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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328102/sound-symbolism-the-role-of-word-sound-in-meaning
#1
REVIEW
Jan-Olof Svantesson
The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273398/the-development-and-developmental-consequences-of-social-essentialism
#2
REVIEW
Marjorie Rhodes, Tara M Mandalaywala
People often view certain ways of classifying people (e.g., by gender, race, or ethnicity) as reflecting real distinctions found in nature. Such categories are viewed as marking meaningful, fundamental, and informative differences between distinct kinds of people. This article examines the development of these essentialist intuitive theories of how the social world is structured, along with the developmental consequences of these beliefs. We first examine the processes that give rise to social essentialism, arguing that essentialism emerges as children actively attempt to make sense of their environment by relying on several basic representational and explanatory biases...
March 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263441/-form-is-easy-meaning-is-hard-revisited-re-characterizing-the-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-language-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Letitia R Naigles, Saime Tek
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate impairments in social interaction and communication, and in repetitive/stereotypical behaviors. The degree to which children with ASD also manifest impairments in structural language-such as lexicon and grammar-is currently quite controversial. We reframe this controversy in terms of Naigles' (Naigles, Cognition 2002, 86: 157-199) 'form is easy, meaning is hard' thesis, and propose that the social difficulties of children with ASD will lead the meaning-related components of their language to be relatively more impaired than the form-related components...
March 6, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263033/bridging-views-in-cinema-a-review-of-the-art-and-science-of-view-integration
#4
REVIEW
Daniel T Levin, Lewis J Baker
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the relationship between film and cognitive science. This is reflected in a new science of cinema that can help us both to understand this art form, and to produce new insights about cognition and perception. In this review, we begin by describing how the initial development of cinema involved close observation of audience response. This allowed filmmakers to develop an informal theory of visual cognition that helped them to isolate and creatively recombine fundamental elements of visual experience...
March 6, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160453/word-learning-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Angela Xiaoxue He, Sudha Arunachalam
How do children acquire the meanings of words? Many word learning mechanisms have been proposed to guide learners through this challenging task. Despite the availability of rich information in the learner's linguistic and extralinguistic input, the word-learning task is insurmountable without such mechanisms for filtering through and utilizing that information. Different kinds of words, such as nouns denoting object concepts and verbs denoting event concepts, require to some extent different kinds of information and, therefore, access to different kinds of mechanisms...
February 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160440/representation-of-speech-variability
#6
REVIEW
Tessa Bent, Rachael F Holt
Speech signals provide both linguistic information (e.g., words and sentences) as well as information about the speaker who produced the message (i.e., social-indexical information). Listeners store highly detailed representations of these speech signals, which are simultaneously indexed with linguistic and social category membership. A variety of methodologies-forced-choice categorization, rating, and free classification-have shed light on listeners' cognitive-perceptual representations of the social-indexical information present in the speech signal...
February 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044430/the-role-of-sleep-in-cognitive-processing-focusing-on-memory-consolidation
#7
REVIEW
Alexis M Chambers
Research indicates that sleep promotes various cognitive functions, such as decision-making, language, categorization, and memory. Of these, most work has focused on the influence of sleep on memory, with ample work showing that sleep enhances memory consolidation, a process that stores new memories in the brain over time. Recent psychological and neurophysiological research has vastly increased understanding of this process. Such work not only suggests that consolidation relies on plasticity-related mechanisms that reactivate and stabilize memory representations, but also that this process may be experimentally manipulated by methods that target which memory traces are reactivated during sleep...
January 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026915/neurogenesis-and-pattern-separation-time-for-a-divorce
#8
REVIEW
Suzanna Becker
The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has led to numerous theories as to their functional significance. One of the most widely held views is that adult neurogenesis promotes pattern separation, a process by which overlapping patterns of neural activation are mapped to less overlapping representations. While a large body of evidence supports a role for neurogenesis in high interference memory tasks, it does not support the proposed function of neurogenesis in mediating pattern separation...
December 27, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911490/what-does-it-take-to-learn-a-word
#9
REVIEW
Larissa K Samuelson, Bob McMurray
Vocabulary learning is deceptively hard, but toddlers often make it look easy. Prior theories proposed that children's rapid acquisition of words is based on language-specific knowledge and constraints. In contrast, more recent work converges on the view that word learning proceeds via domain-general processes that are tuned to richly structured-not impoverished-input. We argue that new theoretical insights, coupled with methodological tools, have pushed the field toward an appreciation of simple, content-free processes working together as a system to support the acquisition of words...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906529/genes-behavior-and-behavior-genetics
#10
REVIEW
Evan Charney
According to the 'first law' of behavior genetics, 'All human behavioral traits are heritable.' Accepting the validity of this first law and employing statistical methods, researchers within psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and business claim to have demonstrated that all the behaviors studied by their disciplines are heritable-no matter how culturally specific these behaviors appear to be. Further, in many cases they claim to have identified specific genes that play a role in those behaviors...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906526/statistical-learning-a-powerful-mechanism-that-operates-by-mere-exposure
#11
REVIEW
Richard N Aslin
How do infants learn so rapidly and with little apparent effort? In 1996, Saffran, Aslin, and Newport reported that 8-month-old human infants could learn the underlying temporal structure of a stream of speech syllables after only 2 min of passive listening. This demonstration of what was called statistical learning, involving no instruction, reinforcement, or feedback, led to dozens of confirmations of this powerful mechanism of implicit learning in a variety of modalities, domains, and species. These findings reveal that infants are not nearly as dependent on explicit forms of instruction as we might have assumed from studies of learning in which children or adults are taught facts such as math or problem solving skills...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906524/the-development-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-variability-and-causal-complexity
#12
REVIEW
Robert H Wozniak, Nina B Leezenbaum, Jessie B Northrup, Kelsey L West, Jana M Iverson
The autism spectrum is highly variable, both behaviorally and neurodevelopmentally. Broadly speaking, four related factors contribute to this variability: (1) genetic processes, (2) environmental events, (3) gene × environment interactions, and (4) developmental factors. Given the complexity of the relevant processes, it appears unlikely that autism spectrum atypicalities can be attributed to any one causal mechanism. Rather, the development of neural atypicality reflects an interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906523/developmental-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Robert Lickliter
Biologists and psychologists are re-thinking the long-standing premise of genes as the primary cause of development, a view widely embraced in 20th-century biology. This shift in thinking is based in large part on: (1) the growing appreciation of the complex, distributed regulatory dynamics of gene expression; and (2) the growing appreciation of the probabilistic, contingent, and situated nature of development. We now appreciate that what actually unfolds during individual development represents only one of many possibilities...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906522/educating-executive-function
#14
REVIEW
Clancy Blair
Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906520/construction-of-the-human-forebrain
#15
REVIEW
Terry L Jernigan, Joan Stiles
The adult human brain is arguably the most complex of biological systems. It contains 86 billion neurons (the information processing cells of the brain) and many more support cells. The neurons, with the assistance of the support cells, form trillions of connections creating complex, interconnected neural networks that support all human thought, feeling, and action. A challenge for modern neuroscience is to provide a model that accounts for this exquisitely complex and dynamic system. One fundamental part of this model is an account of how the human brain develops...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906519/can-newborn-infants-imitate
#16
REVIEW
Susan Jones
For several decades, scientists have held that newborn human infants can imitate adult behaviors like mouth opening, tongue protruding, and finger movements. This has been difficult to explain. In particular, it is not clear how newborn infants could know enough about their own bodies and movements, and how these map onto the bodies and movements of others, to be able to match their own felt movements to the seen movements of others. Prominent theories posit the existence of inborn mechanisms that automatically link visual input from the movements of others to the infant's already existing motor programs to produce the same movements...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906518/functional-development-of-the-brain-s-face-processing-system
#17
REVIEW
Frank Haist, Gizelle Anzures
In the first 20 years of life, the human brain undergoes tremendous growth in size, weight, and synaptic connectedness. Over the same time period, a person achieves remarkable transformations in perception, thought, and behavior. One important area of development is face processing ability, or the ability to quickly and accurately extract extensive information about a person's identity, emotional state, attractiveness, intention, and numerous other types of information that are crucial to everyday social interaction and communication...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906517/the-development-of-motor-behavior
#18
REVIEW
Karen E Adolph, John M Franchak
This article reviews research on the development of motor behavior from a developmental systems perspective. We focus on infancy when basic action systems are acquired. Posture provides a stable base for locomotion, manual actions, and facial actions. Experience facilitates improvements in motor behavior and infants accumulate immense amounts of experience with all of their basic action systems. At every point in development, perception guides motor behavior by providing feedback about the results of just prior movements and information about what to do next...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906516/what-is-the-flynn-effect-and-how-does-it-change-our-understanding-of-iq
#19
REVIEW
David Shenk
In 1981, psychologist James Flynn noticed that IQ scores had risen streadily over nearly a century a staggering difference of 18 points over two generations. After a careful analysis, he concluded the cause to be culture. Society had become more intelligent-come to grips with bigger, more abstract ideas over time-and had made people smarter. This observation, combined with solid evidence that IQ scores are also not fixed within an individual, neatly dispels the idea of intelligence being an innate and fixed entity...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906515/development-evolving-the-origins-and-meanings-of-instinct
#20
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg
How do migratory birds, herding dogs, and navigating sea turtles do the amazing things that they do? For hundreds of years, scientists and philosophers have struggled over possible explanations. In time, one word came to dominate the discussion: instinct. It became the catch-all explanation for those adaptive and complex abilities that do not obviously result from learning or experience. Today, various animals are said to possess a survival instinct, migratory instinct, herding instinct, maternal instinct, or language instinct...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
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