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Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

Kathryn A Smith, Paul T Oesterle, Claire M Jardine, Antonia Dibernardo, Chris Huynh, Robbin Lindsay, David L Pearl, Nicole M Nemeth
The growing risk of transmission of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans in Ontario, Canada, warrants investigations into regional tick distribution, tick burdens of local peridomestic animals, and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the geographic distribution and magnitude of tick infestations in opportunistically sampled mammalian wildlife and companion animals (i.e., dogs) in southern Ontario and to test these ticks for evidence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens...
September 3, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Diana Gomez-Barroso, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Antonino Bella, Alessandra Ciervo, Luca Busani, Caterina Rizzo, Giovanni Rezza, Patrizio Pezzotti
The Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) rickettsiosis is the predominant rickettsial disease among the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in the Mediterranean countries and North Africa. Its causative agent is Rickettsia conorii, although, SFG rickettsiosis - cases due to Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia aeschlimannii were also described. A retrospective study based on hospital discharge records with a diagnosis of SFG rickettsiosis was carried out to describe the spatial pattern, the trend of the disease, and the epidemiological characteristics of persons hospitalized in the period 2001-2015...
September 3, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Marta Grgič-Vitek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Agustín Estrada-Peña, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Alaa M Al-Khafaji, Simon R Clegg, Alice C Pinder, Lisa Luu, Kayleigh M Hansford, Frederik Seelig, Ruth E Dinnis, Gabriele Margos, Jolyon M Medlock, Edward J Feil, Alistair C Darby, John W McGarry, Lucy Gilbert, Olivier Plantard, Davide Sassera, Benjamin L Makepeace
Ticks have relatively complex microbiomes, but only a small proportion of the bacterial symbionts recorded from ticks are vertically transmitted. Moreover, co-cladogenesis between ticks and their symbionts, indicating an intimate relationship over evolutionary history driven by a mutualistic association, is the exception rather than the rule. One of the most widespread tick symbionts is Candidatus Midichloria, which has been detected in all of the major tick genera of medical and veterinary importance. In some species of Ixodes, such as the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (infected with Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii), the symbiont is fixed in wild adult female ticks, suggesting an obligate mutualism...
August 31, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
J Mihajlović, J W R Hovius, H Sprong, P Bogovič, M J Postma, F Strle
This study assessed cost-effectiveness of a potential anti-tick vaccine that would protect against both Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in a highly endemic setting of Slovenia. A Markov model was developed to estimate cost-effectiveness of a vaccine with potential combined protection against LB and TBE from the societal perspective. The model expressed time in annual cycles, followed a target population through their lifetime, and applied an annual discounting of 3%. A target population entered the model in a susceptible state, with time dependent probabilities to acquire LB/TBE...
August 30, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Rayane Chitolina Pupin, Carolina de Castro Guizelini, Ricardo Antônio Amaral de Lemos, Tessie Beck Martins, Fernando de Almeida Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino Borges, Danilo Carloto Gomes
Babesiosis is a tick-borne hemolytic disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. The present study describes epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of cases of bovine babesiosis diagnosed over the last two decades in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in central-western Brazil. Examination of a total of 5298 bovine samples resulted in a definitive or presumptive diagnosis of babesiosis in 41 cases from 33 outbreaks. Babesia bovis was the most common causal agent of bovine babesiosis, and animals of all ages were affected...
August 29, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Lindsey A Bidder, Kristine M Asmussen, Sean E Campbell, Katerina A Goffigan, Holly D Gaff
The hard (ixodid) ticks Amblyomma americanum and Amblyomma maculatum are found throughout the southeastern United States. To study the effects of water inundation, which is an increasingly common phenomenon in many coastal areas, unfed adult A. americanum and A. maculatum ticks were tested for survival by submergence in three water conditions: freshwater, brackish water, and saltwater. The results demonstrated a significant difference in survival between the two species in all three water conditions, with A...
August 28, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
P D Yadav, D A Nyayanit, A M Shete, S Jain, T P Majumdar, G Y Chaubal, P Shil, P M Kore, D T Mourya
An unknown virus was repeatedly isolated from hard tick (Haemaphysalis spinigera) during a proactive arbovirus survey in ticks conducted in 1957, in India. The virus remained uncharacterized for a long time. The passages of this virus in different vertebrate and invertebrate cells along with human and monkey-derived cell culture showed no cytopathic effect. It was identified later to be a member of Kaisodi group among Phlebovirus genus in the family Phenuiviridae (Order: Bunyavirales) by serological methods...
August 28, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Brian Stevenson, Volker Fingerle, Gary P Wormser, Gabriele Margos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Alessandra Cafiso, Davide Sassera, Claudia Romeo, Valentina Serra, Caroline Hervet, Claudio Bandi, Olivier Plantard, Chiara Bazzocchi
Ticks are important vectors of a variety of pathogens affecting humans and other animals, but they also harbor numerous microorganisms whose role is still limitedly investigated. Ixodes ricinus harbors the endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii, which is localized in ovaries and in salivary glands. The bacterium is vertically transmitted and is present in 100% of wild adult females, while prevalence values drop after some generations under laboratory conditions. Molecular and serological evidences showed that M...
August 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ursula Kunze
The 20th Meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) - a group of neurologists, general practitioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians, ecologists, and epidemiologists - was held under the theme "ISW-TBE: 20 years of commitment & still challenges ahead". On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the ISW-TBE several key topics in TBE were extensively discussed, among them current epidemiological developments and investigations, expansion of risk areas, clinical aspects and cases, traveling and mobility, and latest news on TBE vaccination...
August 7, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Meng Qi, Yanyan Cui, Xianming Song, Aiyun Zhao, Jing Bo, Maoliang Zheng, Changshen Ning, Dayong Tao
Bovine theileriosis is a common tick-born disease infected by Theileria spp. causing loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Theileria spp. in Southern Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. We screened 493 dairy cattle blood samples from Southern Xinjiang to detect Theileria spp. by PCR. The overall prevalence of Theileria spp. was 23.5% (116/493). The most frequent Theileria sp. was Theileria annulata 22.5% (111/493), followed by T...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Aaron Edmond Ringo, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Seung-Hun Lee, Mingming Liu, Yussuf Haji Khamis, Yang Gao, Huanping Guo, Weiqing Zheng, Artemis Efstratiou, Eloiza May Galon, Jixu Li, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Noboru Inoue, Hiroshi Suzuki, Oriel Thekisoe, Xuenan Xuan
Tick-borne diseases cause significant losses to livestock production in tropical and subtropical regions. In Tanzania, detailed studies on tick-borne pathogens in cattle using sensitive molecular detection methods are scarce. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of Theileria spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in 245 blood samples collected from cattle on Pemba Island, Tanzania. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing to detect and identify pathogens. PCR screening revealed overall infection rates of 62...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ana Paula S Feitosa, Marlos M Chaves, Dyana L Veras, Dayse M Vasconcelos de Deus, Nairomberg C Portela, Alberon R Araújo, Luiz C Alves, Fábio A Brayner
The aim of this study was to evaluate aspects of the innate cellular and humoral immune response by evaluating hemocyte dynamics, phagocytosis, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (Acari: Ixodidae) infected with Leishmania infantum and to assess the persistence of parasites at time 0 and 1, 2, 5, and 7 days post-infection (dpi). The total and differential count of the five types of hemocytes circulating in the hemolymph of R. sanguineus s...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Aquil Mohmad, D Chandra, B C Saravanan, Manjunathchar H V, Vinodh Kumar O R, Ashutosh Fular, Gajanan Chigure, Navneet Kaur, S Ghosh
The study was conducted to develop and validate Dot-ELISA for the diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection in cattle using recombinant Theileria annulata surface protein (r-TaSP). The r-TaSP based indirect plate-ELISA was used as a reference test to compare the efficacy of the Dot-ELISA. The Dot-ELISA was optimized with 500 ng of antigen per dot, 1:150 dilution of serum and 1:1000 dilution of secondary antibody for positive and negative reaction. A total of 17 confirmed positive, 25 negative and 129 field sera samples were used to calculate the diagnostic accuracy of Dot-ELISA in comparison with indirect plate-ELISA...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ivana Heglasová, Bronislava Víchová, Jasna Kraljik, Ladislav Mošanský, Dana Miklisová, Michal Stanko
Rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are considered as emerging pathogens; ticks, fleas and mites are known to be their vectors. However, the prevalence and species diversity of rickettsiae in small mammals and the role of these hosts in the circulation of bacteria are much less studied. During 2014-2016, a total of 250 small mammals (Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus uralensis, Myodes glareolus, Crocidura leucodon, Crocidura suaveolens, Micromys minutus, Microtus arvalis, Microtus subterraneus, Neomys fodiens and Sorex minutus) were captured in natural, suburban and urban habitats of eastern Slovakia...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Yana Igolkina, Vera Rar, Nelya Vysochina, Leonid Ivanov, Artem Tikunov, Natalya Pukhovskaya, Tamara Epikhina, Irina Golovljova, Nina Tikunova
The Russian Far East is an endemic region for tick-borne rickettsioses. However, the prevalence and genetic variability of Rickettsia species in this region have not been extensively investigated. In this study, 188 Dermacentor silvarum, 439 Haemaphysalis concinna, and 374 Haemaphysalis japonica adult ticks were collected from four locations in Khabarovsk Province and three locations in Amur Province in the Russian Far East. These ticks were examined for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by amplifying a fragment of the gltA gene...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Patrick Vudriko, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, James Okwee-Acai, Dickson Stuart Tayebwa, Joseph Byaruhanga, John Son Bbira, Kozo Fujisaki, Xuenan Xuan, Hiroshi Suzuki
This study investigated the target site mutations in the partial sequence of voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) domain II of synthetic pyrethroid (SP)-resistant Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Genomic DNA was extracted from seven tick populations (two susceptible and five resistant) collected from central, eastern and southwestern Uganda. The PCR amplicons of the VSSC domain II were cloned and sequenced to determine novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). A non-synonymous mutation C78 A corresponding to C190 A was found in all the five SP-resistant ticks...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Fernando S Flores, Sebastián Muñoz-Leal, Adrián Diaz, Marcelo B Labruna
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) spirochetes are associated with a wide range of vectors and hosts. Birds are important hosts in the ecology of some hard ticks (Ixodidae) in northwestern Argentina, where B. burgdorferi s.l. have been detected in Ixodes pararicinus. We evaluated Borrelia infection in ticks collected from wild birds by molecular analysis through the presence of Borrelia DNA (by nested-PCR targeting the fla gene). A total of 381 ticks (357 larvae and 24 nymphs) belonging to four species (I...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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