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Fungal Biology

Moreau Pierre-Arthur, Bellanger Jean-Michel, Lebeuf Renée, Athanassiou Zacharias, Athanasiades Antonis, Lambert Herman, Schwarz Christian, Larsson Ellen, Loizides Michael
For many years, the binomial Hygrophorus hypothejus was widely applied to collections from various geographical regions in different continents, assuming a circum-boreal and circum-mediterranean distribution for this species. This hypothesis, however, had never been put to the test. To assess the diversity and species-limits within this complex of yellow-coloured waxcaps, a phylogenetic, morphological and taxonomical investigation into Hygrophorus sect. Aurei and similar species in sect. Olivaceoumbrini was carried out, including material of pan-European origin, as well as the east and west coasts of North America...
August 2018: Fungal Biology
Isabel Cruz-Lachica, Isidro Marquez-Zequera, Raul Allende-Molar, Josefa Adriana Sañudo-Barajas, Josefina Leon-Felix, Nancy Ley-Lopez, Raymundo Saul Garcia-Estrada
Mexico is the fifth largest producer of papaya worldwide and has recently reported problems with mucoralean fungi in this crop. These fungi are considered saprophytes in the soil and are ubiquitous in nature. In this work, they were isolated from soil in regions of intensive papaya cultivation in Mexico. Collections were made in the states of Colima, Oaxaca and Veracruz in Apr 2016. A total of 72 mucorales fungal isolates was obtained and morphologically characterized and then molecular characterization (28S ribosomal region) of 25 representative isolates was carried out...
August 2018: Fungal Biology
Alistair R McTaggart, M Catherine Aime
Species of Coleosporium (Pucciniales) are rust fungi that typically alternate between pines and angiosperms. In North America, species of Coleosporium often infect Solidago (goldenrods), although their taxonomy on these hosts is unresolved. Joseph. C. Arthur and George B. Cummins regarded these as a single species, Coleosporium solidaginis (fide Arthur) or C. asterum (fide Cummins), but later inoculation studies demonstrated the presence of more than one species, distinguishable by their aecial hosts. A more recent taxonomic study of Coleosporium found that specimens on Solidago identified as C...
August 2018: Fungal Biology
Pannida Khunnamwong, Sasitorn Jindamorakot, Savitree Limtong
Endophytic yeasts are yeast that can colonize healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the host plant. This work aimed to explore the diversity of endophytic yeasts in leaf tissue of main agricultural crops (rice, corn and sugarcane) in Thailand, by a culture-dependent approach. A total of 311 leaf samples, consisting of rice (n = 100), corn (n = 109) and sugarcane (n = 102). From the tissue of rice (n = 92), corn (n = 76) and sugarcane (n = 78) leaf samples, 117, 118 and 123 yeast strains were respectively isolated and identified based on the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequence analysis to be yeast species in both the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota...
August 2018: Fungal Biology
Zixuan Zhong, Nannan Li, Li Liu, Binghui He, Yasuo Igarashi, Feng Luo
The laccase production by mycelial antagonistic interaction among white-rot fungi is a very important pathway for lignin degradation research. To gain a better understanding of competitive mechanisms under mycelial antagonistic interaction among three lignin-degrading white-rot basidiomycetes of Trametesversicolor (Tv), Pleurotusostreatus (Po) and Dichomitussqualens (Ds), mycelial morphology and proteins in three co-culture combinations TvPo (Tv cocultivated with Po), PoDs (Po cocultivated with Ds), TvDs (Tv cocultivated with Ds) were compared with corresponding each two mono-cultures...
August 2018: Fungal Biology
Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Lisa A Beirn, Adnan Ismaiel, Michael J Boehm, Ignazio Carbone, Alexander I Putman, Lane P Tredway, Bruce B Clarke, Jo Anne Crouch
Dollar spot is one of the most destructive and economically important fungal diseases of amenity turfgrasses. The causal agent was first described in 1937 as the ascomycete Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. However, the genus-level taxonomic placement of this fungus has been the subject of an ongoing debate for over 75 y. Existing morphological and rDNA sequence evidence indicates that this organism is more appropriately placed in the family Rutstroemiaceae rather than the Sclerotiniaceae. Here we use DNA sequence data from samples of the dollar spot fungus and other members of the Rutstroemiaceae (e...
August 2018: Fungal Biology
Marcela Carvajal, Alejandra Vergara, Javier Contreras, Mauricio Osorio, Michael Seeger
Terpenylated phenols possess interesting biological activities. These properties vary mainly according to the type of terpene associated and the degree of oxidation of the molecule. The search for new active molecules for application in different areas of knowledge includes the structural modification of these through ecological methodologies, such as biotransformation. The aims of this study were the biotransformation of geranylated- and acetylated-phloroglucinol by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi and the evaluation of the antifungal activity of the derivatives...
August 2018: Fungal Biology
Amanda Rodrigues de Oliveira, Lucas Nojosa Oliveira, Edilânia Gomes Araújo Chaves, Simone Schneider Weber, Alexandre Melo Bailão, Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha, Lilian Cristiane Baeza, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares, Clayton Luiz Borges
Paracoccidioides is a thermodimorphic fungus that causes Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) - an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America. The genus comprises several phylogenetic species which present some genetic and serological differences. The diversity presented among isolates of the same genus has been explored in several microorganisms. There have also been attempts to clarify differences that might be related to virulence existing in isolates that cause the same disease. In this work, we analyzed the secretome of two isolates in the Paracoccidioides genus, isolates Pb01 and PbEpm83, and performed infection assays in macrophages to evaluate the influence of the secretomes of those isolates upon an in vitro model of infection...
August 2018: Fungal Biology
Polina Degtjarenko, Tiiu Tõrra, Tiina Mandel, Liis Marmor, Andres Saag, Christoph Scheidegger, Tiina Randlane
Few studies have investigated the genetic diversity of populations of common and widespread lichenized fungi using microsatellite markers, especially the relationships between different measures of genetic diversity and environmental heterogeneity. The main aim of our study was to investigate the population genetics of a widespread and mainly clonally reproducing Usnea subfloridana at the landscape scale, focusing on the comparison of lichen populations within hemiboreal forest stands. Particular attention has been paid to the genetic differentiation of lichen populations in two geographically distinct regions in Estonia and the relationships between forest characteristics and measures of genetic diversity...
August 2018: Fungal Biology
Arista Fourie, Michael J Wingfield, Brenda D Wingfield, Magriet A van der Nest, M Theodor Loots, Irene Barnes
Ceratocystis fimbriata is a fungal plant pathogen that causes black rot on Ipomoea batatas. Based on inoculation studies on numerous tree species, the pathogen is known to be host specific. The closely related species, Ceratocystis manginecans, causes severe wilt on a broad range of tree hosts, including Mangifera indica, Acacia mangium and other leguminous tree species. The genetic factors underlying the pathogenicity and host specificity of Ceratocystis species have rarely been investigated. In this study, an F1 population of 70 recombinant progeny from a cross between C...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
Bryan A Bailey, Shahin S Ali, Mary D Strem, Lyndel W Meinhardt
Moniliophthora roreri (Mr) causes frosty pod rot of Theobroma cacao in a hemibiotrophic association. The Mr biotroph-like phase has not been studied in culture. Mr spores (isolates Co12, Co52, and B3) were germinated on high (V8) and low (BPMM) nutrients with different media hardness (0.5% to 3% agarose). Germination was high on V8 media. Hardness affected germination on BPMM. Most colonies on V8 were slow-growing, failing to sporulate. Colony morphology depended on the isolate. On BPMM, exaggerated mycelia formed of limited length with enlarged cells...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
Huili Li, Anne Ostermann, Samantha C Karunarathna, Jianchu Xu, Kevin D Hyde, Peter E Mortimer
The species-area relationship is an important factor in the study of species diversity, conservation biology, and landscape ecology. A deeper understanding of this relationship is necessary, in order to provide recommendations on how to improve the quality of data collection on macrofungal diversity in different land use systems in future studies, a systematic assessment of methodological parameters, in particular optimal plot sizes. The species-area relationship of macrofungi in tropical and temperate climatic zones and four different land use systems were investigated by determining the macrofungal species richness in plot sizes ranging from 100 m2 to 10 000 m2 over two sampling seasons...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
Josiene S Veloso, Marcos P S Câmara, Waléria G Lima, Sami J Michereff, Vinson P Doyle
Anthracnose is one of the most important plant diseases globally, occurring on a wide range of cultivated and wild host species. This study aimed to identify the Colletotrichum species associated with cashew anthracnose in Brazil, determine their phylogenetic relationships and geographical distribution, and provide some insight into the factors that may be influencing community composition. Colletotrichum isolates collected from symptomatic leaves, stems, inflorescences, and fruit of cultivated and wild cashew, across four Brazilian biomes, were identified as Colletotrichum chrysophilum, Colletotrichum fragariae, Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu stricto, Colletotrichum queenslandicum, Colletotrichum siamense and Colletotrichum tropicale...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
Mariana R Lopes, Carla A Lara, Marina E F Moura, Ana Paula T Uetanabaro, Paula B Morais, Marcos J S Vital, Carlos A Rosa
We investigated the yeast species associated with rotting wood samples obtained from Brazilian ecosystems, with a special focus on cellobiose-fermenting species. About 647 yeast strains were isolated from rotting wood samples collected from the areas of Atlantic rainforest, Cerrado, and Amazonian forest. Eighty-six known species and 47 novel species of yeasts were isolated. Candida boidinii, Cyberlindnera subsufficiens, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Schwanniomyces polymorphus, Candida natalensis, and Debaryomyces hansenii were the most frequently isolated species...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
Leena Hamberg, Paul de la Bastide, Will Hintz, Simon Francis Shamoun, Marina Brandtberg, Jarkko Hantula
The conspecificity of Finnish and western Canadian isolates of the decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum was investigated by several approaches, including the assessment of genetic variability, mating and progeny analysis, and the analysis of selected phenotypic traits. Eight second-generation single spore strains per fungal isolate pairing were investigated with specific genetic markers developed for both Finnish and Canadian parental isolates. Tests of linkage disequilibrium were used to analyze whether these markers assorted independently among single spore strains...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
Zhangxun Wang, Quan Zhou, Yuandong Li, Lintao Qiao, Qi Pang, Bo Huang
Metarhizium robertsii is widely applied in biological control via conidia application. To clarify the proteomic differences between conidia and mycelia and explore the underlying mechanisms of conidia as a unit responsible for dispersal and environmental stress, we carried out an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation)-based quantitative proteomic analysis for two developmental stages from M. robertsii. A total of 2052 proteins were detected, and 90 showed differential protein abundance between the conidia and mycelia...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
Jinny A Paul, R Margaret Wallen, Chen Zhao, Tieliu Shi, Michael H Perlin
The dimorphic switch from budding to filamentous growth is an essential morphogenetic transition many fungi utilize to cause disease in the host. Although different environmental signals can induce filamentous growth, the developmental programs associated with transmitting these different signals may differ. Here, we explore the relationship between filamentation and expression levels of ammonium transporters (AMTs) that also sense low ammonium for Ustilago maydis, the pathogen of maize. Overexpression of the high affinity ammonium transporter, Ump2, under normally non-inducing conditions, results in filamentous growth...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
Anabela Lopes, Benedetto T Linaldeddu, Alan J L Phillips, Artur Alves
Cryptic species are common in Diplodia, a genus that includes some well-known and economically important plant pathogens. Thus, species delimitation has been based on the phylogenetic species recognition approach using multigene genealogies. We assessed the potential of mating type (MAT) genes sequences as phylogenetic markers for species delimitation in the genus Diplodia. A PCR-based mating type diagnostic assay was developed that allowed amplification and sequencing of the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes, and determination of the mating strategies used by different species...
July 2018: Fungal Biology
Claudinéia A S Araújo, Luciana P Dias, Paulo C Ferreira, Josane Mittmann, Breno Pupin, Guilherme T P Brancini, Gilberto Ú L Braga, Drauzio E N Rangel
Survival of entomopathogenic fungi under solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is paramount to the success of biological control of insect pests and disease vectors. The mutagenic compound 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) is often used to mimic the biological effects of UV radiation on organisms. Therefore, we asked whether tolerance to 4-NQO could predict tolerance to UV radiation in thirty isolates of entomopathogenic fungi and one isolate of a xerophilic fungus. A dendrogram obtained from cluster analyses based on the 50 and 90 % inhibitory concentrations (IC50 and IC90 , respectively) divided the fungal isolates into six clusters numbered consecutively based on their tolerance to 4-NQO...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
Diana Kulikova-Borovikova, Silvia Lisi, Edgars Dauss, Tiina Alamae, Pietro Buzzini, John E Hallsworth, Alexander Rapoport
Microbial cells can enter a state of anhydrobiosis under desiccating conditions. One of the main determinants of viability during dehydration-rehydration cycles is structural integrity of the plasma membrane. Whereas much is known about phase transitions of the lipid bilayer, there is a paucity of information on changes in activity of plasma membrane proteins during dehydration-rehydration events. We selected the α-glucoside transporter Agt1 to gain insights into stress mechanisms/responses and ecophysiology during anhydrobiosis...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
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