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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science

Sandra Iglesias, Sara Tomiello, Maya Schneebeli, Klaas E Stephan
Psychiatry faces fundamental challenges: based on a syndrome-based nosology, it presently lacks clinical tests to infer on disease processes that cause symptoms of individual patients and must resort to trial-and-error treatment strategies. These challenges have fueled the recent emergence of a novel field-computational psychiatry-that strives for mathematical models of disease processes at physiological and computational (information processing) levels. This review is motivated by one particular goal of computational psychiatry: the development of 'computational assays' that can be applied to behavioral or neuroimaging data from individual patients and support differential diagnosis and guiding patient-specific treatment...
September 21, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Matt Faw, Bill Faw
We propose that the phenomenon known to neurologically intact people as 'Subjective Experience' is best understood as the activation of various sites in both extrinsic and intrinsic networks by a brand new episodic memory engram (i.e., a complex theta wave coding pattern originating from field CA1 of the hippocampus). Like a media news outlet, the hippocampal complex receives reportage from widely distributed structures around the brain and organizes and binds those reports together into a brand new episodic memory (i...
September 21, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Mark S Blumberg, John P Spencer, David Shenk
For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
September 13, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Vincent Hok, Bruno Poucet, Éléonore Duvelle, Étienne Save, Francesca Sargolini
The increasing use of mice models in cognitive tasks that were originally designed for rats raises crucial questions about cross-species comparison in the study of spatial cognition. The present review focuses on the major neuroethological differences existing between mice and rats, with particular attention given to the neurophysiological basis of space coding. While little difference is found in the basic properties of space representation in these two species, it appears that the stability of this representation changes more drastically over time in mice than in rats...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Lucas A Keefer, Mark J Landau
Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Lore Thaler, Melvyn A Goodale
Bats and dolphins are known for their ability to use echolocation. They emit bursts of sounds and listen to the echoes that bounce back to detect the objects in their environment. What is not as well-known is that some blind people have learned to do the same thing, making mouth clicks, for example, and using the returning echoes from those clicks to sense obstacles and objects of interest in their surroundings. The current review explores some of the research that has examined human echolocation and the changes that have been observed in the brains of echolocation experts...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Roshan Cools
Cognitive control helps us attain our goals by resisting distraction and temptations. Dopaminergic drugs are well known to enhance cognitive control. However, there is great variability in the effects of dopaminergic drugs across different contexts, with beneficial effects on some tasks but detrimental effects on other tasks. The mechanisms underlying this variability across cognitive task demands remain unclear. I aim to elucidate this across-task variability in dopaminergic drug efficacy by going beyond classic models that emphasize the importance of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex for cognitive control and working memory...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Jacob Feldman
The simplicity principle, traditionally referred to as Occam's razor, is the idea that simpler explanations of observations should be preferred to more complex ones. In recent decades the principle has been clarified via the incorporation of modern notions of computation and probability, allowing a more precise understanding of how exactly complexity minimization facilitates inference. The simplicity principle has found many applications in modern cognitive science, in contexts as diverse as perception, categorization, reasoning, and neuroscience...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Amber J de Vere, Stan A Kuczaj
The study of emotion is rife with debate over issues as fundamental as how to define emotion, and such disputes are particularly common in the nonhuman animal emotion literature. Here, we seek to address some of these issues, especially in terms of how they relate to animal research. Definitional issues are prevalent; clear definitions are often not given of crucial terms, including 'emotion,' and even where provided, such terms may be used inconsistently throughout a single paper. Further disagreement over the structure of emotions, and the nature of conscious experiences involved, leads to consistent differences in authors' criteria for emotions...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Mahesh Srinivasan, David Barner
How does linguistic structure relate to how we construe reality? In many languages, countable individuals like objects are typically labeled by count nouns (e.g., two rabbits, every truck, etc.), while unindividuated masses like substances are typically labeled by mass nouns (e.g., much mud, barrel of oil, etc.) (Quine WVO. Word and Object. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1960). These facts have led researchers to propose that learning mass-count syntax affects how speakers perceive objects and substances or alternatively that an understanding of this distinction-or one between individuals and nonindividuals-scaffolds the acquisition of mass and count nouns...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Michael J Beran, Charles R Menzel, Audrey E Parrish, Bonnie M Perdue, Ken Sayers, J David Smith, David A Washburn
Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
L A Petitto, C Langdon, A Stone, D Andriola, G Kartheiser, C Cochran
Among the most prevailing assumptions in science and society about the human reading process is that sound and sound-based phonology are critical to young readers. The child's sound-to-letter decoding is viewed as universal and vital to deriving meaning from print. We offer a different view. The crucial link for early reading success is not between segmental sounds and print. Instead the human brain's capacity to segment, categorize, and discern linguistic patterning makes possible the capacity to segment all languages...
July 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Ansgar D Endress, Luca L Bonatti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Henk R Cremers, Karin Roelofs
Social anxiety is a common disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of one or more social or performance situations. Behavioral inhibition is one of the early indicators of social anxiety, which later in life may advance into a certain personality structure (low extraversion and high neuroticism) and the development of maladaptive cognitive biases. While there are several effective psycho- and pharmacotherapy options, a large number of patients benefit insufficiently from these therapies. Brain and neuroendocrine research can help uncover both the biological basis of social anxiety and potentially provide indicators, 'biomarkers,' that may be informative for early disease detection or treatment response, above and beyond self-report data...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Erik D Thiessen, Sandrine Girard, Lucy C Erickson
Infants and children are generally more successful than adults in learning novel languages, a phenomenon referred to as a critical or sensitive period for language acquisition. One explanation for this critical period is the idea that children have access to a set of language learning processes or mechanisms unavailable to adults. From this perspective, developmental change is explained in terms of a discontinuity of learning processes. We suggest that this is not the only possible explanation for developmental change in language learning outcomes...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Jessica F Schwab, Casey Lew-Williams
Young children's language experiences and language outcomes are highly variable. Research in recent decades has focused on understanding the extent to which family socioeconomic status (SES) relates to parents' language input to their children and, subsequently, children's language learning. Here, we first review research demonstrating differences in the quantity and quality of language that children hear across low-, mid-, and high-SES groups, but also-and perhaps more importantly-research showing that differences in input and learning also exist within SES groups...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Marlene Behrmann, K Suzanne Scherf, Galia Avidan
Face perception is probably the most developed visual perceptual skill in humans, most likely as a result of its unique evolutionary and social significance. Much recent research has converged to identify a host of relevant psychological mechanisms that support face recognition. In parallel, there has been substantial progress in uncovering the neural mechanisms that mediate rapid and accurate face perception, with specific emphasis on a broadly distributed neural circuit, comprised of multiple nodes whose joint activity supports face perception...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Mahiko Konishi, Jonathan Smallwood
The mind-wandering state illustrates two fundamental aspects of consciousness: its generative nature, which is reflected by the stimulus-independent content of thought that occurs when our minds wander; and metacognition, the unique capacity of the mind to reflect and understand itself. Self-generated thought, which allows us to consider people and events that are not present in the immediate environment, and metacognition, allowing us to introspect and report our inner experiences, are both essential to the scientific study of mind-wandering...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Thomas Serre
Visual categorization refers to our ability to organize objects and visual scenes into discrete categories. It is an essential skill as it allows us to distinguish friend from foe or edible versus poisonous food. Understanding how the visual system categorizes objects and scenes is a challenge because it requires bridging the gap between different levels of understanding-from the level of neural circuits and neural networks to the level of information processing and, ultimately, behavior. Computational models have become powerful tools for integrating knowledge across these levels of analysis...
May 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Elvira Khachatryan, Gertie Vanhoof, Hilde Beyens, Ann Goeleven, Vincent Thijs, Marc M Van Hulle
There is increasing evidence that a bilingual person should not be considered as two monolinguals in a single body, a view that has gradually been adopted in the diagnosis and treatment of bilingual aphasia. However, its investigation is complicated due to the large variety in possible language combinations, pre- and postmorbid language proficiencies, and age of second language acquisition. Furthermore, the tests and tasks used to assess linguistic capabilities differ in almost every study, hindering a direct comparison of their outcomes...
May 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
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