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He Mao-Qiang, Zhao Rui-Lin
Agaricus gemloides sp. nov. is characterised by its reddish brown fibrillose squamose on the pileus, relatively slender basidiome and broader basidiospores. In this article, it is introduced based on its distinguished morphological features and molecular phylogenetic position.
October 2, 2015: Mycology
Ke Zhang, Roger G Shivas, Lei Cai
The generic concept of Phyllosticta has undergone substantial changes since its establishment in 1818. The existence of conidia with a mucilaginous sheath and an apical appendage is synapomorphic for Phyllosticta species, which has been shown in recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Thus a natural classification of Phyllosticta species should emphasize above morphological characters. Many names in Phyllosticta, both published in the scientific literatures and in publically accessible databases, need updating...
January 2, 2015: Mycology
Kim Maria Rodrigues, Bernard Felinov Rodrigues
Spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Funneliformis mosseae (Nicolson & Gerdemann) Walker & Schuessler were cultured in association with transformed roots of Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae) for the first time on modified Strullu-Romand medium (pH 5.5) in monoxenic culture. Germ tubes emerged through the spore wall in 88% of spores after 5 days. Hyphal contact with transformed linum roots was observed 5 days after co-cultivation. Paris-type arbuscules and hyphal coils were seen. Extra-radical branched absorbing structures were common...
January 2, 2015: Mycology
Balwant Verma, M Sudhakara Reddy
The new species Suillus indicus is described based on the morpho-anatomical description and molecular analysis of basidiomes found in conifer forests of the northwestern Himalayas, India. Morphologically, the key diagnostic characteristics of the new taxon are brownish-orange to reddish-brown pileus with low obtuse umbo, brownish-red to reddish-brown fibrillose squamules over the pileal surface, and absence of fibrillose squamules and glandular dots on the stipe surface. Sequences derived from the internal transcribed spacer region of basidiomes and culture demonstrated that the species is clearly distinct from other known taxa of Suillus and new to science...
January 2, 2015: Mycology
S B Sartori, L F R Ferreira, T G Messias, G Souza, G B Pompeu, R T R Monteiro
The vinasse is a by-product generated during the manufacture of alcohol from sugarcane fermentation. Rich in organic matter, it is known that the vinasse has the potential to be used as a source of nutrients for plants as well as microorganisms. In this study, the fungi Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. ostreatus, P. albidus and P. flabellatus were cultivated in vinasse and utilised as a complementary diet for Danio rerio fish. The fungi mycelia cultured in vinasse for 15 days were lyophilised and offered to the fishes at a rate of 2% (medium/body weight) for 28 days...
January 2, 2015: Mycology
Huzefa A Raja, Amninder Kaur, Tamam El-Elimat, Mario Figueroa, Rahul Kumar, Gagan Deep, Rajesh Agarwal, Stanley H Faeth, Nadja B Cech, Nicholas H Oberlies
Use of the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is widespread, and its chemistry has been studied for over 50 years. However, milk thistle endophytes have not been studied previously for their fungal and chemical diversity. We examined the fungal endophytes inhabiting this medicinal herb to determine: (1) species composition and phylogenetic diversity of fungal endophytes; (2) chemical diversity of secondary metabolites produced by these organisms; and (3) cytotoxicity of the pure compounds against the human prostate carcinoma (PC-3) cell line...
January 2, 2015: Mycology
David M Wilkinson, Angela L Creevy, Chiamaka L Kalu, David W Schwartzman
We speculate that heterotrophic and/or silica-rich eukaryotic microorganisms maybe an important part of the lichen symbiosis. None of the very few studies of heterotrophic protists associated with lichens have considered the possibility that they may be of functional significance in the lichen symbiosis. Here we start to develop, currently speculative, theoretical ideas about their potential significance. For example, all the protist taxa identified in lichens we sampled in Ohio USA depend on silica for growth and construction of their cell walls, this could suggest that silica-rich lichen symbionts may be significant in the biogeochemistry of the lichen symbiosis...
January 2, 2015: Mycology
Chengshu Wang
I am proud to be elected as the sixth president of the Mycological Society of China, and highly pleased to have a chance to share my personal opinion here with my fellow mycologists and students regarding the innovative performance of fungal biology studies in China. A stepwise buildup of knowledge and sharp scientific vision is the prerequisite for innovative studies. Taken together with the most advanced techniques and elegant experimental designs, the scholars would have a better chance to acquire novel and conceptual results rather than the "me too" stories by focusing on the mechanisms related with fungal unique biology...
January 2, 2015: Mycology
Hans-Otto Baral, Martin Bemmann
Five species of Hymenoscyphus that fruit on black stromatized parts of dead leaves of deciduous trees are presented, giving details on their morphological and ecological characteristics. Several of these species have previously been misplaced in rutstroemiaceous genera because of the presence of a substratal stroma. However, the heteropolar, scutuloid ascospores with an often hook-like lateral protrusion at the rounded apex and the ascus apical ring of the Hymenoscyphus-type represent two reliable morphological characteristics that, together with molecular data, provide clear evidence for their placement in the genus Hymenoscyphus (Helotiaceae)...
October 2, 2014: Mycology
Thatsanee Luangharn, Samantha C Karunarathna, Kevin D Hyde, Ekachai Chukeatirote
Laetiporus sulphureus is an edible wood-rotting basidiomycete, growing on decaying logs, stumps, and trunks of many deciduous and coniferous tree species. This fungus produces relatively large striking yellowish or orange-coloured bracket-like fruitbodies. L. sulphureus is widely consumed as a nutritional food because of its fragrance and texture. In this study, two L. sulphureus strains, MFLUCC 12-0546 and MFLUCC 12-0547, isolated from Chiang Rai, Thailand, were investigated for optimal conditions of mycelia growth...
October 2, 2014: Mycology
Julia Arens, Dominik Bergs, Mirja Mewes, Juliane Merz, Gerhard Schembecker, Frank Schulz
A variety of different applications render terpenes and terpenoids attractive research targets. A promising but so far insufficiently explored family of terpenoids are the fusicoccanes that comprise a characteristic 5-8-5 fused tricyclic ring system. Besides herbicidal effects, these compounds also show apoptotic and anti-tumour effects on mammalian cells. The access to fusicoccanes from natural sources is scarce. Recently, we introduced a metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to enable the heterologous fermentation of the shared fusicoccane-diterpenoid precursor, fusicocca-2,10(14)-diene...
July 3, 2014: Mycology
Yit-Heng Chooi, Mariano Jordi Muria-Gonzalez, Peter S Solomon
The model pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum is a necrotroph and the causal agent of the wheat disease Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB). The sequenced P. nodorum genome has revealed that the fungus harbours a large number of secondary metabolite genes. Secondary metabolites are known to play important roles in the virulence of plant pathogens, but limited knowledge is available about the SM repertoire of this wheat pathogen. Here, we review the secondary metabolites that have been isolated from P. nodorum and related species of the same genus and provide an in-depth genome-wide overview of the secondary metabolite gene clusters encoded in the P...
July 3, 2014: Mycology
Víctor González-Menéndez, Francisco Asensio, Catalina Moreno, Nuria de Pedro, Maria Candida Monteiro, Mercedes de la Cruz, Francisca Vicente, Gerald F Bills, Fernando Reyes, Olga Genilloud, José R Tormo
Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets...
July 3, 2014: Mycology
Zeinab G Khalil, Pabasara Kalansuriya, Robert J Capon
We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO...
July 3, 2014: Mycology
David P Overy, Paul Bayman, Russell G Kerr, Gerald F Bills
The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from 'marine-derived' fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms...
July 3, 2014: Mycology
David P Overy, Fabrice Berrue, Hebelin Correa, Novriyandi Hanif, Kathryn Hay, Martin Lanteigne, Kathrine Mquilian, Stephanie Duffy, Patricia Boland, Ramesh Jagannathan, Gavin S Carr, Marieke Vansteeland, Russell G Kerr
Due to a rate increase in the resistance of microbial pathogens to currently used antibiotics, there is a need in society for the discovery of novel antimicrobials. Historically, fungi are a proven source for antimicrobial compounds. The main goals of this study were to investigate the fungal diversity associated with sea foam collected around the coast of Prince Edward Island and the utility of this resource for the production of antimicrobial natural products. Obtained isolates were identified using ITS and nLSU rDNA sequences, fermented on four media, extracted and fractions enriched in secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity...
July 3, 2014: Mycology
Amninder Kaur, Kristina D Rogers, Dale E Swenson, Patrick F Dowd, Donald T Wicklow, James B Gloer
Chemical investigations of two fungal isolates initially identified as members of the genus Phialemonium are described. Both isolates were obtained as colonists of other fungi collected on the island of Hawaii and were later assigned as P. curvatum. However, P. curvatum has recently been reclassified as a member of a new genus (Phialemoniopsis) and renamed as Phialemoniopsis curvata. Studies of solid-substrate fermentation cultures of one of these isolates afforded an oxirapentyn analogue and destruxin A4 as major components, while analysis of the second strain led to the isolation of several simple aromatic metabolites and a compound of mixed biogenetic origin called gabusectin that had previously been reported only in a patent...
July 3, 2014: Mycology
Frank Surup, Eric Kuhnert, Erik Lehmann, Simone Heitkämper, Kevin D Hyde, Jacques Fournier, Marc Stadler
During the course of a screening for novel anti-infective agents from cultures of tropical Xylariaceae originating from French Guiana and Thailand, pronounced antifungal activity was noted in extracts of cultures of Hypoxylon monticulosum. A bioassay-guided fractionation led to the known metabolite sporothriolide as active principle. In addition, three new derivatives of sporothriolide were isolated, for which we propose the trivial names sporothric acid, isosporothric acid and dihydroisosporothric acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry in conjunction with two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy...
July 3, 2014: Mycology
Yasuhiro Igarashi, Tomoaki Hanafusa, Fumiya Gohda, Stephen Peterson, Gerald Bills
Secondary metabolite phenotypes in nine species of the Hamigera clade were analysed to assess their correlations to a multi-gene species-level phylogeny. High-pressure-liquid-chromatography-based chemical analysis revealed three distinctive patterns of secondary metabolite production: (1) the nine species could be divided into two groups on the basis of production of the sesquiterpene tricinonoic acid; (2) the tricinonoic acid-producing group produced two cyclic peptides avellanins A and B; (3) the tricinonoic acid-non-producing group could be further divided into two groups according to the production of avellanins A and B...
July 3, 2014: Mycology
Galina A Vydryakova, Olga V Morozova, Scott A Redhead, John Bissett
The morphological variation of basidiomata of Filoboletus manipularis (Berk) Singer collected in southern Viet Nam was studied. Phylogenetic analyses comprising three gene loci indicated that these collections, although exhibiting widely varying morphologies, represented a single species with a population composed of genetically diverse, sexually compatible monokaryon parental strains. No correlation was found between any aspect of morphological variation and intraspecific phylogenetic patterns for the three gene loci studied...
June 2014: Mycology
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