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Cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236372/the-rotation-of-mouse-myoblast-nuclei-is-dependent-on-substrate-elasticity
#1
Ryan Hickey, Andrew E Pelling
The complex interplay of biochemical signaling and mechanical traction forces regulate the position of cellular nuclei. Although the phenomenon of nuclear rotation has been observed for many years, the influence of substrate elasticity was unknown. We discovered another layer of complexity to this phenomenon: nuclear rotation is dependent on substrate elasticity. Nuclear rotation is drastically reduced on physiologically relevant stiffnesses. Here, we studied nuclear rotation in mouse C2C12 myoblasts cultured on soft substrates designed to mimic resting tissue (∼26 kPa) and on hard glass substrates...
February 25, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218453/divergent-roles-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-actin-isoforms-during-spread-of-vaccinia-virus
#2
N Bishara Marzook, Sharissa L Latham, Helena Lynn, Christopher Mckenzie, Christine Chaponnier, Georges E Grau, Timothy P Newsome
Actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton and is present as two isoforms in non-muscle cells: β- and γ-cytoplasmic actin. These isoforms are strikingly conserved, differing by only four N-terminal amino acids. During spread from infected cells, vaccinia virus (VACV) particles induce localized actin nucleation that propel virus to surrounding cells and facilitate cell-to-cell spread of infection. Here we show that virus-tipped actin comets are composed of β- and γ-actin. We employed isoform-specific siRNA knockdown to examine the role of the two isoforms in VACV-induced actin comets...
February 20, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164467/microtubule-regulating-proteins-and-camp-dependent-signaling-in-neuroblastoma-differentiation
#3
Pablo Muñoz-Llancao, Cristian de Gregorio, Macarena Las Heras, Christopher Meinohl, Kevin Noorman, Erik Boddeke, Xiaodong Cheng, Frank Lezoualc'h, Martina Schmidt, Christian Gonzalez-Billault
Neurons are highly differentiated cells responsible for the conduction and transmission of information in the nervous system. The proper function of a neuron relies on the compartmentalization of their intracellular domains. Differentiated neuroblastoma cells have been extensively used to study and understand the physiology and cell biology of neuronal cells. Here, we show that differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells is more pronounced upon exposure of a chemical analog of cyclic AMP (cAMP), db-cAMP...
February 6, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063204/assembly-studies-of-six-intestinal-intermediate-filament-if-proteins-b2-c1-c2-d1-d2-and-e1-in-the-nematode-c-elegans
#4
Anton Karabinos, Jürgen Schünemann, David A D Parry
The dimerisation properties of six intestine-expressed intermediate filament (IF) proteins (B2, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1) were analysed in blot overlay assay on membranes containing all of the eleven recombinant C. elegans IF proteins (A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, D2, and E1). The interactions detected in the blot assays exclusively comprise intestine-expressed IF proteins and the protein A4, which is found in the dauer larva intestine. About 86% of these interactions are heterotypic, while the remaining interactions relate to C1, C2, and D2 homodimers...
January 7, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998020/identification-characterization-and-expression-of-sarcomeric-tropomyosin-isoforms-in-zebrafish
#5
Dipak K Dube, Syamalima Dube, Lynn Abbott, Jushuo Wang, Yingli Fan, Ruham Alshiekh-Nasany, Kalpesh K Shah, Alexander P Rudloff, Bernard J Poiesz, Jean M Sanger, Joseph W Sanger
Tropomyosin is a component of thin filaments that constitute myofibrils, the contractile apparatus of striated muscles. In vertebrates, except for fish, four TPM genes TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4 are known. In zebrafish, there are six TPM genes that include the paralogs of the TPM1 (TPM1-1 & TPM1-2), the paralogs of the TPM4 gene (TPM4-1 & TPM4-2), and the two single copy genes TPM2 and TPM3. In this study, we have identified, cloned, and sequenced the TPM1-1κ isoform of the TPM1-1 gene and also discovered a new isoform TPM1-2ν of the TPM1-2...
December 20, 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935261/matrix-rigidity-regulates-microtubule-network-polarization-in-migration
#6
Matthew Raab, Dennis E Discher
The microtubule organizing center (MTOC) frequently polarizes to a position in front of the nucleus during cell migration, but recent work has shown conflicting evidence for MTOC location in migratory polarized cells. Here, we show that subcellular localization of the MTOC is modulated by extracellular matrix stiffness. In scratch wound assays as well as single cell migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) the MTOC appears randomly positioned when cells are migrating on soft matrix, whereas on stiff matrix the MTOC is in front of the nucleus...
December 9, 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935245/modeling-the-effects-of-lattice-defects-on-microtubule-breaking-and-healing
#7
Nan Jiang, Megan E Bailey, Jessica Burke, Jennifer L Ross, Ruxandra I Dima
Microtubule reorganization often results from the loss of polymer induced through break- age or active destruction by energy-using enzymes. Pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice likely lower structural integrity and aid filament destruction. Using large-scale molecular simulations, we model diverse microtubule fragments under forces generated at specific positions to locally crush the filament. We show that lattices with 2% defects are crushed and severed by forces three times smaller than defect-free ones...
December 9, 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935233/kinetic-analysis-of-de-novo-centriole-assembly-in-heat-shocked-mammalian-cells
#8
In Keol Baek, Yeun Kyu Jang, Tae H Lee, JooHun Lee
Mammalian cells are capable of de novo centriole formation after the removal of existing centrioles. This suggests that de novo centriole assembly is repressed in normally duplicating cells to maintain a constant number of centrioles in the cells. However, neither the mechanism of de novo centriole assembly nor that of its hypothesized repression is understood due to the lack of an experimental system. We found that the heat shock (HS; 42°C, 2 h) of mouse embryonic fibroblasts caused the separation of centriole pairs, a transient increase in polo-like kinase (Plk) 4 expression, and the formation of a complex containing γ-tubulin, pericentrin, HS protein (Hsp) 90, and Plk4, in approximately half of the cells...
December 9, 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026138/towards-a-molecular-architecture-of-the-centrosome-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#9
REVIEW
Juliette Morlon-Guyot, Maria E Francia, Jean-François Dubremetz, Wassim Daher
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. The pathogenicity of this unicellular parasite is tightly linked to its ability to efficiently proliferate within its host. Tachyzoites, the fast dividing form of the parasite, divide by endodyogeny. This process involves a single round of DNA replication, closed nuclear mitosis, and assembly of two daughter cells within a mother. The successful completion of endodyogeny relies on the temporal and spatial coordination of a plethora of simultaneous events...
February 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001338/wdpcp-regulates-the-ciliogenesis-of-human-sinonasal-epithelial-cells-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#10
Yun Ma, Yueqi Sun, Lijie Jiang, Kejun Zuo, Hexin Chen, Jiebo Guo, Fenghong Chen, Yinyan Lai, Jianbo Shi
Damage to the mucociliary clearance system is a typical change in the pathogenesis in chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the mechanisms underlying cilia loss remain unclear. WDPCP is a key protein essential for ciliogenesis, and is also an effector of the planar cell polarity signaling system. In this study, we sought to determine the role of WDPCP in cilia loss in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We demonstrated the expression of WDPCP in human sinonasal epithelium from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and control subjects...
February 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997747/dynamics-of-the-sealing-zone-in-cultured-osteoclasts
#11
Sarit Batsir, Benjamin Geiger, Zvi Kam
Bone resorption by osteoclasts (OCs) depends on the formation and stability of the sealing zone (SZ), a peripheral belt of actin and integrin-based podosomes. Recent studies demonstrated that the SZ is a highly dynamic structure, undergoing cycles of assembly and disassembly. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SZ stability and reorganization in OCs cultured on glass slides, and forming an SZ-like podosome belt (SZL). By monitoring this belt in cultured RAW264.7 cells expressing GFP-tagged actin, we show here that SZL stability is usually locally regulated, and its dissociation, occurring mostly in concave segments, is manifested in the loss of both podosome coherence, and actin belt continuity...
February 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935262/elastic-tethers-between-separating-anaphase-chromosomes-in-crane-fly-spermatocytes-coordinate-chromosome-movements-to-the-two-poles
#12
Rozhan Sheykhani, Michael Berns, Arthur Forer
Separating anaphase chromosomes in crane-fly spermatocytes are connected by elastic tethers, as originally described by LaFountain et al. (2002): telomere-containing arm fragments severed from the arms move backwards to the partner telomeres. We have tested whether the tethers coordinate the movements of separating partner chromosomes. In other cell types anaphase chromosomes move faster, temporarily, when their kinetochore microtubules are severed. However, in crane-fly spermatocytes the chromosomes move at their usual speed when their kinetochore microtubules are severed...
February 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783462/effect-of-surface-chemistry-on-tropomyosin-binding-to-actin-filaments-on-surfaces
#13
Philip R Nicovich, Miro Janco, Tom Sobey, Mehul Gajwani, Peyman Obeidy, Renee Whan, Katharina Gaus, Peter W Gunning, Adelle Cf Coster, Till Böcking
Reconstitution of actin filaments on surfaces for observation of filament-associated protein dynamics by fluorescence microscopy is currently an exciting field in biophysics. Here we examine the effects of attaching actin filaments to surfaces on the binding and dissociation kinetics of a fluorescence-labeled tropomyosin, a rod-shaped protein that forms continuous strands wrapping around the actin filament. Two attachment modalities of the actin to the surface are explored: where the actin filament is attached to the surface at multiple points along its length; and where the actin filament is attached at one end and aligned parallel to the surface by buffer flow...
December 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770600/inf2-and-fhod-related-formins-promote-ovulation-in-the-somatic-gonad-of-c-elegans
#14
Anna Hegsted, Forrest A Wright, SarahBeth Votra, David Pruyne
Formins are regulators of actin filament dynamics. We demonstrate here that two formins, FHOD-1 and EXC-6, are important in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for ovulation, during which actomyosin contractions push a maturing oocyte from the gonad arm into a distensible bag-like organ, the spermatheca. EXC-6, a homolog of the disease-associated mammalian formin INF2, is highly expressed in the spermatheca, where it localizes to cell-cell junctions and to circumferential actin filament bundles. Loss of EXC-6 does not noticeably affect the organization the actin filament bundles, and causes only a very modest increase in the population of junction-associated actin filaments...
December 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770595/microtubule-binding-protein-pacrg-plays-a-role-in-regulating-specific-ciliary-dyneins-during-microtubule-sliding
#15
Katsutoshi Mizuno, Erin E Dymek, Elizabeth F Smith
The complex waveforms characteristic of motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella are produced by the temporally and spatially regulated action of multiple dynein subforms generating sliding between subsets of axonemal microtubules. Multiple protein complexes have been identified that are associated with the doublet microtubules and that mediate regulatory signals between key axonemal structures, such as the radial spokes and central apparatus, and the dynein arm motors; these complexes include the N-DRC, MIA, and CSC complexes...
December 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718534/cargo-rigidity-affects-the-sensitivity-of-dynein-ensembles-to-individual-motor-pausing
#16
Amalia R Driller-Colangelo, Karen W L Chau, Jessica M Morgan, Nathan D Derr
Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus-end directed microtubule-based motor protein that drives intracellular cargo transport in eukaryotic cells. Although many intracellular cargos are propelled by small groups of dynein motors, the biophysical mechanisms governing ensemble motility remain largely unknown. To investigate the emergent motility of motor ensembles, we have designed a programmable DNA origami synthetic cargo "chassis" enabling us to control the number of dynein motors in the ensemble and vary the rigidity of the cargo chassis itself...
December 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712041/functional-anatomy-of-the-mammalian-sperm-flagellum
#17
REVIEW
Charles B Lindemann, Kathleen A Lesich
The eukaryotic flagellum is the organelle responsible for the propulsion of the male gamete in most animals. Without exception, sperm of all mammalian species use a flagellum for swimming. The mammalian sperm has a centrally located 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubule doublets and hundreds of accessory proteins that together constitute an axoneme. However, they also possess several characteristic peri-axonemal structures that make the mammalian sperm tail function differently. These modifications include nine outer dense fibers (ODFs) that are paired with the nine outer microtubule doublets of the axoneme, and are anchored in a structure called the connecting piece located at the base...
November 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615744/the-rna-binding-protein-larp4-regulates-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#18
Shailaja Seetharaman, Ella Flemyng, Jiazhen Shen, Maria R Conte, Anne J Ridley
LARP4 is a La-related RNA-binding protein implicated in regulating mRNA translation, which interacts with poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). We previously identified LARP4 in an RNAi screen as one of several genes that regulate the shape of PC3 prostate cancer cells. Here we show that LARP4 depletion induces cell elongation in PC3 cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. LARP4 depletion increases cell migration and invasion, as well as inducing invasive cell protrusions in 3D Matrigel. Conversely, LARP4 over-expression reduces cell elongation and increases cell circularity...
November 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583666/atp-dependent-interplay-between-local-and-global-conformational-changes-in-the-myosin-motor
#19
REVIEW
Farooq Ahmad Kiani, Stefan Fischer
The ATPase active site of myosin is located at the core of the motor head. During the Lymn-Taylor actomyosin contractile cycle, small conformational changes in the active site upon ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis and ADP/Pi release are accompanied by large conformational transitions of the motor domains, such as opening and closing of the actin binding cleft and the movement of lever arm. Here, our previous computational studies of myosin are summarized in a comprehensive model at the level of atomic detail. Molecular movies show how the successive domain motions during the ATP induced actin dissociation and the recovery stroke are coupled with the precise positioning of the key catalytic groups in the active site...
November 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464680/impact-of-cordon-bleu-expression-on-actin-cytoskeleton-architecture-and-dynamics
#20
Nathan E Grega-Larson, Scott W Crawley, Matthew J Tyska
Cordon-bleu (COBL) is a multifunctional WASP-Homology 2 (WH2) domain-containing protein implicated in a wide variety of cellular functions ranging from dendritic arborization in neurons to the assembly of microvilli on the surface of transporting epithelial cells. In vitro biochemical studies suggest that COBL is capable of nucleating and severing actin filaments, among other activities. How the multiple activities of COBL observed in vitro contribute to its function in cells remains unclear. Here, we used live imaging to evaluate the impact of COBL expression on the actin cytoskeleton in cultured cells...
November 2016: Cytoskeleton
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