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Cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699205/native-kinesin-1-does-not-bind-preferentially-to-gtp-tubulin-rich-microtubules-in-vitro
#1
Qiaochu Li, Stephen J King, Jing Xu
Molecular motors such as kinesin-1 work in small teams to actively shuttle cargos in cells, for example in polarized transport in axons. Here we examined the potential regulatory role of the nucleotide state of tubulin on the run length of cargos carried by multiple kinesin motors, using an optical trapping-based in vitro assay. Based on a previous report that kinesin binds preferentially to GTP-tubulin-rich microtubules, we anticipated that multiple-kinesin cargos would run substantially greater distances along GMPCPP microtubules than along GDP microtubules...
July 12, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696540/conserved-hydrophobic-residues-in-the-carp-%C3%AE-sheet-domain-of-cyclase-associated-protein-are-involved-in-actin-monomer-regulation
#2
Shohei Iwase, Shoichiro Ono
Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a multi-domain protein that promotes actin filament dynamics. The C-terminal region of CAP contains a CAP and X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 2 protein (CARP) domain (or a β-sheet domain), which binds to actin monomer and is essential for enhancing exchange of actin-bound nucleotides. However, how the CARP domain binds to actin is not clearly understood. Here, we report that conserved hydrophobic residues in the CARP domain play important roles in the function of CAP to regulate actin dynamics...
July 11, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681565/tubulin-acetylation-a-novel-functional-avenue-for-cdyl-in-sperm
#3
Sweta Parab, Veena Dalvi, Sushma Mylavaram, Abhipriya K, Susan Idicula-Thomas, Shobha Sonawane, Priyanka Parte
Motility in sperm is driven by the flagella, the principal component of which is the axoneme. The microtubules which make up the 9 + 2 axoneme are composed of heterodimers of alpha and beta tubulins and undergo several post-translational modifications. We have earlier reported that HDAC6 functions as tubulin deacetylase in sperm and has a role in sperm movement. While exploring the specific tubulin acetyltransferase (TAT) in sperm we observed the presence of Chromodomain Y-Like (CDYL), on the principal piece of rat spermatozoa which compelled us to explore its function in sperm...
July 6, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681410/keeping-the-focus-on-biophysics-and-actin-filaments-in-nagoya-a-report-of-the-2016-now-in-actin-symposium
#4
REVIEW
Ikuko Fujiwara, Akihiro Narita
Regulatory systems in living cells are highly organized, enabling cells to response to various changes in their environments. Actin polymerization and depolymerization are crucial to establish cytoskeletal networks to maintain muscle contraction, cell motility, cell division, adhesion, organism development and more. To share and promote the biophysical understanding of such mechanisms in living creatures, the "Now in Actin Study: -Motor protein research reaching a new stage-" symposium was organized at Nagoya University, Japan on 12 and 13, December 2016...
July 6, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646493/src-family-kinase-phosphorylation-of-the-motor-domain-of-the-human-kinesin-5-eg5
#5
Kathleen G Bickel, Barbara J Mann, Joshua S Waitzman, Taylor A Poor, Sarah E Rice, Patricia Wadsworth
Spindle formation in mammalian cells requires precise spatial and temporal regulation of the kinesin-5, Eg5, which generates outward force to establish spindle bipolarity. Our results demonstrate that Eg5 is phosphorylated in cultured cells by Src family kinases (SFKs) at three sites in the motor head: Y125, Y211, and Y231. Mutation of these sites diminishes motor activity in vitro, and replacement of endogenous Eg5 with phosphomimetic Y211 in LLC-Pk1 cells results in monopolar spindles, consistent with loss of Eg5 activity...
June 23, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618211/tribute-to-fumio-oosawa-the-pioneer-in-actin-biophysics
#6
Thomas D Pollard
Fumio Oosawa and his colleagues at Nagoya University laid the foundation for mechanistic studies of actin. Using relatively primitive tools they discovered that actin monomers assemble in a two-step mechanism: highly unfavorable formation of small oligomeric nuclei followed by rapid elongation. Oosawa and his student Sadashi Hatano were the first to purify actin from a nonmuscle cell, Physarum polycephalum, initiating studies of the molecular mechanism of cellular movements. This article is protected by copyright...
June 15, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574207/human-dna-helicase-ruvbl1-and-its-chlamydomonas-homologue-crruvbl1-plays-an-important-role-in-ciliogenesis
#7
Damayanti Tammana, Trinadh Venkata Satish Tammana
Several nuclear and nucleic acid-binding proteins were detected in the proteomic analyses of ciliary fractions from various organisms. Yet very little is known about the role of these proteins in ciliogenesis and ciliary signaling. In an attempt to characterize the role of these nuclear proteins, we identified a hypothetical protein from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrRuvBL1, which is homologous to human DNA helicase, HsRuvBL1. CrRuvBL1 localizes to flagella and nucleus in vegetative Chlamydomonas cells. It accumulates in the nucleus specifically during initial stages of flagellar assembly and cell division indicating its role in these processes...
June 2, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574190/flow-aligned-single-shot-fiber-diffraction-using-a-femtosecond-x-ray-free-electron-laser
#8
David Popp, N Duane Loh, Habiba Zorgati, Umesh Ghoshdastider, Lu Ting Liow, Magdalena I Ivanova, Mårten Larsson, Daniel P DePonte, Richard Bean, Kenneth R Beyerlein, Cornelius Gati, Dominik Oberthuer, David Arnlund, Gisela Brändén, Peter Berntsen, Duilio Cascio, Leonard M G Chavas, Joe P J Chen, Ke Ding, Holger Fleckenstein, Lars Gumprecht, Rajiv Harimoorthy, Estelle Mossou, Michael R Sawaya, Aaron S Brewster, Johan Hattne, Nicholas K Sauter, Marvin Seibert, Carolin Seuring, Francesco Stellato, Thomas Tilp, David S Eisenberg, Marc Messerschmidt, Garth J Williams, Jason E Koglin, Lee Makowski, Rick P Millane, Trevor Forsyth, Sébastien Boutet, Thomas A White, Anton Barty, Henry Chapman, Swaine L Chen, Mengning Liang, Richard Neutze, Robert C Robinson
A major goal for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) based science is to elucidate structures of biological molecules without the need for crystals. Filament systems may provide some of the first single macromolecular structures elucidated by XFEL radiation, since they contain one-dimensional translational symmetry and thereby occupy the diffraction intensity region between the extremes of crystals and single molecules. Here, we demonstrate flow alignment of as few as 100 filaments (Escherichia coli pili, F-actin, and amyloid fibrils), which when intersected by femtosecond X-ray pulses result in diffraction patterns similar to those obtained from classical fiber diffraction studies...
June 2, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481056/the-tumor-promoter-activated-protein-kinase-cs-are-a-system-for-regulating-filopodia
#9
Carol A Heckman, Pratima Pandey, Marilyn L Cayer, Tania Biswas, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Nancy S Boudreau
Different protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have distinct roles in regulating cell functions. The conventional (α, β, γ) and novel (δ, ɛ, η, θ) classes are targets of phorbol ester tumor promoters, which are surrogates of endogenous second messenger, diacylglycerol. The promoter-stimulated disappearance of filopodia was investigated by use of blocking peptides (BPs) that inhibit PKC maturation and/or docking. Filopodia were partially rescued by a peptide representing PKC ɛ hydrophobic sequence, but also by a myristoylated PKC α/β pseudosubstrate sequence, and an inhibitor of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP)...
May 8, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472849/evidence-for-a-self-organized-compliant-mechanism-for-the-spontaneous-steady-beating-of-cilia
#10
Kenneth W Foster, Jyothish Vidyadharan, Ashok S Sangani
Cilia or eukaryotic flagella are slender 200-nm-diameter organelles that move the immersing fluid relative to a cell and sense the environment. Their core structure is nine doublet microtubules (DMTs) arranged around a central-pair. When motile, thousands of tiny motors slide the DMTs relative to each other to facilitate traveling waves of bending along the cilium's length. These motors provide the energy to change the shape of the cilium and overcome the viscous forces of moving in the surrounding fluid. In planar beating, motors walk toward where the cilium is attached to the cell body...
May 4, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407416/tau-based-fluorescent-protein-fusions-to-visualize-microtubules
#11
Paul Mooney, Taylor Sulerud, James F Pelletier, Matthew R Dilsaver, Miroslav Tomschik, Christoph Geisler, Jesse C Gatlin
The ability to visualize cytoskeletal proteins and their dynamics in living cells has been critically important in advancing our understanding of numerous cellular processes, including actin- and microtubule (MT)-dependent phenomena such as cell motility, cell division, and mitosis. Here, we describe a novel set of fluorescent protein (FP) fusions designed specifically to visualize MTs in living systems using fluorescence microscopy. Each fusion contains a FP module linked in frame to a modified phospho-deficient version of the MT-binding domain of Tau (mTMBD)...
June 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378936/tumor-suppressor-tropomyosin-tpm2-1-regulates-sensitivity-to-apoptosis-beyond-anoikis-characterized-by-changes-in-the-levels-of-intrinsic-apoptosis-proteins
#12
Melissa Desouza-Armstrong, Peter W Gunning, Justine R Stehn
The actin cytoskeleton is a polymer system that acts both as a sensor and mediator of apoptosis. Tropomyosins (Tpm) are a family of actin binding proteins that form co-polymers with actin and diversify actin filament function. Previous studies have shown that elevated expression of the tropomyosin isoform Tpm2.1 sensitized cells to apoptosis induced by cell detachment (anoikis) via an unknown mechanism. It is not yet known whether Tpm2.1 or other tropomyosin isoforms regulate sensitivity to apoptosis beyond anoikis...
June 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445605/high-throughput-cell-mechanical-phenotyping-for-label-free-titration-assays-of-cytoskeletal-modifications
#13
Stefan Golfier, Philipp Rosendahl, Alexander Mietke, Maik Herbig, Jochen Guck, Oliver Otto
The mechanical fingerprint of cells is inherently linked to the structure of the cytoskeleton and can serve as a label free marker for cell homeostasis or pathologic states. How cytoskeletal composition affects the physical response of cells to external loads has been intensively studied with a spectrum of techniques, yet quantitative and statistically powerful investigations in the form of titration assays are hampered by the low throughput of most available methods. In this study, we employ real-time deformability cytometry (RT-DC), a novel microfluidic tool to examine the effects of biochemically modified F-actin and microtubule stability and nuclear chromatin structure on cell deformation in a human leukemia cell line (HL60)...
April 26, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329908/re-evaluating-the-roles-of-myosin-18a%C3%AE-and-f-actin-in-determining-golgi-morphology
#14
Kyle Bruun, Jordan R Beach, Sarah M Heissler, Kirsten Remmert, James R Sellers, John A Hammer
The peri-centrosomal localization and morphology of the Golgi apparatus depends largely on the microtubule cytoskeleton and the microtubule motor protein dynein. Recent studies proposed that myosin 18Aα (M18Aα) also contributes to Golgi morphology by binding the Golgi protein GOLPH3 and walking along adjacent actin filaments to stretch the Golgi into its classic ribbon structure. Biochemical analyses have shown, however, that M18A is not an actin-activated ATPase and lacks motor activity. Our goal, therefore, was to define the precise molecular mechanism by which M18Aα determines Golgi morphology...
March 22, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317275/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-occurs-within-chromatoid-body-of-round-spermatids
#15
Yuki Fujii, Hideaki Fujita, Sadaki Yokota
mRNAs for proteins required in elongated spermatids are considered to be transcribed at an early stage and stored in cytoplasm, presumably in chromatoid body (CB), one type of nuage component (a unique structure that appears and disappears during spermatogenesis), because transcription of genes does not occur at late stages. In elongated spermatids, a large amount of tubulin molecules is required to form microtubules of manchette and flagellum. To investigate the possible role of CB in translation of tubulin mRNA, we performed immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic localization studies of α- and β-tubulin in rat spermatogenic cells...
March 20, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296067/rna-binding-proteins-of-the-nxf-nuclear-export-factor-family-and-their-connection-with-the-cytoskeleton
#16
REVIEW
L A Mamon, V R Ginanova, S F Kliver, A O Yakimova, A A Atsapkina, E V Golubkova
The mutual relationship between mRNA and the cytoskeleton can be seen from two points of view. On the one hand, the cytoskeleton is necessary for mRNA trafficking and anchoring to subcellular domains. On the other hand, cytoskeletal growth and rearrangement require the translation of mRNAs that are connected to the cytoskeleton. β-actin mRNA localization may influence dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. In the cytoplasm, long-lived mRNAs exist in the form of RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes, where they interact with RNA-binding proteins, including NXF (Nuclear eXport Factor)...
March 13, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164467/microtubule-regulating-proteins-and-camp-dependent-signaling-in-neuroblastoma-differentiation
#17
Pablo Muñoz-Llancao, Cristian de Gregorio, Macarena Las Heras, Christopher Meinohl, Kevin Noorman, Erik Boddeke, Xiaodong Cheng, Frank Lezoualc'h, Martina Schmidt, Christian Gonzalez-Billault
Neurons are highly differentiated cells responsible for the conduction and transmission of information in the nervous system. The proper function of a neuron relies on the compartmentalization of their intracellular domains. Differentiated neuroblastoma cells have been extensively used to study and understand the physiology and cell biology of neuronal cells. Here, we show that differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells is more pronounced upon exposure of a chemical analog of cyclic AMP (cAMP), db-cAMP...
March 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063204/assembly-studies-of-six-intestinal-intermediate-filament-if-proteins-b2-c1-c2-d1-d2-and-e1-in-the-nematode-c-elegans
#18
Anton Karabinos, Jürgen Schünemann, David A D Parry
The dimerisation properties of six intestine-expressed intermediate filament (IF) proteins (B2, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1) were analysed in blot overlay assay on membranes containing all of the eleven recombinant C. elegans IF proteins (A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, D2, and E1). The interactions detected in the blot assays exclusively comprise intestine-expressed IF proteins and the protein A4, which is found in the dauer larva intestine. About 86% of these interactions are heterotypic, while the remaining interactions relate to C1, C2, and D2 homodimers...
March 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998020/identification-characterization-and-expression-of-sarcomeric-tropomyosin-isoforms-in-zebrafish
#19
Dipak K Dube, Syamalima Dube, Lynn Abbott, Jushuo Wang, Yingli Fan, Ruham Alshiekh-Nasany, Kalpesh K Shah, Alexander P Rudloff, Bernard J Poiesz, Jean M Sanger, Joseph W Sanger
Tropomyosin is a component of thin filaments that constitute myofibrils, the contractile apparatus of striated muscles. In vertebrates, except for fish, four TPM genes TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4 are known. In zebrafish, there are six TPM genes that include the paralogs of the TPM1 (TPM1-1 and TPM1-2), the paralogs of the TPM4 gene (TPM4-1 and TPM4-2), and the two single copy genes TPM2 and TPM3. In this study, we have identified, cloned, and sequenced the TPM1-1κ isoform of the TPM1-1 gene and also discovered a new isoform TPM1-2ν of the TPM1-2...
March 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935261/matrix-rigidity-regulates-microtubule-network-polarization-in-migration
#20
Matthew Raab, Dennis E Discher
The microtubule organizing center (MTOC) frequently polarizes to a position in front of the nucleus during cell migration, but recent work has shown conflicting evidence for MTOC location in migratory polarized cells. Here, we show that subcellular localization of the MTOC is modulated by extracellular matrix stiffness. In scratch wound assays as well as single cell migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) the MTOC appears randomly positioned when cells are migrating on soft matrix, whereas on stiff matrix the MTOC is in front of the nucleus...
March 2017: Cytoskeleton
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