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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science

Alice Blumenthal-Dramé, Evie Malaia
This review compares how humans process action and language sequences produced by other humans. On the one hand, we identify commonalities between action and language processing in terms of cognitive mechanisms (e.g., perceptual segmentation, predictive processing, integration across multiple temporal scales), neural resources (e.g., the left inferior frontal cortex), and processing algorithms (e.g., comprehension based on changes in signal entropy). On the other hand, drawing on sign language with its particularly strong motor component, we also highlight what differentiates (both oral and signed) linguistic communication from nonlinguistic action sequences...
November 12, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Susannah V Levi
The Language Familiarity Effect (LFE)-where listeners are better at processing talker-voice information in their native language than in an unfamiliar language-has received renewed attention in the past 10 years. Numerous studies have sought to probe the underlying causes of this advantage by cleverly manipulating aspects of the stimuli (using phonologically related languages, backwards speech, nonwords) and by examining individual differences across listeners (testing reading ability and pitch perception)...
October 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Dylan D Wagner, Robert S Chavez, Timothy W Broom
Multivariate pattern analysis and data-driven approaches to understand how the human brain encodes sensory information and higher level conceptual knowledge have become increasingly dominant in visual and cognitive neuroscience; however, it is only in recent years that these methods have been applied to the domain of social information processing. This review examines recent research in the field of social cognitive neuroscience focusing on how multivariate pattern analysis (e.g., pattern classification, representational similarity analysis) and data-driven methods (e...
September 26, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Myrto Mylopoulos, Elisabeth Pacherie
Ten years ago, one of us proposed a dynamic hierarchical model of intentions that brought together philosophical work on intentions and empirical work on motor representations and motor control (Pacherie, 2008). The model distinguished among Distal intentions, Proximal intentions, and Motor intentions operating at different levels of action control (hence the name DPM model). This model specified the representational and functional profiles of each type of intention, as well their local and global dynamics, and the ways in which they interact...
August 13, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Nicole R Holliday
What is the relationship between ethnolinguistic communities and ways of speaking? Who is an authentic speaker of an ethnolinguistic variety? In a time where scholarly and public conceptualizations of race and ethnicity are variable and rapidly changing, potential effects on both self-identification and ways of speaking present an area ripe for study. However, linguistics and allied fields have often overlooked individuals and communities that do not neatly conform to well-defined racial categories. As multiracially identified individuals are one of the fastest growing demographic groups in the United States, researchers will necessarily need to address the way that traditional methodologies have excluded individuals and groups who fall outside of these racial and ethnic categories...
August 6, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Jacob Beck
Over the past 50 years, philosophers and psychologists have perennially argued for the existence of analog mental representations of one type or another. This study critically reviews a number of these arguments as they pertain to three different types of mental representation: perceptual representations, imagery representations, and numerosity representations. Along the way, careful consideration is given to the meaning of "analog" presupposed by these arguments for analog mental representation, and to open avenues for future research...
July 13, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Samuel B Hunley, Stella F Lourenco
Findings from diverse fields of study, including neuroscience, psychology, zoology, and sociology, demonstrate that human and non-human primates maintain a representation of the space immediately surrounding the body, known as peripersonal space (PPS). However, progress in this field has been hampered by the lack of an agreed upon definition of PPS. Since the beginning of its formal study, scientists have argued that PPS plays a crucial role in both defensive and non-defensive actions. Yet consensus is lacking about the cognitive and neural instantiation of these functions...
July 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
John D Medaglia
Cognitive control researchers aim to describe the processes that support adaptive cognition to achieve specific goals. Control theorists consider how to influence the state of systems to reach certain user-defined goals. In brain networks, some conceptual and lexical similarities between cognitive control and control theory offer appealing avenues for scientific discovery. However, these opportunities also come with the risk of conceptual confusion. Here, I suggest that each field of inquiry continues to produce novel and distinct insights...
July 3, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Bryan Chambliss
The mind-body problem is the problem of explaining how the happenings of our mental lives are related to physical states, events and processes. Proposed solutions to the problem vary by whether and how they endorse physicalism, the claim that mental states are ultimately "nothing over and above" physical states, and by how they understand the interactions between mental and physical states. Physicalist solutions to the mind-body problem have been dominant in the last century, with the variety of physicalism endorsed (reductive or nonreductive) depending upon both the outcome of philosophical arguments and methodological developments in the cognitive and neural sciences...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Jessica Robin
Spatial context is a defining feature of episodic memories, which are often characterized as being events occurring in specific spatiotemporal contexts. In this review, I summarize research suggesting a common neural basis for episodic and spatial memory and relate this to the role of spatial context in episodic memory. I review evidence that spatial context serves as a scaffold for episodic memory and imagination, in terms of both behavioral and neural effects demonstrating a dependence of episodic memory on spatial representations...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Andreas Demetriou, Nikolaos Makris, Smaragda Kazi, George Spanoudis, Michael Shayer
This paper summarizes research on how cognizance, that is, awareness of mental processes, interacts with executive control and reasoning from childhood to adolescence. Central positions are that (a) cognizance changes extensively with age; (b) it contributes to the formation of executive control, and (c) mediates between executive control and reasoning. Cognizance recycles with changes in executive and inferential possibilities in four developmental cycles: it registers their present state, yielding insight into their operation, allowing their better management; this catalyzes their transformation into the next level...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Morgan L Widhalm, Nathan S Rose
We present a focused review on the utility of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for modulating memory, with a particular focus on multimodal approaches in which TMS is paired with neuroimaging methods (electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to manipulate and measure working memory processes. We contrast the utility of TMS for manipulating memory with other forms of noninvasive brain stimulation, as well as different forms of TMS including single-pulse, paired-pulse and repetitive TMS protocols...
June 27, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Patrice Voss
The study of the neural consequences of sensory loss provides a unique window into the brain's functional and organizational principles. Although the blind visual cortex has been implicated in the cross-modal processing of nonvisual inputs for quite some time, recent research has shown that certain cortical organizational principles are preserved even in the case of complete sensory loss. Furthermore, a growing body of work has shown that markers of neuroplasticity extend to neuroanatomical metrics that include cortical thickness and myelinization...
June 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
John Alderete, Paul Tupper
Speech errors involving manipulations of sounds tend to be phonologically regular in the sense that they obey the phonotactic rules of well-formed words. We review the empirical evidence for phonological regularity in prior research, including both categorical assessments of words and regularity at the granular level involving specific segments and contexts. Since the reporting of regularity is affected by human perceptual biases, we also document this regularity in a new data set of 2,228 sublexical errors that was collected using methods that are demonstrably less prone to bias...
May 30, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Sara Finley
Morphology is the study of the relationship between form and meaning. The study of morphology involves understanding the rules and processes that underlie word formation, including the use and productivity of affixes, and the systems that create novel word forms. The present review explores these processes by examining the cognitive components that contribute to typological regularities among morphological systems across the world's language. The review will focus on research in morpheme segmentation, the suffixing preference, acquisition of morphophonology, and acquiring morphological categories and inflectional paradigms...
May 30, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Christopher S Hill
Although there is much talk in various literatures of streams of consciousness, and most of us have an intuitive understanding of such talk, we are far from having a full grasp of what it is that unifies streams of consciousness, binding together the individual experiences that serve as their constituents. In recent years, discussion of this topic has been principally concerned with synchronic unity of consciousness-the form of unity that is exhibited by momentary states of consciousness, or in other words, by time slices or temporal segments of streams...
May 29, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Terry Regier, Yang Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Stefan Frässle, Yu Yao, Dario Schöbi, Eduardo A Aponte, Jakob Heinzle, Klaas E Stephan
Despite the success of modern neuroimaging techniques in furthering our understanding of cognitive and pathophysiological processes, translation of these advances into clinically relevant tools has been virtually absent until now. Neuromodeling represents a powerful framework for overcoming this translational deadlock, and the development of computational models to solve clinical problems has become a major scientific goal over the last decade, as reflected by the emergence of clinically oriented neuromodeling fields like Computational Psychiatry, Computational Neurology, and Computational Psychosomatics...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Brett K Hayes, Evan Heit
Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge to make predictions about novel cases. The first part of this review summarizes key inductive phenomena and critically evaluates theories of induction. We highlight recent theoretical advances, with a special emphasis on the structured statistical approach, the importance of sampling assumptions in Bayesian models, and connectionist modeling. A number of new research directions in this field are identified including comparisons of inductive and deductive reasoning, the identification of common core processes in induction and memory tasks and induction involving category uncertainty...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Jeffrey Annis, Thomas J Palmeri
Cognitive models aim to explain complex human behavior in terms of hypothesized mechanisms of the mind. These mechanisms can be formalized in terms of mathematical structures containing parameters that are theoretically meaningful. For example, in the case of perceptual decision making, model parameters might correspond to theoretical constructs like response bias, evidence quality, response caution, and the like. Formal cognitive models go beyond verbal models in that cognitive mechanisms are instantiated in terms of mathematics and they go beyond statistical models in that cognitive model parameters are psychologically interpretable...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
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