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Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

Fredy A Rivera-Páez, Thiago F Martins, Paula A Ossa-López, Bruno Rodrigues Sampieri, Maria I Camargo-Mathias
Rickettsiosis are emerging or re-emerging diseases, with a worldwide distribution associated to transmission by arthropod vectors. Rickettsia species belong to the spotted fever group (SFG) and are transmitted by hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that may act as vectors and reservoirs. This study carried out a molecular detection of Rickettsia from 7 species of the family Ixodidae collected from domestic hosts by PCR amplification of fragments of the citrate synthase "gltA" gene and outer membrane protein "ompA" gene...
March 9, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Fabián E Díaz, Constanza Martínez-Valdebenito, Javier López, Thomas Weitzel, Katia Abarca
The presented study analyzed the presence and geographical distribution of the tropical and temperate lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato in Chile. R. sanguineus s.l. ticks were collected from dogs at 14 sites in northern and central Chile for morphological and genetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA gene. Phylogenetic studies proved the existence of both, the tropical and the temperate lineages. The former was represented by a single haplotype and occurred in the far north; the latter included four haplotypes and was observed from the Tarapacá Region southwards...
March 5, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Goudarz Molaei, Eliza A H Little
Morphological anomalies have been reported in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), from the northeastern and upper Midwestern United States, complicating identification of this important vector of human pathogens. Here, we report a case of a local morphological anomaly in I. scapularis, parasitizing a human living in Connecticut. We used a dichotomous morphological key, high-resolution and scanning electron microscopy images, as well as DNA sequencing for identification. The specimen was identified as an adult female I...
March 5, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Juntra Wattanamethanont, Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Sonthaya Tiawsirisup
Ixodid ticks are important vectors of tick-borne disease agents affecting humans and animals, with wildlife often serving as important reservoirs. This study examined protozoal and bacterial infection in questing ticks in forest habitats in Chonburi Province, Thailand in 2015, using PCR and DNA sequencing techniques. A total of 12,184 ticks were morphologically identified to species and a subset of ticks were confirmed by PCR, targeting the tick mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Tick species collected included Haemaphysalis lagrangei (92...
March 5, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
S Y Kovalev, S Zh Fedorova, T A Mukhacheva
Ticks of the Ixodes ricinus group are important vectors of human pathogens in both Eurasia and North America; therefore, many studies have focused on their molecular systematics and evolutionary relationships. However, there are species that have not been characterized by molecular genetic methods so far. For the first time, we obtained nucleotide sequences of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genetic markers from four museum specimen of I. kazakstani Olenev et Sorokoumov, 1934, collected in Kyrgyzstan. The phylogenetic analysis showed that I...
March 5, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Diaeldin A Salih, Joram M Mwacharo, Roger Pelle, Moses N Njahira, David O Odongo, Mary N Mbole-Kariuki, Wani L Marcellino, Agol K Malak, Henary Kiara, Abdel Rahim M El Hussein, Richard P Bishop, Robert A Skilton
Theileria parva is a parasitic protozoan that causes East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. In South Sudan, ECF is considered a major constraint for livestock development in regions where the disease is endemic. To obtain insights into the dynamics of T. parva in South Sudan, population genetic analysis was performed. Out of the 751 samples included in this study, 178 blood samples were positive for T. parva by species-specific PCR, were collected from cattle from four regions in South Sudan (Bor = 62; Juba = 45; Kajo keji = 41 and Yei = 30) were genotyped using 14 microsatellite markers spanning the four chromosomes...
March 3, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Valeria C Colombo, Agustín A Fasano, Pablo M Beldomenico, Santiago Nava
Here we have evaluated tick host specificity with two different methodological approaches considering Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma triste immatures as targets. Firstly, the Std* index was applied, which considers host phylogenetic relationships weighted by the prevalence of the parasite; followed by generalized linear models to explore associations between different host species and burdens and prevalence of larvae and nymphs, independently. The Std* index showed that A. tigrinum larvae and nymphs infest host species belonging to different orders and classes, respectively; while A...
March 3, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Marina E Eremeeva, Lindsey M Weiner, Maria L Zambrano, Gregory A Dasch, Renjie Hu, Inger Vilcins, Martin B Castro, Denise L Bonilla, Kerry A Padgett
The rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard, is known for its association with Rickettsia rickettsii as it harbors both virulent and avirulent strains of this pathogen. In this manuscript we report findings and preliminary characterization of a novel spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) in rabbit ticks from California, USA. Rickettsia sp. CA6269 (proposed "Candidatus Rickettsia lanei") is most related to known R. rickettsii isolates but belongs to its own well-supported branch different from those of all R...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
A S Varela-Stokes, S H Park, J V Stokes, N A Gavron, S I Lee, G M Moraru, S C Ricke
Our objective of this study was to explore the bacterial microbiome in fresh or fresh-frozen adult Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast ticks) using extracts enriched for microbial DNA. We collected 100 questing adult A. maculatum, surface disinfected them, and extracted DNA from individual ticks collected the same day or after storage at -80 °C. Because only extracts with microbial DNA concentrations above 2 ng/μL were considered suitable for individual analysis, we expected fewer samples to meet these requirements...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Anna Papa, Elpida Papadopoulou, Katerina Tsioka, Anastasia Kontana, Styliani Pappa, Ageliki Melidou, Nektarios D Giadinis
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was isolated from a pool of two adult Rhipicephalus bursa ticks removed from a goat in 2015 in Greece. The strain clusters into lineage Europe 2 representing the second available whole-genome sequenced isolate of this lineage. CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in 8 of 19 goats of the farm. Currently CCHFV is not associated with disease in mammals other than humans. Studies in animal models are needed to investigate the pathogenicity level of lineage Europe 2 and compare it with that of other lineages...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Bessie H Lockwood, Iga Stasiak, Madeleine A Pfaff, Christopher A Cleveland, Michael J Yabsley
The geographical distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma maculatum ticks is poorly understood in Kentucky. We conducted a convenience survey of wildlife species (white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus canadensis) and black bears (Ursus americanus)) for ticks from October 2015 to January 2017. We detected four tick species including Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor albipictus, I. scapularis and A. maculatum. Although the former two tick species were previously known to be widely distributed in Kentucky, we also found that I...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Rafiullah Khan, Asad Ali
We report a rare case of a 53-year-old man with no significant past medical history who reported multiple tick bites within a 2-month period. The patient reported not "feeling well" for the 2 ½ weeks. He complained of generalized body aches, pains, and chills. He did not report nausea, vomiting, or yellowish discoloration of the eyes or skin. He presented to the emergency room with syncope preceded by severe abdominal pain. Upon presentation, he was pale and hypotensive. He had not experienced any trauma...
February 22, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Víctor Asensi, Luis Miguel González, Jonathan Fernández-Suárez, Elena Sevilla, Rafael Álvarez Navascués, María Luisa Suárez, María Eugenia Lauret, Angel Bernardo, José Antonio Carton, Estrella Montero
We describe a fatal case caused by the intra-erythrocytic Babesia divergens parasite in an elderly woman. This is the third case of fatal babesiosis reported in the last 15 years in Europe, and the only one in a patient with an intact spleen.
February 21, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Álvaro A Faccini-Martínez, María L Félix, María T Armua-Fernandez, José M Venzal
Rickettsia parkeri, a member of the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, was first confirmed as an etiological agent of human rickettsiosis in 2004. Nearly all cases are characterized by an inoculation eschar, and no fatalities have been reported. In Uruguay, probable human cases of R. parkeri infection (confused initially with R. conorii infection) have been described since 1990 using the clinical name "cutaneous-ganglionar" rickettsiosis. This is the only tick-borne rickettsiosis reported in the country...
February 21, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Lucía Varela-Castro, Carla Zuddas, Nieves Ortega, Emmanuel Serrano, Jesús Salinas, Joaquim Castellà, Raquel Castillo-Contreras, João Carvalho, Santiago Lavín, Gregorio Mentaberre
Ruminant livestock is the main reservoir of Coxiella burnetii (Cb), but little is known about the role of wildlife and ticks in its epidemiology. The Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838) population of "Ports de Tortosa i Beseit" (NE Spain) suffers intense tick infestations and low reproduction rates. This study aims to (1) assess the relationship between infection in ibexes (detection of serum antibodies and/or of Cb DNA in tissues) and Cb DNA presence in ticks hosted by the same ibexes; and (2) identify Cb associated risk factors...
February 21, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Andrey V Barkhash, Andrey A Yurchenko, Nikolay S Yudin, Elena V Ignatieva, Irina V Kozlova, Inessa A Borishchuk, Larisa L Pozdnyakova, Mikhail I Voevoda, Aida G Romaschenko
The progression of infectious diseases depends on causative agents, the environment and the host's genetic susceptibility. To date, human genetic susceptibility to tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus-induced disease has not been sufficiently studied. We have combined whole-exome sequencing with a candidate gene approach to identify genes that are involved in the development of predisposition to TBE in a Russian population. Initially, six exomes from TBE patients with severe central nervous system (CNS) disease and seven exomes from control individuals were sequenced...
February 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Valentina Chisu, Cipriano Foxi, Roberto Mannu, Giuseppe Satta, Giovanna Masala
Sardinia is a hotspot for studying tick-borne diseases in the Mediterranean region, where cases of notifiable tick-borne diseases are increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of tick-borne bacteria of medical and veterinary importance in ixodid ticks collected from domestic and wild animals, humans, and vegetation from different collection sites in Sardinia. Using standard PCR and sequencing techniques, the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species, as well as Coxiella burnetii was evaluated...
February 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Barbara A Qurollo, Peter A Larsen, Hajanirina H Rakotondrainibe, Karine Mahefarisoa, Tsiky Rajaonarivelo, Josia Razafindramanana, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Randall E Junge, Cathy V Williams
The discovery and characterization of emerging tick-borne organisms are critical for global health initiatives to improve animal and human welfare (One Health). It is possible that unknown tick-borne organisms underlie a subset of undiagnosed illness in wildlife, domesticated species, and humans. Our study lends support to the One Health concept by highlighting the prevalence of three blood-borne organisms in wild lemurs living in close proximity to domesticated species and humans. Previously, our team identified three novel, presumably tick-borne, intravascular organisms, belonging to the genera Babesia, Borrelia, and Neoehrlichia, circulating in two of Madagascar's lemur species...
February 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Rojesh Khangembam, Harkirat Singh, Jyoti, Shitanshu Shekar Rath, Nirbhay Kumar Singh
The status of ivermectin resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from various districts of the Punjab state, India was determined using larval immersion test (LIT). Regression graphs of probit mortality of larval ticks of various field isolates were plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of technical grade ivermectin for determination of slopes of mortality, lethal concentrations for 50% (LC50 ) and resistance factors (RF). Values for the coefficient of determination (R2 ) in LIT assay ranged from 0...
February 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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