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Fungal Biology

M Rashmi, Himani Meena, Chetan Meena, J S Kushveer, Siddhardha Busi, A Murali, V V Sarma
In the present study, secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus, Alternaria alternata, colonizing Carica papaya, demonstrated antiquorum sensing properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study reports the antagonistic effects of fungal crude extract of A. alternata against the various quorum sensing (QS) associated virulent factors such as percentage decrease in production of pyocyanin, alginate, chitinase and rhamnolipid; significant decrease in proteases activity such as LasA protease activity, staphylolytic activity, Las B elastase; and a marked decrease in biofilm formation and associated factors such as exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH)...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Miriam Ahuactzin-Pérez, Saúl Tlécuitl-Beristain, Jorge García-Dávila, Ericka Santacruz-Juárez, Manuel González-Pérez, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruíz, Carmen Sánchez
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a plasticizer, whose presence in the environment as a pollutant has attained a great deal of attention due to its reported association with endocrine system disturbances on animals. Growth parameters, glucose uptake, percentage of removal efficiency (%E) of DBP, biodegradation constant of DBP (k) and half-life of DBP biodegradation (t1/2 ) were evaluated for Pleurotus ostreatus grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DBP (0, 500 and 1000 mg l-1 ). P. ostreatus degraded 99...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Norma Silvia Sánchez, Martha Calahorra, Jorge Ramírez, Antonio Peña
The physiological behavior of Debaryomyces hansenii in response to saline stress and elevated pH was studied. The combination of 1 M NaCl salt and pH 8.0 was required to produce significant changes in the lag phase of growth and a consequent effect on viability. pH 8.0 in the absence or presence of 1 M NaCl produced changes in physiological functions such as respiration, acidification, rubidium transport, transmembrane potential, and fermentation. Our data indicated a stimulation of the H+ -ATPase of the plasma membrane at pH 8...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Sahadevan Seena, Ludmila Marvanová, Allan Letourneau, Felix Bärlocher
The taxonomy of the aquatic hyphomycete genus Articulospora (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotima, Leotiales, Helotiaceae) is based on the morphology of the generative phase of its lifecycle. The type species is Articulospora tetracladia, which is distributed worldwide. Its most frequent populations in nature have dimorphic conidia, differing by the extent of conidial branching (i.e., one or two levels of branching). Some strains, stable in culture, produce exclusively conidia of one type. With the molecular analyses employed here and the relatively low number of available isolates (20), separation based on branching of conidia has not been fully supported...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Yumei Tan, Hai Wang, Yaping Wang, Yongyi Ge, Xiuxiu Ren, Chunguang Ren, Yuchen Wang, Xiyi Ren, Yongxiang Liu, Zuoyi Liu
veA belongs to the velvet regulatory system that regulates the development and secondary metabolism of many fungi. To identify the function of veA in Aspergillus cristatus, veA deletion mutants were constructed by homologous recombination via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Deletion of veA led to increased conidial production and reduced sexual sporulation. The regulatory role of veA in A. cristatus was not light-dependent, and this differed from its role in other Aspergilli. Furthermore, veA deletion mutants were more sensitive to environmental stressors, including salt, osmotic pressure, temperature and pH...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Xin Zhong, Li Gu, Haizhen Wang, Danhong Lian, Yimei Zheng, Sha Zhou, Wei Zhou, Jinlei Gu, Guren Zhang, Xin Liu
Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a Chinese complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), is an entomopathogenic, fungus, parasitizing larvae of the moth genus Thitarodes. It has three stages of the life cycle, i.e., the anamorph mycelia prior to infection (Cm_Os), the mycelia sclerotium forming in the caterpillar (Te_Ca), and the fruiting bodies or stromata (Te_St). Characterization of the O. sinensis transcriptome among these stages could provide a better understanding of the underlying biology processes. Transcriptomics of the O...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Matthew Kolp, Dennis W Fulbright, Andrew M Jarosz
Chestnut blight cankers, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, are prone to invasion by other microorganisms as the canker ages. This microbial community has the potential to alter canker expansion, which may influence the probability that the canker girdles the infected stem. Hypoviruses infect the pathogen mycelium directly and are known to decrease pathogen virulence (i.e. hypovirulent). These viral infections can slow pathogen growth, decreasing the rate of canker expansion and lowering the probability of girdling...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Nancy E Lozoya-Pérez, Sergio Casas-Flores, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Luz A López-Ramírez, Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Bernardo Franco, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporotrichosis is an infection caused by members of the Sporothrix genus, and among them, Sporothrix schenckii is one of the etiological agents. Both, the disease and the causative agent have gained interest in the recent years, because of the report of epidemic outbreaks, and the description of the disease transmission from animals to human beings. Despite the relevance of S. schenckii in the clinical field, there are basic aspects of its biology poorly explored. So far, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation has been reported as an alternative for genetic manipulation of this fungal pathogen...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Aimei Wang, Minna Haapalainen, Satu Latvala, Merete Edelenbos, Anders Johansen
Basal rot is a common onion disease and is mainly caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Fusarium proliferatum. To study the possibility of using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as biomarkers for these fungi, pathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum from onions were cultivated in onion medium and VOCs were measured by solid phase microextraction (SPME). Forty-two compounds were detected, and thirty of these compounds were highly related to fungal metabolic activity. Allyl mercaptan was specific to F...
October 2018: Fungal Biology
Josephine Zimudzi, Jacquie E van der Waals, Teresa A Coutinho, Don A Cowan, Angel Valverde
Soil fungal communities perform important ecological roles determining, at least in part, agricultural productivity. This study aimed at examining the fungal community dynamics in the potato rhizosphere across different development stages in two consecutive growing seasons (winter and summer). Microbial fingerprinting of rhizosphere soil samples collected at pre-planting, tuber initiation, flowering and at senescence was performed using ARISA in conjunction with Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). The epiphytic fungal communities on tubers at harvest were also investigated...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Maria Valdirene Leite Pedone-Bonfim, Danielle Karla Alves da Silva, Angélica Ricarte da Silva-Batista, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Adriana Mayumi Yano-Melo, Leonor Costa Maia
In this study, we report the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and increasing doses of phosphorus (P) on the growth and production of secondary metabolites in Mimosa tenuiflora, a medicinal species native to Brazil. We used a completely randomized design with four inoculation treatments: Control not inoculated (1); Claroideoglomus etunicatum (2); Gigaspora albida (3); and C. etunicatum + G. albida (4) and four doses of P; P0 - baseline dose, P8, P16 and P32. After 70 d in a greenhouse, growth, mycorrhizal variables, biochemical and phytochemical parameters were evaluated...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Andrea Vannini, Carmen Morales-Rodriguez, MariaPia Aleandri, Natalia Bruni, Matteo Dalla Valle, Tommaso Mazzetto, Diana Martignoni, AnnaMaria Vettraino
In the 2015-2016 growing seasons, two novel symptoms were assessed on the crown of trees in orchards and coppices of chestnut groves in Central Italy. The first symptom was flagging of annual shoots with green leaves undergoing sudden wilt and turning brown later in the season. The second symptom consisted of leaves on annual shoots turning yellow before wilting in absence of flagging represented the second symptom. Samples were collected along transects in early summer, late summer and winter, and processed in the laboratory...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Stephen J Taerum, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Seonju Marincowitz, Robert Jankowiak, Michael J Wingfield
Ophiostoma quercus (Ascomycota, Ophiostomatales) is a globally widespread, insect-vectored fungus that colonizes a wide diversity of hardwood and conifer hosts. Although the fungus is considered to be non-pathogenic, it is closely related to the fungi that cause Dutch elm disease. We examined the global diversity of O. quercus based on a ribosomal RNA marker and three unlinked gene regions. The fungus exhibited substantial morphological diversity. In addition, O. quercus had high genetic diversity in every continent from which it was collected, although the fungus was most diverse in Eurasia...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Leidy P Castillo, Alejandro Osorio, Natalia Vargas, Tatiana Sanjuan, Alejandro Grajales, Silvia Restrepo
Cordyceps tenuipes is an entomopathogenic fungus that infects mostly pupae of several lepidopteran families. In Colombia the species has been reported in non-disturbed tropical rain forests and more recently in butterfly gardens. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity in populations of C. tenuipes present in natural (forests) and artificial (e.g. butterfly gardens) environments in the department of Quindío, Colombia, using three molecular nuclear markers ITS, TEF-1α and RPB1. All the samples evaluated corresponded morphologically and phylogenetically to C...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Natasha Sant'Anna Iwanicki, Bruna de Oliveira Ferreira, Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Ítalo Delalibera Júnior
Blastospores are yeast-like cells produced by entomopathogenic fungi that are infective to arthropods. The economical feasible production of blastospores of the insect killing fungus Metarhizium spp. must be optimized to increase yields. Moreover, stabilization process is imperative for blastospore formulation as a final product. In this sense, our goal was to increase blastospore production of two Metarhizium isolates (ESALQ1426 and ESALQ4676) in submerged liquid cultures. A modified Adamek's medium was supplemented with increased glucose concentrations and the fermentation time was accelerated by using a blastospore pre-culture as inoculum...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Carlos Gil-Durán, María-Cristina Ravanal, Pamela Ubilla, Inmaculada Vaca, Renato Chávez
Numerous endoxylanases from mesophilic fungi have been purified and characterized. However, endoxylanases from cold-adapted fungi, especially those from Antarctica, have been less studied. In this work, a cDNA from the Antarctic fungus Cladosporium sp. with similarity to endoxylanases from glycosyl hydrolase family 10, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The pure recombinant enzyme (named XynA) showed optimal activity on xylan at 50 °C and pH 6-7. The enzyme releases xylooligosaccharides but not xylose, indicating that XynA is a classical endoxylanase...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Ming Guan, Xiao-Cui Pan, Shuo Wang, Xiao-Lin Wei, Chong-Bang Zhang, Jiang Wang, Wen-Li Liu, Shu-Yuan Liu, Jie Chang
The fungal community composition, size and several physico-chemical properties were individually investigated in ten macrophyte rhizospheric substrates using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and soil chemical methods. Results indicated that both Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes were dominant fungi in macrophyte rhizospheric substrates, and denitrifying fungi (Fusarium graminearum) was found in nine of ten macrophyte rhizospheres. Fungal Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) and richness (S) in Thalia dealbata, Typha latifolia, Iris hexagona and Hemerocallis aurantiaca rhizospheres were higher than those in other six rhizospheres...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Mohammad Sayari, Emma T Steenkamp, Magriet A van der Nest, Brenda D Wingfield
Polyketides are secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities. Polyketide synthases (PKS) are often encoded from genes clustered in the same genomic region. Functional analyses and genomic studies show that most fungi are capable of producing a repertoire of polyketides. We considered the potential of Ceratocystidaceae for producing polyketides using a comparative genomics approach. Our aims were to identify the putative polyketide biosynthesis gene clusters, to characterize them and predict the types of polyketide compounds they might produce...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Leonel Mendoza, Raquel Vilela, Richard A Humber
Beside the taxonomic features displayed by Crypticola clavulifera in culture and unpublished data on its phylogeny, little is known about the main phylogenetic features of this unusual mosquito pathogen. We have PCR amplified the 18S SSU rDNA, ITS, and the partial coding regions of COXII and COXI to study the phylogenetic features of this pathogen within the tree of life. Our phylogenetic data showed C. clavulifera clustered among homologous DNA sequences of the Oomycota class Saprolegniomycetes. Our study support previous taxonomic and unpublished molecular analysis, placing this unusual mosquito larvae pathogen as part of the earliest diverging cluster within the Saprolegniomycetes...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
Chih-Ying Lay, Chantal Hamel, Marc St-Arnaud
The classification and physiology of the zoosporic plant-pathogen Olpidium brassicae and its relationships with the closely-related species are often confusing. This review focuses on these species and intends to differentiate them based on the literatures published since the discovery and establishment of the species by Woronin in 1878 under the name of Chytridium brassicae to current molecular era. The goal of this review is to help researchers better understand the taxonomy, the host range, and the potential role in plant health of O...
September 2018: Fungal Biology
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