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Cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414309/regulating-a-key-mitotic-regulator-polo-like-kinase-1-plk1
#1
REVIEW
Erica G Colicino, Heidi Hehnly
During cell division, duplicated genetic material is separated into two distinct daughter cells. This process is essential for initial tissue formation during development and to maintain tissue integrity throughout an organism's lifetime. To ensure the efficacy and efficiency of this process, the cell employs a variety of regulatory and signaling proteins that function as mitotic regulators and checkpoint proteins. One vital mitotic regulator is polo-like kinase 1, or PLK1, a highly conserved member of the polo-like kinase family...
November 10, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381895/a-transient-microtubule-based-structure-uncovers-a-new-intrinsic-asymmetry-between-the-mother-centrioles-in-the-early-drosophila-spermatocytes
#2
Maria Giovanna Riparbelli, Veronica Persico, Giuliano Callaini
Parent centrioles are characterized in most organisms by individual morphological traits and have distinct asymmetries that provide different functional properties. By contrast, mother and daughter centrioles are morphologically undistinguishable during Drosophila male gametogenesis. Here we report the presence of previously unrecognized microtubule-based structures that extend into the peripheral cytoplasm of the Drosophila polar spermatocytes at the onset of the first meiosis and are positive for the typical centriolar protein Sas-4 and for the kinesin-like protein Klp10A...
October 31, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30369081/the-connection-between-the-cardiac-glycoside-induced-senescent-cell-morphology-and-rho-rho-kinase-pathway
#3
Yaprak Dilber Şimay, Aysun Özdemir, Burçin İbişoğlu, Mustafa Ark
Recently drug-induced senescence has gained momentum as a new approach in cancer therapy. It is accepted that senescent cells display typical phenotypic features including flattened, enlarged, and multinucleated cell morphology. However, it is not well elucidated how these morphological alterations occur. The current study evaluates the possible role of Rho/Rho kinase pathway in cardiac glycoside-induced senescent cell morphology in HeLa cells. Our results indicate that the administration of cardiac glycosides, ouabain, digoxin, bufalin, to HeLa cells induced cellular senescence leading to an increase in the volume, area and maximum thickness of the cells...
October 28, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341817/septin-associated-proteins-aim44-and-nis1-traffic-between-the-bud-neck-and-the-nucleus-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
Adam M Perez, Jeremy Thorner
In budding yeast, a collar of septin filaments at the neck between a mother cell and its bud marks the incipient site for cell division and serves as a scaffold that recruits proteins required for proper spatial and temporal execution of cytokinesis. A set of interacting proteins that localize at or near the bud neck, including Aim44/Gps1, Nba1 and Nis1, also has been implicated in preventing Cdc42-dependent bud site re-establishment at the division site. We found that, at their endogenous level, Aim44 and Nis1 robustly localize sequentially at the septin collar...
October 19, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315640/the-small-molecule-ambmp-disrupts-microtubule-growth-ciliogenesis-cell-polarity-and-cell-migration
#5
M E Werner, U Del Castillo, R Ventrella, E J Brotslaw, B J Mitchell
2-Amino-4-(3,4-[methylenedioxy]benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (AMBMP) is a small molecule that has been previously reported to be both a Wnt agonist and a microtubule (MT) regulator. Here we report a detailed analysis of AMBMPs effects on MTs and on MT associated cellular processes including cell polarity, ciliogenesis, and cell migration. Specifically, treatment of Xenopus embryos with AMBMP leads to defects similar to the MT depolymerizing drug nocodazole, including a failure to generate or polarize cilia (depending on the timing of treatment) and a loss of the cell movements associated with radial intercalation...
October 12, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255988/qualitative-and-quantitative-evaluation-of-tpm-transcripts-and-proteins-in-developing-striated-chicken-muscles-indicate-tpm4%C3%AE-is-the-major-sarcomeric-cardiac-tropomyosin-from-early-embryonic-life-to-adulthood
#6
Dipak K Dube, Syamalima Dube, Runa Shrestha, Lynn Abbott, Samender Randhawa, Vasundhara Muthu, Yingli Fan, Jushuo Wang, Jean M Sanger, Joseph W Sanger, Bernard J Poiesz
The chicken has been used since the 1980's as an animal model for developmental studies regarding tropomyosin isoform diversity in striated muscles, however, the pattern of expression of transcripts as well as the corresponding TPM proteins of various tropomyosin isoforms in avian hearts are not well documented. In this study, using conventional and qRT-PCR, we report the expression of transcripts for various sarcomeric TPM isoforms in striated muscles through development. Transcripts of both TPM1α and TPM1κ, the two sarcomeric isoforms of the TPM1 gene, are expressed in embryonic chicken hearts but disappear in post hatch stages...
September 26, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176126/single-molecule-localization-microscopy-of-septin-bundles-in-mammalian-cells
#7
Adriano Vissa, Maximiliano Giuliani, Carol D Froese, Moshe S Kim, Forooz Soroor, Peter K Kim, William S Trimble, Christopher M Yip
Septins are a conserved family of GTPases that associate with numerous components of the cytoskeleton and the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. These proteins are involved in many biological processes, including cell division and membrane trafficking, and serving as a scaffolding component of the cytoskeleton used to recruit other proteins and form diffusion barriers to maintain the composition of membrane domains. In order to carry out their cellular functions, septins undergo interactions via their NC or G interfaces to form heteromeric rod-like structures that can polymerize into filaments and associate laterally into bundles...
September 19, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203569/embryo-timelapses-can-be-compiled-and-quantified-to-understand-canonical-histone-dynamics-across-multiple-cell-cycles
#8
Lydia Smith, Paul Maddox
In the last decade, computational processing of big datasets has facilitated the analyses of unprecedented quantities of biological data. Thus, automation and big data analysis have been revolutionary in detecting and quantifying subtle phenotypes in cell biological contexts. Analyzing similar quantities of data in larger and more complicated biological systems such as developing embryos has been more challenging due to experimental limitations on both ensemble data collection and analysis. These challenges include photosensitivity of living samples and of the fluorescently-tagged proteins under study, collectively limiting the number of images that can be acquired in a single time-lapse series...
September 10, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176123/creation-and-testing-of-a-new-local-microtubule-disruption-tool-based-on-the-microtubule-severing-enzyme-katanin-p60
#9
Siddheshwari Advani, Thomas J Maresca, Jennifer L Ross
Current methods to disrupt the microtubule cytoskeleton do not easily provide rapid, local control with standard cell manipulation reagents. Here, we develop a new microtubule-disruption tool based on katanin p60 severing activity and demonstrate proof-of-principle by targeting it to kinetochores in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Specifically, we show that human katanin p60 can remove microtubule polymer mass in S2 cells and an increase in misaligned chromosomes when globally overexpressed. When targeted to the kinetochores via Mis12, we were able to recapitulate the misalignment only when using a phosphorylation-resistant mutant...
September 3, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176122/turning-dyneins-off-bends-cilia
#10
Stephen M King
Ciliary and flagellar motility is caused by the ensemble action of inner and outer dynein arm motors acting on axonemal doublet microtubules. The switch point or switching hypothesis, for which much experimental and computational evidence exists, requires that dyneins on only one side of the axoneme are actively working during bending, and that this active motor region propagate along the axonemal length. Generation of a reverse bend results from switching active sliding to the opposite side of the axoneme...
September 3, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176121/reorientation-dynamics-and-structural-interdependencies-of-actin-microtubules-and-intermediate-filaments-upon-cyclic-stretch-application
#11
Alexander Zielinski, Christina Linnartz, Catharina Pleschka, Georg Dreissen, Ronald Springer, Rudolf Merkel, Bernd Hoffmann
Any cell within a tissue is constantly confronted with a variety of mechanical stimuli. Sensing of these diverse stimuli plays an important role in cellular regulation. Besides shear stress, cells of the vascular endothelium are particularly exposed to a permanent cyclic straining originating from the interplay of outwards pushing blood pressure and inwards acting contraction by smooth musculature. Perpendicular alignment of cells as structural adaptation to this condition is a basic prerequisite in order to withstand deformation forces...
September 3, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171672/septin-mutations-and-phenotypes-in-s-cerevisiae
#12
REVIEW
Alexander Mela, Michelle Momany
Septins are highly conserved GTP-binding proteins that are a component of the cytoskeletal systems of virtually all eukaryotes (except higher plants). Septins play important roles in a multitude of cellular processes, including cytokinesis, establishment of cell polarity, and cellular partitioning. The ease of genetic screens and a fully-sequenced genome have made Saccharomyces cerevisiae one of the most extensively studied and well-annotated model organisms in eukaryotic biology. Here we present a synopsis of the known point mutations in the seven S...
August 31, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160378/diviva-concentrates-mycobacterial-cell-envelope-assembly-for-initiation-and-stabilization-of-polar-growth
#13
Emily S Melzer, Caralyn E Sein, James J Chambers, M Sloan Siegrist
In many model organisms, diffuse patterning of cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis by the actin homolog MreB enables the bacteria to maintain their characteristic rod shape. In Caulobacter crescentus and Escherichia coli, MreB is also required to sculpt this morphology de novo. Mycobacteria are rod-shaped but expand their cell wall from discrete polar or sub-polar zones. In this genus, the tropomyosin-like protein DivIVA is required for the maintenance of cell morphology. DivIVA has also been proposed to direct peptidoglycan synthesis to the tips of the mycobacterial cell...
August 30, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160375/regulation-of-septin-phosphorylation-sept12-phosphorylation-in-sperm-septin-assembly
#14
REVIEW
Chun-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Ru Shen, Han-Yu Wang, Chi-Wu Chiang, Chia-Yih Wang, Pao-Lin Kuo
The sperm annulus, a septin-based ring structure, is important for reproductive physiology. It is composed of SEPT12-based septin core complex followed by assembling as octameric filament. In clinical examinations, mutations of Septin12 result in male infertility, immotile sperm, as well as sperm with defective annuli. The dynamic assembly of septin filaments is regulated by several posttranslational modifications, including sumoylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation. Here, we briefly review the biological significance and the regulation of SEPT12 phosphorylation in the mammalian sperm physiology...
August 30, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155988/alternative-splicing-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-lev-11-tropomyosin-gene-is-regulated-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#15
Eichi Watabe, Shoichiro Ono, Hidehito Kuroyanagi
Tropomyosin isoforms contribute to generation of functionally divergent actin filaments. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, multiple isoforms are produced from lev-11, the single tropomyosin gene, by combination of two separate promoters and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we report that alternative splicing of lev-11 is regulated in a tissue-specific manner so that a particular tropomyosin isoform is expressed in each tissue. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of lev-11 mRNAs confirms five previously reported isoforms (LEV-11A, LEV-11C, LEV-11D, LEV-11E, and LEV-11O) and identifies a new sixth isoform LEV-11T...
August 29, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144301/regulation-of-microtubule-plus-end-dynamics-by-septin-9
#16
Konstantinos Nakos, Marshall Rosenberg, Elias T Spiliotis
Septins are GTP-binding proteins that associate with the microtubule (MT) and actin cytoskeleton. Septins affect MT organization and post-translational modifications, but their role in MT dynamics is less understood. Here, we reconstituted MT dynamics in the presence of the MT-binding septin (SEPT9) using an in vitro cell-free assay, which images the polymerization of tubulin from GMPCPP-stabilized MT seeds. We found that submicromolar concentrations of SEPT9 suppress MT catastrophe and enhance the growth of MT plus ends to great lengths, while low micromolar concentrations of SEPT9 stabilize MTs by inhibiting dynamic instability...
August 24, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126071/assembly-of-myosin-ii-filament-arrays-network-contraction-vs-expansion
#17
Aidan M Fenix, Dylan T Burnette
How cellular contractile systems assemble has fascinated scientists for generations. The major molecule responsible for cellular force generation is the molecular motor, non-muscle myosin II (NMII). NMII molecules are organized into single myosin filaments and larger arrays of filaments called NMII I stacks, which are capable of generating increasing amounts of force. The textbook model of NMII stack assembly is the Network Contraction Model, where ensembles of distinct NMII filaments condense into a NMII stack by pulling on actin filaments...
August 20, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30123975/distribution-of-eg5-and-tpx2-in-mitosis-insight-from-crispr-tagged-cells
#18
B J Mann, P Wadsworth
The mitotic spindle is a dynamic bipolar structure that mediates chromosome segregation in mitosis. In most organisms, spindle formation requires the action of kinesin-5 motor proteins that generate outward force on antiparallel microtubules to establish spindle bipolarity. Previous work has shown that Eg5 and TPX2, a spindle microtubule-associated protein that suppresses Eg5 motor activity, are enriched on parallel microtubules near spindle poles. This distribution is inconsistent with the requirement for Eg5-dependent force production during mitosis...
August 19, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091242/dissecting-the-nucleotide-binding-properties-of-the-septins-from-s-cerevisiae
#19
Julian David Baur, Reinhild Rösler, Sebastian Wiese, Nils Johnsson, Thomas Gronemeyer
Septins are a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins that assemble into an ordered array of filaments at the mother bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. They are present in all higher eukaryotes except plants. Septins belong structurally to the P-Loop NTPases like Rab and Ras. However, unlike other small GTPases septins are supposed to act as scaffolds rather than signalling mediators. This is why they are considered as the fourth class of cytoskeletal proteins. It is assumed that septins fulfil their functions independently of the bound nucleotide...
August 9, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091182/regulation-of-mechanotransduction-emerging-roles-for-septins
#20
REVIEW
Maxine Lam, Fernando Calvo
Cells exist in dynamic three-dimensional environments where they experience variable mechanical forces due to their interaction with the extracellular matrix, neighbouring cells and physical stresses. The ability to constantly and rapidly alter cellular behaviour in response to the mechanical environment is therefore crucial for cell viability, tissue development and homeostasis. Mechanotransduction is the process whereby cells translate mechanical inputs into biochemical signals. These signals in turn adjust cell morphology and cellular functions as diverse as proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis...
August 9, 2018: Cytoskeleton
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