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Journal of Tropical Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392806/epidemiological-characteristics-of-dengue-disease-in-latin-america-and-in-the-caribbean-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Jaime Rafael Torres, Tomás Agustín Orduna, Maricela Piña-Pozas, Daniela Vázquez-Vega, Elsa Sarti
Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386286/a-thermostabilized-one-step-pcr-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae
#2
Nur Amalina Khazani, Nik Zuraina Nik Mohd Noor, Chan Yean Yean, Habsah Hasan, Siti Suraiya, Suharni Mohamad
Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are two common pathogens associated with respiratory tract infections. The identification of these pathogens using conventional molecular diagnostic tests requires trained personnel, cold-chain transportation, and storage-dependance, which does not render them user-friendly. The aim of this study was to develop a thermostabilized, cold-chain-free, one-step multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of K. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. The multiplex PCR assay was designed to amplify the php gene of K...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348602/incidence-and-predictors-of-antiretroviral-treatment-modification-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-brazilian-historical-cohort-from-2001-to-2010
#3
Letícia Penna Braga, Cássia Cristina Pinto Mendicino, Edna Afonso Reis, Ricardo Andrade Carmo, Cristiane Menezes de Pádua
This study estimated the incidence of and time to first antiretroviral therapy (ART) modification. This longitudinal analysis comprised a sample of 236 patients from three HIV/AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil-part of a major historical cohort. Inclusion criteria were as follows: having been treatment-naive patient ≥18 years old who initiated ART between 2001 and 2005 in these three referral centers. The main endpoint was time to first ART modification. Patients were followed up for five years, covering the period 2001-2010, during which time Pearson's chi-square test was performed to compare ART modification between groups...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348601/diversity-of-leptospira-spp-in-rats-and-environment-from-urban-areas-of-sarawak-malaysia
#4
Chai Fung Pui, Lesley Maurice Bilung, Kasing Apun, Lela Su'ut
Various prevalence studies on Leptospira in animals and humans, as well as environmental samples, had been conducted worldwide, including Malaysia. However, limited studies have been documented on the presence of pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic Leptospira in selected animals and environments. This study was therefore conducted to detect Leptospira spp. in rats, soil, and water from urban areas of Sarawak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 107 rats, 292 soil samples, and 324 water samples were collected from April 2014 to February 2015...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331496/nitazoxanide-in-acute-rotavirus-diarrhea-a-randomized-control-trial-from-a-developing-country
#5
Samarendra Mahapatro, Nijwm Mahilary, Amit Kumar Satapathy, Rashmi Ranjan Das
Background. Acute diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality, with rotavirus being an important pathogen. Nitazoxanide, an antiparasitic agent, has been shown to inhibit rotavirus. Objective. This double-blind, randomized trial was designed to study the role of nitazoxanide in acute rotavirus diarrhea. Methods. Of 174 children (12 months to 5 years) with acute diarrhea, 50 rotavirus positive cases were randomized. The intervention group received syrup nitazoxanide twice daily (100 mg in 12-47 months, 200 mg in ≥4 yr) for 3 days along with standard treatment of diarrhea...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321260/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-test-for-trypanosoma-gambiense-group-1-with-stem-primers-a-molecular-xenomonitoring-test-for-sleeping-sickness
#6
Zablon K Njiru, Cecilia K Mbae, Gitonga N Mburugu
The World Health Organization has targeted Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) for elimination by 2020 with zero incidence by 2030. To achieve and sustain this goal, accurate and easy-to-deploy diagnostic tests for Gambian trypanosomiasis which accounts for over 98% of reported cases will play a crucial role. Most needed will be tools for surveillance of pathogen in vectors (xenomonitoring) since population screening tests are readily available. The development of new tests is expensive and takes a long time while incremental improvement of existing technologies that have potential for xenomonitoring may offer a shorter pathway to tools for HAT surveillance...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298932/ending-preventable-child-deaths-from-pneumonia-and-diarrhoea-in-afghanistan-an-analysis-of-intervention-coverage-scenarios-using-the-lives-saved-tool
#7
REVIEW
Ariel Higgins-Steele, Khaksar Yousufi, Sharmina Sultana, Alawi Sayed Ali, Sherin Varkey
Background. Despite improvements in child health, Afghanistan still has a heavy burden of deaths due to preventable causes: 17% of under-5 deaths are due to pneumonia and 12% are due to diarrhoea. Objective. This article describes the situation of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Afghanistan, including efforts to prevent, protect, and treat the two diseases. It estimates lives saved by scaling up interventions. Methods. A secondary analysis of data was conducted and future scenarios were modelled to estimate lives saved by scaling up a package of interventions...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286526/parasitological-indices-of-malaria-transmission-in-children-under-fifteen-years-in-two-ecoepidemiological-zones-in-southwestern-burkina-faso
#8
Aristide S Hien, Ibrahim Sangaré, Sanata Coulibaly, Moussa Namountougou, Léa Paré-Toé, Anicet Georges Ouédraogo, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Brian D Foy, Roch K Dabiré
Twenty years after the latest publications performed on the parasitological indices of malaria transmission in northwest of the second city of Burkina Faso, it was important to update the epidemiological profile of malaria in children under the age of 15 years. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the parasitological parameters of malaria transmission by season, area, and age in the two zones (rice and savanna) in the northwest of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Overall, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the parasitological indices of malaria transmission within children under fifteen years between the rice site and the savannah site and whatever the season (P > 0...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265290/clinical-profile-and-visual-outcome-of-ocular-bartonellosis-in-malaysia
#9
Chai Lee Tan, Lai Chan Fhun, Evelyn Li Min Tai, Nor Hasnida Abdul Gani, Julieana Muhammed, Tengku Norina Tuan Jaafar, Liza Sharmini Ahmad Tajudin, Wan-Hazabbah Wan Hitam
Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, supported by a positive Bartonella spp...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261274/assessment-of-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-among-children-attending-care-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-southeastern-nigeria
#10
Cletus Akahara, Emeka Nwolisa, Kelechi Odinaka, Seline Okolo
Background. Adherence is the strongest predictor of successful treatment outcome among children infected with HIV. Our aim was to assess the antiretroviral drugs adherence status of HIV-infected children attending care at a tertiary hospital in Southeastern Nigeria. Method. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 210 HIV-infected children attending care at a tertiary hospital in Southeastern Nigeria using self-report method of assessment. Optimal ART adherence is defined as patient taking not missing more than 1 dose of combined antiretroviral therapy medication in the preceding 2 weeks prior to the study...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246533/use-of-molecular-methods-for-the-rapid-mass-detection-of-schistosoma-mansoni-platyhelminthes-trematoda-in-biomphalaria-spp-gastropoda-planorbidae
#11
Roberta Lima Caldeira, Liana Konovaloffi Jannotti-Passos, Omar Dos Santos Carvalho
The low stringency-polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were used to detect the presence of S. mansoni DNA in (1) Brazilian intermediate hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea, and B. tenagophila) with patent S. mansoni infections, (2) B. glabrata snails with prepatent S. mansoni infections, (3) various mixtures of infected and noninfected snails; and (4) snails infected with other trematode species. The assays showed high sensitivity and specificity and could detect S...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163725/development-and-validation-of-a-pcr-elisa-for-the-diagnosis-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-infection-by-leishmania-leishmania-infantum
#12
Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso Medeiros, Luciana Inácia Gomes, Edward Oliveira, Carolina Senra Alves de Souza, Maria Vitória Mourão, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Letícia Helena Dos Santos Marques, Mariângela Carneiro, Ana Rabello
A kDNA PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (kDNA PCR-ELISA) for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) was developed. The detection limit of the reaction, precision measurements, and cut-off of the kDNA PCR-ELISA were defined in a proof-of-concept phase. A reference strain of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and a bank of 14 peripheral blood samples from immunocompetent patients with VL were characterized using techniques considered gold standards, and 11 blood samples obtained from healthy individuals of an endemic area were also assessed...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115947/molecular-epidemiology-and-genetic-diversity-of-norovirus-in-young-children-in-phnom-penh-cambodia
#13
Kaewkanya Nakjarung, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Pimmnapar Neesanant, Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, Orntipa Sethabutr, Ket Vansith, Chhour Y Meng, Brett E Swierczewski, Carl J Mason
This study investigated the genetic diversity of noroviruses identified from a previous surveillance study conducted at the National Pediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from 2004 to 2006. In the previous study, 926 stool samples were collected from children aged 3-60 months with acute diarrhea (cases) and without diarrhea (controls) with reported 6.7% of cases and 3.2% of controls being positive for norovirus. The initial norovirus diagnostic assay was performed with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT PCR) which also distinguished between genogroups I and II (GI and GII)...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115946/potential-distribution-of-chagas-disease-vectors-hemiptera-reduviidae-triatominae-in-colombia-based-on-ecological-niche-modeling
#14
Gabriel Parra-Henao, Laura C Suárez-Escudero, Sebastián González-Caro
Ecological niche modeling of Triatominae bugs allow us to establish the local risk of transmission of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. This information could help to guide health authority recommendations on infection monitoring, prevention, and control. In this study, we estimated the geographic distribution of triatomine species in Colombia and identified the relationship between landscape structure and climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 2451 records of 4 triatomine species (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pallescens, R...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096819/urinary-schistosomiasis-among-children-in-murbai-and-surbai-communities-of-ardo-kola-local-government-area-taraba-state-nigeria
#15
R S Houmsou, H Agere, B E Wama, J B Bingbeng, E U Amuta, S L Kela
Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA), Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter), and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity). Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096818/associated-factors-to-seroprevalence-of-ehrlichia-spp-in-dogs-of-quintana-roo-mexico
#16
Pedro Pablo Martínez-Vega, Manuel Emilio Bolio-Gonzalez, Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas, Eduardo Gutierrez-Blanco, Carlos Pérez-Osorio, Sandra Luz Villegas-Perez, Carlos Humberto Sauri-Arceo
The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence to Ehrlichia spp. in dogs from Xcalak, Quintana Roo, Mexico, and the associated factors. Serum samples were obtained from 118 dogs and used in an indirect immunofluorescent assay test for the detection of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about possible variables associated with seroprevalence. These variables were analyzed through Chi(2) test and logistic regression. Dog seroprevalence of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050172/lipid-profile-of-children-with-malaria-by-plasmodium-vivax
#17
Rosa Maria Dias, Jose Luiz Fernandes Vieira, Bianca da Conceição Cabral, Isameriliam Rosaulem Pereira da Silva, Laelia Maria Barra Feio Brasil, Eliete da Cunha Araújo, Marcieni Ataíde de Andrade
Background. Changes in lipid profile are commonly reported in adult patients with malaria. However, a few studies evaluated lipid abnormalities in children continuously exposed to P. vivax. Objective. To evaluate lipid abnormalities in children with P. vivax infection and to assess if parasite count or the history of malaria correlates with lipid levels at admission. Methods. A total of 75 children were included in the study, from which 43 were slide confirmed infection by P. vivax. Serial blood samples were collected at admission and, on days 7 and 14, evaluated for the colorimetric measurements of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050171/current-epidemiological-assessment-of-bancroftian-filariasis-in-tanga-region-northeastern-tanzania
#18
Happyness J Mshana, Vito Baraka, Gerald Misinzo, Williams H Makunde
Background. Tanzania started a countrywide lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in 2000 adopting the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy. The drug used for the programme was the combination of ivermectin and albendazole. However, there is limited information on the current epidemiological trend of the infections, where MDA implementation is ongoing. The present study aimed at assessing the current status of Bancroftian filariasis infection rate and morbidity where MDA has been distributed and administered for over eight rounds...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042300/phlebotomines-diptera-psychodidae-in-a-hydroelectric-system-affected-area-from-northern-amazonian-brazil-further-insights-into-the-effects-of-environmental-changes-on-vector-ecology
#19
Nercy Virginia Rabelo Furtado, Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo, Clicia Denis Galardo, Viviane Caetano Firmino, Thiago Vasconcelos Dos Santos
During 2012-2015, an entomological survey was conducted as part of a phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) monitoring program in an area influenced by the Santo Antônio do Jari hydroelectric system (Amapá State, Brazil). The purpose was to study aspects of Amazon/Guianan American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) vectors subjected to stresses by anthropogenic environmental changes. For sampling, CDC light traps were positioned 0.5, 1, and 20 m above ground at five capture locations along the Jari River Basin...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042299/antimalarial-potential-of-carica-papaya-and-vernonia-amygdalina-in-mice-infected-with-plasmodium-berghei
#20
Oche Okpe, Nathan Habila, Joseph Ikwebe, Vincent A Upev, Stanley I R Okoduwa, Omiagocho T Isaac
The study determined if administration of Vernonia amygdalina and Carica papaya plants provides synergistic effects in ameliorating plasmodium infection in mice. Thirty mice (17.88-25.3 g) were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each. Group 1 was normal control, while groups 2-6 were intraperitoneally inoculated 2.5 × 10(7)Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cell, followed by daily administration of 350 mg/kg aqueous leaf extracts after establishment of infection. Group 2 was disease control, while group 6 was treated with standard drug for four consecutive days...
2016: Journal of Tropical Medicine
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