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Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

Simon Bigelmayr, Arno Koenigs, Peter Kraiczy
Spirochetes have developed sophisticated means to successfully colonize host tissues and survive in unfavorable environments. Attachment to human cells is thought to be a key step for the establishment of an infection that causes multiple clinical symptoms. Infection of host tissues largely depends on the ability of spirochetes to attach to different cell types. In this study, we examine the ability of spirochetes belonging to seven distinct genospecies (Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, B...
October 28, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Joel Svensson, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld, Kristina E M Persson
In northern Europe, tick-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are well known. The actual incidence of Babesia infections, however, has remained elusive. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies against two Babesia spp. was investigated in a cohort of patients that were seropositive for Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Data were compared to a control group of healthy individuals. Sera were collected from 283 individuals residing in the southernmost region of Sweden, Skåne County...
October 28, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Vera Maraspin, Tatjana Mrvič, Eva Ružić-Sabljić, Vesna Jurčić, Franc Strle
Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans is a late manifestation of European Lyme borreliosis and is characterized by high levels of borrelial IgG antibodies, slowly expanding skin redness usually beginning on distal parts of extremities, and corresponding histologic findings. It very rarely develops in children. The main prerequisite for the diagnosis is clinical suspicion. In the present article we report on two children with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans and on the findings of a PubMed literature search on acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans in childhood, published in the past three decades...
October 26, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Margriet Dekker, Gozewijn Dirk Laverman, Ankje de Vries, Johan Reimerink, Felix Geeraedts
Recently, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was detected in the Netherlands for the first time, in ticks collected in 2015 in the National Park Sallandse heuvelrug in response to the detection of anti-TBEV antibodies in roe deer. Hereafter, two human cases of autochthonous TBE have been reported, occurring in 2016. One case was geographically linked to the area of the previously reported ticks, which harbored a genetically divergent TBEV-Eu strain variant (TBEV-NL). So far these are the few reported events that point to endemic transmission of TBEV in the Netherlands and the true prevalence of TBEV and TBE disease in the Netherlands and its impact on the human population remains to be determined...
October 25, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Mareen Kohn, Jürgen Krücken, Janina McKay-Demeler, Stefan Pachnicke, Klemens Krieger, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
Dermacentor reticulatus is one of the most important European tick species. However, its spatial distribution, seasonality and regional vector role are not well known. This study aimed to gather information about abundance patterns of questing ticks and associated pathogens in unfed female adult D. reticulatus in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. Using the flagging method, questing ticks were collected at four sites in 2010-2012 and 2000 D. reticulatus were analysed regarding infection with Rickettsia, Babesia, Borrelia and Anaplasmataceae by conventional or real-time PCR...
October 18, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Xiao-Ming He, Lei Liu, Tian-Yin Cheng
Ticks and tick-borne diseases are major global health threats. During blood feeding, ticks insert their hypostomes into hosts and inject an array of anticoagulant molecules to maintain fluidity of the blood-meal. These anticoagulant molecules may provide insights into understanding the feeding biology of ticks and to develop vaccines against infestations. In Haemaphysalis flava, the heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70), a member of the heat shock protein (HSP) family, is differentially expressed in salivary glands at different levels of engorgement during blood feeding...
October 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Jamile de Oliveira Pascoal, Samantha Maciel de Siqueira, Rodrigo da Costa Maia, Matias Pablo Juan Szabó, Jonny Yokosawa
In Brazil, recent studies have reported viruses detected in ticks with pathogenic potential in vertebrate hosts. Ticks of the species Rhipicephalus microplus collected from bovines in a savannah area were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of RNA targetting a segment of NS3-like protein gene of Mogiana tick virus, a member of the recently-described Jingmenvirus group. Amplification with size similar to the expected was observed with 25% (7/28) RNA samples of ticks that were collected from 39% (7/18) of the bovines...
October 13, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Erik Thomas Thortveit, Åslaug Rudjord Lorentzen, Unn Ljøstad, Åse Mygland
BACKGROUND: It is heavily debated whether tick-borne infections cause chronic subjective health complaints. If the hypothesis of a major causal connection is true, one would expect to find more subjective health complaints in a population with high exposure to ticks than in a population with less exposure. In the current study we aimed to assess somatic symptoms and fatigue in a Norwegian population with high exposure to ticks, compare our findings to normative data, and assess predictors of somatic symptom load...
October 9, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Mark P Nelder, Curtis B Russell, Katie M Clow, Steven Johnson, J Scott Weese, Kirby Cronin, Filip Ralevski, Claire M Jardine, Samir N Patel
The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is spreading northward from its historical stronghold in the southeastern United States. As a vector and biting pest, public and veterinary health officials must remain vigilant of the lone star tick's expanding range. We use ticks submitted to Public Health Ontario Laboratory (1999-2016) to describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of A. americanum in Ontario, Canada, as well as submitter demographics. We identified 847 A. americanum submissions during the surveillance period, with 773 (91...
October 9, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ben J Mans, Jonathan Featherston, Marija Kvas, Kerry-Anne Pillay, Daniel G de Klerk, Ronel Pienaar, Minique H de Castro, Tom G Schwan, Job E Lopez, Pete Teel, Adalberto A Pérez de León, Daniel E Sonenshine, Noble I Egekwu, Deon K Bakkes, Heloise Heyne, Esther G Kanduma, Nkululeko Nyangiwe, Ali Bouattour, Abdalla A Latif
The systematics of the genera and subgenera within the soft tick family Argasidae is not adequately resolved. Different classification schemes, reflecting diverse schools of scientific thought that elevated or downgraded groups to genera or subgenera, have been proposed. In the most recent classification scheme, Argas and Ornithodoros are paraphyletic and the placement of various subgenera remains uncertain because molecular data are lacking. Thus, reclassification of the Argasidae is required. This will enable an understanding of soft tick systematics within an evolutionary context...
October 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Robert Renthal, Kim Lohmeyer, Lígia M F Borges, Adalberto A Pérez de León
Lipids extracted from the surface of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, were analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry. Prior to lipid extraction, the adult ticks were either unfed or fed on cattle, and the fed ticks were in groups either containing males and females together, or containing only males or females. Cholesteryl esters were found on the surfaces of fed females, and they may provide a more complete description of the composition of the mounting sex pheromone. Dihydrocholesteryl esters were detected on the surfaces of unfed males and females, suggesting a possible role in survival during host-seeking...
September 27, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
R Dersch, A Sarnes, M Maul, O Minakowski, T Hottenrott, O Stich, S Rauer
About 5-20% of the general population in endemic areas have seroprevalence for anti-borrelial antibodies. Previous studies have shown a high rate of 25-97% of persisting anti-borrelial antibodies in patients with treated Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) at follow-up. These studies used immunoblots with antigens from whole-cell sonicates, which could be less specific than modern recombinant antigens. We assessed the seroprevalence of anti-borrelial antibodies in serum from patients with definite LNB and healthy controls with a line immunoblot using highly specific recombinant antigens...
September 26, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Nanna Skaarup Andersen, Sanne Løkkegaard Larsen, Carsten Riis Olesen, Karin Stiasny, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Per Moestrup Jensen, Sigurdur Skarphédinsson
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a tick-transmitted flavivirus within the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex. The TBE complex is represented by both TBEV and louping ill virus (LIV) in Denmark. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is also transmitted by ticks and is believed to play an essential role in facilitating and aggravating LIV infection in sheep. This study aimed to describe the distribution of TBE complex viruses in Denmark, to establish the possible emergence of new foci and their association with the distribution of A...
September 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Lucas D Monje, Camilo Fernandez, Alejandro Percara
Owing to the sanitary importance of the tick Amblyomma parvum, this study evaluated the infection by Ehrlichia, Anaplasma and Rickettsia species of questing A. parvum collected in northwestern Argentina. Our results showed that A. parvum ticks in this region are infected with the recently reported Ehrlichia sp. strain San Luis, closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis. A high prevalence of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae was observed. Most of the infected ticks presented rickettsial loads lower than those previously reported for other spotted fever group rickettsiae...
September 15, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Susana Remesar, Pablo Díaz Fernández, Jose Manuel Venzal, Ana Pérez-Creo, Alberto Prieto, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Ceferino Manuel López, Rosario Panadero, Gonzalo Fernández, Pablo Díez-Baños, Patrocinio Morrondo
Ticks are the major arthropod vectors of animal and human pathogens in Europe; thus, information of tick species and their phenology allows identifying those areas and periods involving a high risk of exposure to particular tick-borne pathogens. In order to assess the diversity of exophilic tick species in north-western Spain, questing ticks were collected by flagging in 17 different locations; ticks were microscopically and molecularly identified at the 16S rDNA loci. In addition, phenology of questing ticks in the same region was studied in representative sampling areas of three different ecological regions, where ticks were monthly collected in 300-m transects during two complete years...
September 13, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Adi Wasserkrug Naor, Dana M Lindemann, Megan E Schreeg, Henry S Marr, Adam J Birkenheuer, James W Carpenter, Julia K Ryseff
A possible novel Babesia species infection of a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) was first reported in 2012. The current case details a confirmed report of a maned wolf with infection by an undetermined species of Babesia. As the mortality and morbidity of babesiosis is high, this may become a significant concern to captive maned wolves, which are considered a near-threatened species by the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. The aim of this study is to report the clinical, morphological and molecular characterization of this Babesia species...
September 11, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Mariel Aguilar-Domínguez, Sokani Sánchez-Montes, María Dolores Esteve-Gassent, Carolina Barrientos-Salcedo, Adalberto Pérez de León, Dora Romero-Salas
Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844 parasitizes livestock, humans, and wildlife in Mexico. However, information on population genetics for this tick species in the country is missing. Tick samples were collected from livestock in ten regions across the state of Veracruz (22°28'N, 17°09'S, 93°36'E, 98°39'W) to analyze the genetic structure of   A. mixtum populations. Ticks were morphologically identified using taxonomic keys. In order to test the intra-specific variability of A. mixtum fragments of the mitochondrial gene 16S-rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) were amplified...
September 11, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Florian Binetruy, Christine Chevillon, Benoît de Thoisy, Stéphane Garnier, Olivier Duron
In this study, we examine the current pattern of tick diversity and host use in French Guiana, South America, from 97 sampling localities encompassing peri-urban, rural and natural habitats. We collected 3395 ticks, including 1485 specimens from 45 vertebrate species (humans, domestic and wild animals) and 1910 questing specimens from vegetation. Morphological examinations identified 22 species belonging to six genera: Amblyomma (16 species), Rhipicephalus (two species), Ixodes (one species), Dermacentor (one species), Haemaphysalis (one species), Ornithodoros (one species)...
September 11, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Erber Wilhelm, Schmitt H J
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Kathryn A Smith, Paul T Oesterle, Claire M Jardine, Antonia Dibernardo, Chris Huynh, Robbin Lindsay, David L Pearl, Nicole M Nemeth
The growing risk of transmission of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans in Ontario, Canada, warrants investigations into regional tick distribution, tick burdens of local peridomestic animals, and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the geographic distribution and magnitude of tick infestations in opportunistically sampled mammalian wildlife and companion animals (i.e., dogs) in southern Ontario and to test these ticks for evidence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens...
September 3, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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