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Journal of Tropical Medicine

Chalachew Genet Akal, Tesfaye Andualem
Role of laboratory service in patient care is well recognized in developed compared to developing countries like Ethiopia where most medical decisions are based on clinical judgment. Laboratory based medical decisions save life and resources. Thus, health facilities (HFs) having capacitated laboratories provide better health care service. Thus, this study assessed capacity of laboratories found in all nine HFs in zone one of Afar region, Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2015...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Boniphace Sylvester, Dinah B Gasarasi, Said Aboud, Donath Tarimo, Siriel Masawe, Rose Mpembeni, Göte Swedberg
Background: Infants born to mothers with placental malaria are prenatally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum antigens. However, the effect of that exposure to subsequent immune responses has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed at determining the effect of prenatal exposure to P. falciparum on Interleukin-10 and Interferon- γ responses during clinical malaria episodes in the first 24 months of life. Methods: This prospective cohort study involved 215 infants aged 0-2 years born to mothers with or without placental malaria...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Tommaso C Bulfone, Stephen P Samuel, Philip E Bickler, Matthew R Lewin
The World Health Organization (WHO) recently added snakebite envenoming to the priority list of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD). It is thought that ~75% of mortality following snakebite occurs outside the hospital setting, making the temporal gap between a bite and antivenom administration a major therapeutic challenge. Small molecule therapeutics (SMTs) have been proposed as potential prereferral treatments for snakebite to help address this gap. Herein, we discuss the characteristics, potential uses, and development of SMTs as potential treatments for snakebite envenomation...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
T Kumanan, V Sujanitha, S Balakumar, N Sreeharan
Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) seen commonly in the tropics is predominantly confined to adult males, especially those who consume locally brewed alcohol, although intestinal amoebiasis occurs in all age groups and in both genders. Whether the role of alcohol in the development of ALA is incidental and casual or whether alcohol is causally implicated has been debated. It has been argued that socioeconomic factors and poor sanitary conditions are the primary culprits that casually link alcohol to ALA. However, there has emerged an abundance of data that implicates alcohol in a more causal role in facilitating the extraintestinal invasion of the infective protozoan and the subsequent development of ALA...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Simon Peter Inyimai, Mosses Ocan, Benjamin Wabwire, Peter Olupot-Olupot
Background: There is a paucity of data on asymptomatic carriage of Plasmodium parasite among adult population in Eastern Uganda, an area of perennial high transmission of malaria. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Plasmodium parasites in donor blood units at Mbale Regional Blood Bank (Mbale RBB), a satellite centre of the Uganda Blood Transfusion Service (UBTS). Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which 380 screened donor blood units were examined for the presence of Plasmodium parasites...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Alexandre Pessoa Dias, Deiviane Calegar, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa, Maria de Fátima Leal Alencar, Caroline Ferraz Ignacio, Milena Enderson Chagas da Silva, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes Neto
Introduction: The drought in the Brazilian semiarid region has affected the quality of water. This study assessed the relationships between enteric parasitoses, water management, and water quality, correlating them with pluviometric seasonality. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in four rural communities at the beginning of the dry season (n=151), at the end of the dry season (n=184), and in the rainy season (n=199), in order to collect sociodemographic data, human fecal samples, and samples of the water used for human consumption for physicochemical and microbiological analyses...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Agani Afaya, Solomon Mohammed Salia, Peter Adatara, Richard Adongo Afaya, Solomon Suglo, Milipaak Japiong
Despite increased support from government and other stakeholders for malaria control over the past decade, malaria burden remains high in many endemic countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess patients' knowledge of antimalarial treatment (ACT) and its association with patient adherence. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed in this study. Data were collected from April to May 2017. Both descriptive and inferential statistics in the form of frequencies, percentages, mean values, standard deviations, and Pearson's chi-square test were generated by use of Microsoft excel spreadsheet and IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Carolina Rodríguez Vásquez, Sebastián Barrera Escobar, Alberto Tobón-Castaño
Background: A screening for malaria parasites was conducted with asymptomatic residents in Colombia. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in December 2012 in four municipalities of Urabá region in Colombia. A convenience sample of 400 subjects was selected. Participants responded to a survey regarding epidemiological data and blood samples were taken from capillary blood obtained by finger prick for thick smear, rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Boakye-Yiadom Adomako, Frank Baiden, Samuel Sackey, Donne Kofi Ameme, Fred Wurapa, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Ernest Kenu, Edwin Afari
Background: A One-Health approach is advocated to ensure effective rabies surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Information is needed to assess the current state of dog bites and rabies in Ghana. We analyzed data on reported events in the Eastern Region of Ghana from 2013 to 2015 to generate information that can be used for rabies elimination in Ghana through the One-Health approach. Method: We extracted data on dog bites and rabies from the database of the regional health service and performed descriptive analysis using Epi Info version 7™...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
N D B Ehelepola, W M C M Wijesinghe
Reports on dengue outbreaks at hospitals are extremely rare. Here the authors analyze a dengue outbreak at the Teaching Hospital-Kandy (THK), Sri Lanka. Our hypothesis was that the present outbreak of dengue was due to nosocomial infections. Our objectives were to illustrate epidemiological evidence for nosocomial dengue infections among THK workers and comparison of dengue incidence of hospital workers of wards that treat dengue patients with workers of other wards, to ascertain whether most nosocomial dengue incidences occur closer to where dengue patients are treated and vector larvae were detected, and to draw the attention of the medical community to the significance of hospital outbreaks, making suggestions on how to improve dengue preventive work at the THK...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Maria A Loroño-Pino, Ana Uitz-Mena, Claudia M Carrillo-Solís, Rocío J Zapata-Gil, Dora M Camas-Tec, Lourdes G Talavera-Aguilar, Rosa C Cetina-Trejo, Luis F Flores-Flores, María C Puc-Tinal, Clara Caamal-Jiménez, Guadalupe Reyes-Solís, Julián E García-Rejón, Karla Saavedra-Rodriguez, Lars Eisen, Thomas J Keefe, William C Black Iv, Barry J Beaty
Dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are major public health threats in the tropical and subtropical world. In México, construction of large tracts of "fraccionamientos" high density housing to accommodate population growth and urbanization has provided fertile ground for Ae. aegypti -transmitted viruses. We investigated the utility of pyrethroid-treated window curtains to reduce both the abundance of Ae. aegypti and to prevent dengue virus (DENV) transmission in fraccionamiento housing...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
James Osei-Yeboah, Sylvester Yao Lokpo, Francis Abeku Ussher, Verner Ndudiri Orish, Abdul-Wahab Mawuko Hamid, Mavis Puopelle Dakorah, Tibemponi Ntoni, Emmanuel Agbeko Nani, Felix Ayroe, Daniel Adigbli
The study was aimed at comparing the estimation of the burden and trends (2012-2016) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis infections by the national Sentinel Survey vis-à-vis the use of population-based studies at a single urban site (Municipal Hospital) in Ho, the Volta Region of Ghana. Using blood donors as a proxy of the asymptomatic adult population, a retrospective analysis of secondary data on HIV and Syphilis testing was conducted using Ho Municipal Hospital's archives comprising 4,180 prospective blood donors...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Gaspar Peniche-Lara, Bertha Jimenez-Delgadillo, Claudia Munoz-Zanzi, María Cárdenas-Marrufo, Carlos Pérez-Osorio, Juan Arias-León
In the state of Yucatan, Mexico, rickettsiosis has become a common vector-borne disease in the general population. Ectoparasite species such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Amblyomma mixtum have been identified as Rickettsia vectors in Yucatan by studies focused on the wild animal population in rural areas. There have been studies that have tried to determine the presence of Rickettsia species in ectoparasites collected in Yucatan, but these studies did not include marginalized areas, where living in close contact with domestic and peridomestic animals that carry ectoparasites is a high-risk factor for acquiring rickettsial infection or many other vector-borne diseases...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Surang Leelawat, Kawin Leelawat
Background: Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus is primarily used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of leprosy. Previous studies demonstrated that the clinical course of leprosy and the susceptibility to mycobacteria are recognized by the immune response of the host. The current study aims to investigate the effect of H. anthelminthicus seed oil and extracts on the secretion of cytokines from PBMCs involved in immune regulation. Methods: PBMCs from healthy volunteers were cultured and treated with LPS and H...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Gertrude Namale, Onesmus Kamacooko, Alison Kinengyere, Laetitia Yperzeele, Patrick Cras, Edward Ddumba, Janet Seeley, Robert Newton
Introduction: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is a significant burden of ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS), although data on risk factors for each type are sparse. In this systematic review we attempt to characterize the risk factors. Methods: We systematically reviewed (PubMed, EMBASE, WHOLIS, Google Scholar, Wiley online, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)) case-control studies and case series from 1980 to 2016 that reported risk factors for IS and/or HS in SSA...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Grace Frimpong, Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye, Noble Kuntworbe, Kwame Ohene Buabeng, Yaa Asantewaa Osei, Mariam El Boakye-Gyasi, Ofosua Adi-Dako
The quality of 68 samples of 15 different essential children's medicines sold in licensed medicine outlets in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, was evaluated. Thirty-two (47.1%) of the medicines were imported, mainly from India (65.6%) and the United Kingdom (28.1%), while 36 (52.9%) were locally manufactured. The quality of the medicines was assessed using content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), pH, and microbial limit tests, and the results were compared with pharmacopoeial standards. Twenty-six (38.2%) of the samples studied passed the official content of API test while 42 (61...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Roland Nnaemeka Okoro, Muslim Olakunle Jamiu
In 2005, Nigeria changed its antimalarial drug policy to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria infection, and it is imperative for prescribers to strictly comply with this guideline to harmonize malaria management practices within the country. This study aims to evaluate prescribers' adherence with the National Antimalarial Treatment Guideline (NATG) in the treatment of malaria infections and to describe the determinants of antimalarial drugs coprescription with antibiotics at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Akram Layegh Gigloo, Bahador Sarkari, Zahra Rezaei, Gholam Reza Hatam, Mohammad Hassan Davami
The current study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in asymptomatic healthy children in a rural area of Fars province, Southern Iran. Blood samples were taken from 617 asymptomatic healthy children and serum samples along with buffy coat were separated from the blood. The serum samples were assessed for antibodies against Leishmania infantum by an indirect ELISA and the buffy coats were tested for the presence of L. infantum DNA by molecular method. Of the 617 recruited children, 297 (48...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Jose Figueredo-Silva, Joaquim Norões, Gerusa Dreyer
Background: In endemic areas, lymphangiectasia is the fundamental alteration to live Wuchereria bancrofti adult worms which, in adult males, are usually found in the lymphatic vessels of the spermatic cord; accordingly, hydrocele/filaricele is the most common clinical manifestation of bancroftian filariasis. The pathogenic role of the lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and the status of mesothelial cells (MCs) samples of the parietal layer (PL) of the tunica vaginalis testis were examined...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Babamale Olarewaju Abdulkareem, Kolawole Olasunkanmi Habeeb, Abdulganiyu Kazeem, Abdulkareem Olaitan Adam, Ugbomoiko Uade Samuel
Urogenital schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease that causes severe morbidity among schoolchildren in many poor-resource communities in Nigeria. We investigated the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of the infection in three communities of Kwara State to ascertain the current status of the disease. Of the 724 urine samples screened, using filtration method, 332 (45.6%) school-aged children were infected with average intensity and mean population eggs load of 127.9 eggs/10 ml of urine and 0...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
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