microthecia, Chaetomium uniseriatum). Growth temperature profiles of these fungi revealed that 11 species are mesophilic; C. angulare and Chaetomium jodhpurense are thermotolerant; Chaetomium thermophilum var...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007213/the-woronin-body-in-the-nematophagous-fungus-arthrobotrys-oligospora-is-essential-for-trap-formation-and-efficient-pathogenesis
#8
Lianming Liang, Hong Gao, Jinzhou Li, Lu Liu, Zhiheng Liu, Ke-Qin Zhang
The Woronin body is a unique organelle in Pezizomycotina species. Following the injury of hyphae, it can quickly seal the septal pores to reduce the loss of cytoplasm and promote hyphal healing. The Woronin body is also considered a significant factor in efficient pathogenesis in many fungal pathogens. In this study, we identified AoHex1, a homologue of Neurospora crassa Hex1, a main component of the Woronin body in the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. To study the biological function of the AoHex1 gene, the gene was deleted and its phenotypes assessed...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007212/morphological-molecular-and-ultrastructural-characterization-of-rozella-rhizoclosmatii-a-new-species-in-cryptomycota
#9
Peter M Letcher, Joyce E Longcore, C Alisha Quandt, Domingos da Silva Leite, Timothy Y James, Martha J Powell
Rozella is a genus of unwalled endoparasites of a variety of hosts including Oomycota (Stramenopiles), Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota (Fungi), and one green alga (Coleochaete, Chlorophyceae). It currently includes more than 20 formally described species, and no new species of Rozella have been described since 1987. We discovered a new Rozella species parasitizing Rhizoclosmatium globosum (Chytridiales, Chytridiomycota) and investigated its morphology, ultrastructure, and phylogenetic position. Herein named as Rozella rhizoclosmatii sp...
January 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890094/functional-expression-production-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-laccase-using-yeast-surface-display-technology
#10
Brandt Bertrand, María R Trejo-Hernández, Daniel Morales-Guzmán, Luis Caspeta, Ramón Suárez Rodríguez, Fernando Martínez-Morales
A Trametes versicolor laccase was functionally expressed on the membrane surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100. Laccase expression was increased 6.57-fold by medium optimization and surpassed production by the native strain. Maximal laccase and biomass production reached 19 735 ± 1719 Ug(-1) and 6.22 ± 0.53 gL(-1) respectively, after 2 d of culture. Optimum oxidization of all substrates by laccase was observed at pH 3. Laccase showed high affinity towards substrates used with Km (mM) and Vmax (μmol min(-1)) values of 0...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890093/3-nitropropionic-acid-production-by-the-endophytic-diaporthe-citri-molecular-taxonomy-chemical-characterization-and-quantification-under-ph-variation
#11
Julio Cesar Polonio, Marcos Alessandro Dos Santos Ribeiro, Sandro Augusto Rhoden, Maria Helena Sarragiotto, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a nitrogenated compound produced by plants and fungi and has been associated with poisoning episodes in humans, animals, and to induction of Huntington disease symptoms in rats. The production of 3-NPA by endophytes has been reported, but the function and biosynthesis are not well-defined. The specie of endophytic strain G-01 was confirmed as Diaporthe citri using a multilocus sequence analysis, and was verified different concentrations of 3-NPA produced at different initial pHs by these strain...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890092/routes-of-phlogopite-weathering-by-three-fungal-strains
#12
Flavia Pinzari, Javier Cuadros, Rosario Napoli, Loredana Canfora, David Baussà Bardají
Fungi dissolve soil minerals by acidification and mechanical disruption. Dissolution may occur at the microscale (contact between fungus and mineral) and medium scale (entire mineral grains). Mineral weathering by fungi and other microorganisms is thought to be of significant global contribution, perhaps producing specific weathering signatures. We report fungal dissolution of phlogopite mica in experiments with three fungal strains (Alternaria tenuissima, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Stilbella sp.) on solid medium for 30 days at 21 °C and 96-100% relative humidity...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890091/lactarius-subgenus-russularia-basidiomycota-russulales-novel-asian-species-worldwide-phylogeny-and-evolutionary-relationships
#13
Komsit Wisitrassameewong, Brian P Looney, Huyen T Le, Eske De Crop, Kanad Das, Kobeke Van de Putte, Ursula Eberhardt, Guo Jiayu, Dirk Stubbe, Kevin D Hyde, Annemieke Verbeken, Jorinde Nuytinck
Lactarius subg. Russularia is a large group of milkcaps occurring almost worldwide and dominant in many ecosystems. In this study we focus on new diversity, evolutionary relationships, divergence time, and origin of the subgenus. Six conifer symbionts are described as new to science: Lactarius atrii, L. aurantionitidus, L. dombangensis, L. flavigalactus, L. lachungensis, and L. sikkimensis. Species delimitation is assessed based on the concordance between morphological characteristics and an ITS phylogeny. Infrageneric relationships were studied using a phylogeny constructed from concatenated ITS-rpb2 data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890090/guyanagarika-a-new-ectomycorrhizal-genus-of-agaricales-from-the-neotropics
#14
Marisol Sánchez-García, Terry W Henkel, Mary Catherine Aime, Matthew E Smith, Patrick Brandon Matheny
A new genus and three new species of Agaricales are described from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana in the central Guiana Shield. All three of these new species fruit on the ground in association with species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree genus Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) and one species has been shown to form ectomycorrhizas. Multi-locus molecular phylogenetic analyses place Guyanagarika gen. nov. within the Catathelasma clade, a lineage in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890089/a-mid-cretaceous-eccrinales-infesting-a-primitive-wasp-in-myanmar-amber
#15
George Poinar
A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales in Myanmar amber is described as Paleocadus burmiticus gen. et sp. nov. in the family Eccrinaceae. The fossil is represented by two types of sporangiospores formed on different thalli protruding from the anus of a primitive wasp, with secondary infestation spores multinucleate and thin walled. Its presence establishes the Eccrinales in the mid-Cretaceous and shows that at that time, lineages of this group parasitized wasps, an association unknown with extant members of the Order.
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890088/fungal-endophytic-communities-associated-to-the-phyllosphere-of-grapevine-cultivars-under-different-types-of-management
#16
Carla Marisa Reis Varanda, Mônica Oliveira, Patrick Materatski, Miguel Landum, Maria Ivone Esteves Clara, Maria do Rosário Félix
Fungal endophytes present in different asymptomatic grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera L.) located in different vineyards within Alentejo, a highly important viticulture region in Portugal, were identified in this study. Sampled grapevine plants included the three most representative cultivars in the region, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Aragonez, growing under two different modes of management, conventional and biological. Sixteen fungal taxa were identified through sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890087/molecular-phylogeny-diversity-community-structure-and-plant-growth-promoting-properties-of-fungal-endophytes-associated-with-the-corms-of-saffron-plant-an-insight-into-the-microbiome-of-crocus-sativus-linn
#17
Zahoor Ahmed Wani, Dania Nazir Mirza, Palak Arora, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan
A total of 294 fungal endophytes were isolated from the corms of Crocus sativus at two stages of crocus life cycle collected from 14 different saffron growing sites in Jammu and Kashmir (J & K) State, India. Molecular phylogeny assigned them into 36 distinct internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes which spread over 19 genera. The diversity of endophytes was higher at the dormant than at the vegetative stage. The Saffron microbiome was dominated by Phialophora mustea and Cadophora malorum, both are dark septate endophytes (DSEs)...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890086/multiple-isoforms-for-the-catalytic-subunit-of-pka-in-the-basal-fungal-lineage-mucor-circinelloides
#18
Lucas Fernández Núñez, Josefina Ocampo, Alexandra M Gottlieb, Silvia Rossi, Silvia Moreno
Protein kinase A (PKA) activity is involved in dimorphism of the basal fungal lineage Mucor. From the recently sequenced genome of Mucor circinelloides we could predict ten catalytic subunits of PKA. From sequence alignment and structural prediction we conclude that the catalytic core of the isoforms is conserved, and the difference between them resides in their amino termini. This high number of isoforms is maintained in the subdivision Mucoromycotina. Each paralogue, when compared to the ones form other fungi is more homologous to one of its orthologs than to its paralogs...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890085/detection-of-n2o-producing-fungi-in-environment-using-nitrite-reductase-gene-nirk-targeting-primers
#19
Huaihai Chen, Fangbo Yu, Wei Shi
Fungal denitrification has been increasingly investigated, but its community ecology is poorly understood due to the lack of culture-independent tools. In this work, four pairs of nirK-targeting primers were designed and evaluated for primer specificity and efficiency using thirty N2O-producing fungal cultures and an agricultural soil. All primers amplified nirK from fungi and soil, but their efficiency and specificity were different. A primer set, FnirK_F3/R2 amplified ∼80 % of tested fungi, including Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Trichoderma, as compared to ∼40-70 % for other three primers...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742100/cyphobasidium-gen-nov-a-new-lichen-inhabiting-lineage-in-the-cystobasidiomycetes-pucciniomycotina-basidiomycota-fungi
#20
Ana M Millanes, Paul Diederich, Mats Wedin
Pucciniomycotina is a highly diverse group of fungi, showing a remarkably wide range of lifestyles and ecologies. However, lichen-inhabiting fungi are only represented by a few species included in the genera Chionosphaera and Cystobasidium, and their phylogenetic position has never been investigated. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear SSU, ITS, and LSU ribosomal DNA markers reveal that the lichenicolous members of Cystobasidium (C. hypogymniicola, C. usneicola) form a monophyletic group distinct from Cystobasidium and outside the Cystobasidiales...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
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