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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906068/human-mating-strategies-from-past-causes-to-present-consequences
#1
REVIEW
Daniele Marzoli, Jan Havlíček, S Craig Roberts
In both humans and nonhuman animals, mating strategies represent a set of evolutionary adaptations aimed at promoting individual fitness by means of reproduction with the best possible partners. Given this critical role, mating strategies influence numerous aspects of human life. In particular, between-sex divergence in the intensity of intrasexual competition could account for robust cross-cultural sex differences in psychology and behavior (e.g., personality, psychiatric disorders, social behavior, violence)...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800678/new-perspectives-on-the-neurophysiology-of-primate-amygdala-emerging-from-the-study-of-naturalistic-social-behaviors
#2
REVIEW
Katalin M Gothard, Clayton P Mosher, Prisca E Zimmerman, Philip T Putnam, Jeremiah K Morrow, Andrew J Fuglevand
A major challenge of primate neurophysiology, particularly in the domain of social neuroscience, is to adopt more natural behaviors without compromising the ability to relate patterns of neural activity to specific actions or sensory inputs. Traditional approaches have identified neural activity patterns in the amygdala in response to simplified versions of social stimuli such as static images of faces. As a departure from this reduced approach, single images of faces were replaced with arrays of images or videos of conspecifics...
August 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834416/hippocampus-as-a-wormhole-gateway-to-consciousness
#3
EDITORIAL
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
Commentary on: Faw M, Faw B. Neurotypical subjective experience is caused by a hippocampal simulation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, e1412. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1412.
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834415/response-to-hippocampus-as-a-wormhole-gateway-to-consciousness
#4
EDITORIAL
Matt Faw, Bill Faw
Reply to: Behrendt R-P. Hippocampus as a wormhole: gateway to consciousness. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, e1446. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1446.
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834414/mind-body-problem-and-hippocampus
#5
EDITORIAL
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
Commentary on Faw's comprehensive response to a previous commentary ('Hippocampus as a wormhole' by Ralf-Peter Behrendt, doi: 10.1002/wcs.1446) on Faw and Faw's paper (doi: 10.1002/wcs.1412). WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, e1447. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1447.
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328102/sound-symbolism-the-role-of-word-sound-in-meaning
#6
REVIEW
Jan-Olof Svantesson
The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263033/bridging-views-in-cinema-a-review-of-the-art-and-science-of-view-integration
#7
REVIEW
Daniel T Levin, Lewis J Baker
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the relationship between film and cognitive science. This is reflected in a new science of cinema that can help us both to understand this art form, and to produce new insights about cognition and perception. In this review, we begin by describing how the initial development of cinema involved close observation of audience response. This allowed filmmakers to develop an informal theory of visual cognition that helped them to isolate and creatively recombine fundamental elements of visual experience...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653740/neurotypical-subjective-experience-is-caused-by-a-hippocampal-simulation
#8
REVIEW
Matt Faw, Bill Faw
We propose that the phenomenon known to neurologically intact people as 'Subjective Experience' is best understood as the activation of various sites in both extrinsic and intrinsic networks by a brand new episodic memory engram (i.e., a complex theta wave coding pattern originating from field CA1 of the hippocampus). Like a media news outlet, the hippocampal complex receives reportage from widely distributed structures around the brain and organizes and binds those reports together into a brand new episodic memory (i...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639739/philosophical-aesthetics-and-cognitive-science
#9
REVIEW
Aaron Meskin, Jon Robson, Anna Ichino, Kris Goffin, Annelies Monseré
Philosophical aesthetics is the branch of philosophy which explores issues having to do with art, beauty, and related phenomena. Philosophers have often been skeptical about the place of empirical investigation in aesthetics. However, in recent years many philosophical aestheticians have turned to cognitive science to enrich their understanding of their subject matter. Cognitive scientists have, in turn, been inspired by work in philosophical aesthetics. This essay focuses on a representative subset of the areas in which there has been fruitful dialog between philosophical aestheticians and cognitive scientists...
June 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544658/the-evolution-of-stories-from-mimesis-to-language-from-fact-to-fiction
#10
REVIEW
Brian Boyd
Why a species as successful as Homo sapiens should spend so much time in fiction, in telling one another stories that neither side believes, at first seems an evolutionary riddle. Because of the advantages of tracking and recombining true information, capacities for event comprehension, memory, imagination, and communication evolved in a range of animal species-yet even chimpanzees cannot communicate beyond the here and now. By Homo erectus, our forebears had reached an increasing dependence on one another, not least in sharing information in mimetic, prelinguistic ways...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485886/false-confessions
#11
REVIEW
Saul M Kassin
As illustrated by numerous cases in recent years, DNA exonerations of innocent individuals have cast a spotlight on the counterintuitive problem of false confessions. Studying the underlying psychology scientists have found that (1) innocent people are often targeted for interrogation because police make erroneous but confident judgments of deception; (2) certain interrogation techniques-namely, lengthy sessions, presentations of false evidence, and minimization themes that imply leniency-increase the risk that innocent people will confess; (3) certain individuals are particularly vulnerable to influence-notably, those with mental health problems or intellectual impairments, which render them overly compliant or suggestible, and children and adolescents, who exhibit 'immaturity of judgment'; (4) confession evidence is highly persuasive in court as a matter of common sense, increasing perceptions of guilt, even among judges and juries who see the confession as coerced, and even at times when the confession is contradicted by exculpatory information; (5) Miranda rights to silence and to counsel are not sufficiently protective, so proposals for reform have centered on the mandatory recording of interrogations, from start to finish, and a shift toward using investigative interviewing-a less confrontational, less deceptive means of questioning suspects...
May 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425678/thinking-about-quantity-the-intertwined-development-of-spatial-and-numerical-cognition
#12
Nora S Newcombe, Susan C Levine, Kelly S Mix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044430/the-role-of-sleep-in-cognitive-processing-focusing-on-memory-consolidation
#13
REVIEW
Alexis M Chambers
Research indicates that sleep promotes various cognitive functions, such as decision-making, language, categorization, and memory. Of these, most work has focused on the influence of sleep on memory, with ample work showing that sleep enhances memory consolidation, a process that stores new memories in the brain over time. Recent psychological and neurophysiological research has vastly increased understanding of this process. Such work not only suggests that consolidation relies on plasticity-related mechanisms that reactivate and stabilize memory representations, but also that this process may be experimentally manipulated by methods that target which memory traces are reactivated during sleep...
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026915/neurogenesis-and-pattern-separation-time-for-a-divorce
#14
REVIEW
Suzanna Becker
The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has led to numerous theories as to their functional significance. One of the most widely held views is that adult neurogenesis promotes pattern separation, a process by which overlapping patterns of neural activation are mapped to less overlapping representations. While a large body of evidence supports a role for neurogenesis in high interference memory tasks, it does not support the proposed function of neurogenesis in mediating pattern separation...
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977913/primate-empathy-three-factors-and-their-combinations-for-empathy-related-phenomena
#15
REVIEW
Shinya Yamamoto
Empathy as a research topic is receiving increasing attention, although there seems some confusion on the definition of empathy across different fields. Frans de Waal (de Waal FBM. Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy. Annu Rev Psychol 2008, 59:279-300. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093625) used empathy as an umbrella term and proposed a comprehensive model for the evolution of empathy with some of its basic elements in nonhuman animals. In de Waal's model, empathy consists of several layers distinguished by required cognitive levels; the perception-action mechanism plays the core role for connecting ourself and others...
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943643/the-development-of-spatial-and-memory-circuits-in-the-rat
#16
REVIEW
Hui Min Tan, Thomas Joseph Wills, Francesca Cacucci
We provide a concise review of recent studies related to the development of neural circuits supporting spatial navigation and memory in the rat. We chart the relative timeline of the emergence of the four main classes of spatially tuned neurons within the hippocampus and related limbic areas: head direction cells emerge earliest (postnatal day 12, P12), before the eyes of the rats are even open, followed by place cells and boundary responsive cells; grid cells emerge last, around the age of weaning (P21). The rate of maturation is unique to each type of neuron, with the head direction and grid cells showing rapid developmental spurts, in contrast to place cells, which show a more gradual trend of maturation...
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653804/models-of-neuromodulation-for-computational-psychiatry
#17
REVIEW
Sandra Iglesias, Sara Tomiello, Maya Schneebeli, Klaas E Stephan
Psychiatry faces fundamental challenges: based on a syndrome-based nosology, it presently lacks clinical tests to infer on disease processes that cause symptoms of individual patients and must resort to trial-and-error treatment strategies. These challenges have fueled the recent emergence of a novel field-computational psychiatry-that strives for mathematical models of disease processes at physiological and computational (information processing) levels. This review is motivated by one particular goal of computational psychiatry: the development of 'computational assays' that can be applied to behavioral or neuroimaging data from individual patients and support differential diagnosis and guiding patient-specific treatment...
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455908/the-sapir-whorf-hypothesis-and-inference-under-uncertainty
#18
REVIEW
Terry Regier, Yang Xu
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis holds that human thought is shaped by language, leading speakers of different languages to think differently. This hypothesis has sparked both enthusiasm and controversy, but despite its prominence it has only occasionally been addressed in computational terms. Recent developments support a view of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in terms of probabilistic inference. This view may resolve some of the controversy surrounding the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, and may help to normalize the hypothesis by linking it to established principles that also explain other phenomena...
April 28, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387440/mental-rotation-an-examination-of-assumptions
#19
REVIEW
Jordan A Searle, Jeff P Hamm
Since first presented by Shepard and Metzler, Science 1971, 171: 701-703, mental rotation has been described as a rotary transformation of a visual stimulus allowing it to be represented in a new orientation. For a given stimulus, the transformation is thought to occur at a constant speed, though speed may vary between stimuli; three-dimensional abstract shapes made out of blocks tend to be rotated much more slowly than alphanumeric characters or line drawings of common objects. Rotation is also presumed to be performed through the shortest angle...
April 7, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273398/the-development-and-developmental-consequences-of-social-essentialism
#20
REVIEW
Marjorie Rhodes, Tara M Mandalaywala
People often view certain ways of classifying people (e.g., by gender, race, or ethnicity) as reflecting real distinctions found in nature. Such categories are viewed as marking meaningful, fundamental, and informative differences between distinct kinds of people. This article examines the development of these essentialist intuitive theories of how the social world is structured, along with the developmental consequences of these beliefs. We first examine the processes that give rise to social essentialism, arguing that essentialism emerges as children actively attempt to make sense of their environment by relying on several basic representational and explanatory biases...
March 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
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