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(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1080/21501203.2018.1492981.].
2018: Mycology
Shulin Zhang, Yi Zhen Deng, Lian-Hui Zhang
Phytohormones (also named as plant hormones) are chemicals produced by plants in order to modulate various aspects of plant development, stress responses and defence. Recent studies revealed that fungi can also produce phytohormones or phytohormone-mimiking molecules, while it remains poorly understood about the details in the role and regulatory mechanism of such fungal produced phytohormonal molecules in plant-fungus interactions. The rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae imposes a great threat to global food security...
2018: Mycology
Yuanzheng Liu, Xi Feng, Ping Gao, Yanzhong Li, Michael J Christensen, Tingyu Duan
Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi is a major factor that affects the growth of standing milkvetch ( Astragalus adsurgens ). As arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have shown to be enhancing the resistance of plants to biotrophic pathogens such as powdery mildew, a study was carried out to look at the effects of three AMF, either singularly or in combination, on the growth of standing milkvetch and susceptibility to E. pisi . The results showed that the presence of AMF enhanced the growth of standing milkvetch even though their presence in the roots increased susceptibility to this foliage pathogen compared with plants having no AMF...
2018: Mycology
Wilfred Mabeche Anjago, Tengshen Zhou, Honghong Zhang, Mingyue Shi, Tao Yang, Huakun Zheng, Zonghua Wang
Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is the most destructive disease affecting the rice production ( Oryza sativa ), with an average global loss of 10-30% per annum. Recent reports have indicated that the fungus also inflicts blast disease on wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) posing a serious threat to the wheat production. Due to its easily detected infectious process and manoeuvrable genetic manipulation, M. oryzae is considered a model organism for exploring the molecular mechanism underlying fungal pathogenicity during the pathogen-host interaction...
2018: Mycology
Mariel A Pfeifer, Chang Hyun Khang
Magnaporthe oryzae is a filamentous fungus, which causes significant destruction to cereal crops worldwide. To infect plant cells, the fungus develops specialised constricted structures such as the penetration peg and the invasive hyphal peg. Live-cell imaging of M. oryzae during plant infection reveals that nuclear migration occurs during intermediate mitosis, in which the nuclear envelope neither completely disassembles nor remains entirely intact. Remarkably, in M. oryzae , mitotic nuclei show incredible malleability while undergoing confined migration through the constricted penetration and invasive hyphal pegs...
2018: Mycology
Tünde Pusztahelyi
Chitin is the second abundant polysaccharide in the world after cellulose. It is a vital structural component of the fungal cell wall but not for plants. In plants, fungi are recognised through the perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to induce MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Chitin polymers and their modified form, chitosan, induce host defence responses in both monocotyledons and dicotyledons. The plants' response to chitin, chitosan, and derived oligosaccharides depends on the acetylation degree of these compounds which indicates possible biocontrol regulation of plant immune system...
2018: Mycology
Weiwei Zhang, Xiaoling Zhang, Kuan Li, Chengshu Wang, Lei Cai, Wenying Zhuang, Meichun Xiang, Xingzhong Liu
Hypocrealean fungi (Ascomycota) are known for their diversity of lifestyles. Their vital influences on agricultural and natural ecosystems have resulted in a number of sequenced genomes, which provide essential data for genomic analysis. Totally, 45 hypocrealean fungal genomes constructed a phylogeny. The phylogeny showed that plant pathogens in Nectriaceae diverged earliest, followed by animal pathogens in Cordycipitaceae, Ophiocordycipitaceae and Clavicipitaceae with mycoparasites in Hypocreaceae. Insect/nematode pathogens and grass endophytes in Clavicipitaceae diverged at last...
2018: Mycology
Ningxiao Li, Seogchan Kang
Volatile compounds (VCs) produced by diverse microbes seem to affect plant growth, development and/or stress tolerance. We investigated how VCs released by soilborne fungi  Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae affect  Arabidopsis thalian a responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Under salt stress, VCs from both fungi helped its growth and increased chlorophyll content. However, in contrast to wild-type A. thaliana (Col-0), V. dahliae VCs failed to increase leaf surface area in auxin signalling mutants aux1-7, tir1-1 and axr1-3 ...
2018: Mycology
Yun Jin, Pan Zhao, Yuan-Yuan Fang, Feng Gao, Hui-Shan Guo, Jian-Hua Zhao
Small RNAs (sRNAs, including small interfering RNAs [siRNAs] and micro RNAs [miRNAs]) are key mediators of RNA silencing (or RNA interference), which play important roles in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stimulation. Verticillium wilt is a plant vascular disease caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogens, such as Verticillium dahliae . We previously reported that V. dahliae infection increased two plant endogenous miRNAs that were exported to fungal cell to silence virulence genes. To investigate plant sRNAs in genome-wide response to V...
2018: Mycology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1080/21501203.2017.1367333.].
2018: Mycology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1080/21501203.2017.1394393.].
2018: Mycology
Aline Cristina Velho, Pedro Mondino, Marciel J Stadnik
Colletotrichum fructicola causes two important diseases on apple in Southern Brazil, bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). In this pathosystem, the Colletotrichum ability to cause different symptoms could be related to differences of extracellular enzymes produced by the fungi. Thus, the objectives of this study were to compare the production of these enzymes between ABR- and GLS-isolate in vitro and to evaluate their involvement on infected apple leaves with C. fructicola . In agar plate enzymatic assay, ABR- showed significantly higher amylolytic and pectolytic activity than GLS-isolate...
2018: Mycology
Juma Mahmud Hussein, Donatha Damian Tibuhwa, Sanja Tibell
A large polyporoid mushroom from the West Usambara Mountains in North-eastern Tanzania produces dark brown, up to 60-cm large fruiting bodies that at maturity may weigh more than 10 kg. It has a high rate of mycelial growth and regeneration and was found growing on both dry and green leaves of shrubs; attached to the base of living trees, and it was also observed to degrade dead snakes and insects accidentally coming into contact with it. Phylogenetic analyses based on individual and concatenated data sets of nrLSU, nrSSU and the RPB2 and TEF1 genes showed it, together with Laetiporus, Phaeolus, Pycnoporellus and Wolfiporia , to form a monophyletic group in Polyporales ...
2018: Mycology
Yun-Yu Chen, Chiu-Ping Lo, Chin-Chung Lin, Yi-Hsuan Hsieh
Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a precious medicinal fungus endemic to Taiwan and has been used as traditional medicine for a long time. Many pharmacological studies have revealed that T. camphoratus possessed various biological activities, such as immunomodulatory effects, anticancer activity and liver protective function. The aim of this study is to investigate the non-specific and antigen (ovalbumin [OVA])-specific immunomodulation effects of solid-state cultivated powder of T. camphoratus (Leader Antrodia cinnamomea [LAC]) in BABL/c male mice...
2018: Mycology
Anand Kumar, Ryan Zarychanski, Amarnath Pisipati, Aseem Kumar, Shravan Kethireddy, Eric J Bow
The purpose of this study was to determine whether fungicidal versus fungistatic pharmacotherapy of invasive candidiasis/candidemia yields superior outcomes. Data sources included MEDLINE (1966-June 2017), EMBASE (1980-June 2017), PubMed (1966-June 2017), Global Health-Ovid (inception to June 2017), LILACS Virtual Health Library (inception to June 2017) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (to 2nd quarter 2017). The database, the SCOPUS database, SIGLE (System for Information on Grey Literature) and Google Scholar were also utilised to search for relevant studies...
2018: Mycology
Luis Villarreal-Ruiz, Cecilia Neri-Luna
The native Caledonian pinewoods of Scotland, UK contain a unique and unexplored biodiversity of below-ground ectomycorrhizal fungi which may constitute a valuable source of microbial genetics resources for woodland restoration. In this study we test the sampling effort, taxa detection (ectomycorrhiza morpho-anatotyping) and relative abundance measurements (ectomycorrhizal root tip number vs. dry weight) of below-ground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in a planted Pinus sylvestris Caledonian woodland. A total of 18 replicated sampling points were set up at differential distance along a 125 m transect, in a 50-yr-old, stem exclusion: thicket phase, Pinus sylvestris pinewood stand...
2018: Mycology
Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Wensheng Qin
We have conducted a genome-level comparative study of basidiomycetes wood-rotting fungi (white, brown and soft rot) to understand the total plant biomass (lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin) -degrading abilities. We have retrieved the genome-level annotations of well-known 14 white rot fungi, 15 brown rot fungi and 13 soft rot fungi. Based on the previous literature and the annotations obtained from CAZy (carbohydrate-active enzyme) database, we have separated the genome-wide CAZymes of the selected fungi into lignin-, cellulose-, hemicellulose- and pectin-degrading enzymes...
2018: Mycology
Neha Pandey, Rahul Jain, Anita Pandey, Sushma Tamta
With globalisation and growing health risks of synthetic colourants, search for pigments from natural sources has increased owing to their non-toxic nature. The present study highlights the bioprospection of natural pigment from a cold adapted fungal strain of Penicillium sp. (GBPI_P155), isolated from soil of Indian Himalayan region. The fungus produced insoluble and orange-coloured pigment in liquid medium with maximum production recorded in potato dextrose (PD) broth at 15°C and 3 pH, while maximum biomass was produced at 25°C and pH 3...
2018: Mycology
Nagwa E Awad, Hanaa A Kassem, Manal A Hamed, Amal M El-Feky, Mohamed A A Elnaggar, Khaled Mahmoud, Mohamed A Ali
The aim of the present study was to evaluate different biological activities of Trichoderma viride fungus (Family Hypocreaceae). Trichoderma viride isolated for the first time from the cucumber soil (rhizosphere). It was tested as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer agent. Trichoderma viride from the cucumber soil (rhizosphere) caused inhibition of the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii . Also, the alcoholic extract of the fungal mycelia proved a potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens ...
2018: Mycology
Wladimir Mardones, Alex Di Genova, María Paz Cortés, Dante Travisany, Alejandro Maass, Jaime Eyzaguirre
The high lignocellulolytic activity displayed by the soft-rot fungus Penicillium purpurogenum has made it a target for the study of novel lignocellulolytic enzymes. We have obtained a reference genome of 36.2 Mb of non-redundant sequence (11,057 protein-coding genes). The 49 largest scaffolds cover 90% of the assembly, and Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach (CEGMA) analysis reveals that our assembly captures almost all protein-coding genes. RNA-seq was performed and 93.1% of the reads aligned to the assembled genome...
2018: Mycology
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