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Darren Rodenhizer, Dan Cojocari, Bradly G Wouters, Alison P McGuigan
The tumour microenvironment is heterogeneous and consists of multiple cell types, variable extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, and contains cell-defined gradients of small molecules, oxygen, nutrients and waste. Emerging in vitro cell culture systems that attempt to replicate these features often fail to incorporate design strategies to facilitate efficient data collection and stratification. The tissue roll for analysis of cellular environment and response (TRACER) is a novel strategy to assemble layered, three-dimensional tumours with cell-defined, graded heterogeneous microenvironments that also facilitates cellular separation and stratification of data from different cell populations from specific microenvironments...
October 18, 2016: Biofabrication
Xingliang Dai, Cheng Ma, Qing Lan, Tao Xu
Glioma is still difficult to treat because of its high malignancy, high recurrence rate, and high resistance to anticancer drugs. An alternative method for research of gliomagenesis and drug resistance is to use in vitro tumor model that closely mimics the in vivo tumor microenvironment. In this study, we established a 3D bioprinted glioma stem cell model, using modified porous gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix. Glioma stem cells achieved a survival rate of 86.92%, and proliferated with high cellular activity immediately following bioprinting...
October 11, 2016: Biofabrication
P Flood, L Alvarez, E G Reynaud
Three-dimensional (3D) tissue models are invaluable tools that can closely reflect the in vivo physiological environment. However, they are usually difficult to develop, have a low throughput and are often costly; limiting their utility to most laboratories. The recent availability of inexpensive additive manufacturing printers and open source 3D design software offers us the possibility to easily create affordable 3D cell culture platforms. To demonstrate this, we established a simple, inexpensive and robust method for producing arrays of free-floating epithelial micro-tissues...
October 11, 2016: Biofabrication
Andrea Di Luca, Alessia Longoni, Giuseppe Criscenti, Carlos Mota, Clemens van Blitterswijk, Lorenzo Moroni
Guiding bone regeneration poses still unmet challenges due to several drawbacks of current standard treatments in the clinics. A possible solution may rely on the use of three-dimensional scaffolds with optimized structural properties in combination with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bone presents a radial gradient structure from the outside, where the cortical bone is more compact (porosity ranging from 5% to 10%), toward the inner part, where the cancellous bone is more porous (porosity ranging from 50% to 90%)...
October 11, 2016: Biofabrication
Michael J Susienka, Benjamin T Wilks, Jeffrey R Morgan
Tissue fusion, whereby two or more spheroids coalesce, is a process that is fundamental to biofabrication. We have designed a quantitative, high-throughput platform to investigate the fusion of multicellular spheroids using agarose micro-molds. Spheroids of primary human chondrocytes (HCH) or human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were self-assembled for 24 h and then brought together to form an array comprised of two spheroids (one doublet) per well. To quantify spheroid fusogenicity, we developed two assays: (1) an initial tack assay, defined as the minimum amount of time for two spheroids to form a mechanically stable tissue complex or doublet, and (2) a fusion assay, in which we defined and tracked key morphological parameters of the doublets as a function of time using wide-field fluorescence microscopy over a 24 h time-lapse...
October 10, 2016: Biofabrication
Ashwini Rahul Akkineni, Tilman Ahlfeld, Anja Lode, Michael Gelinsky
Three-dimensional extrusion of two different biomaterials in a core/shell (c/s) fashion has gained much interest in the last couple of years as it allows for fabricating constructs with novel and interesting properties. We now demonstrate that combining high concentrated (16.7 wt%) alginate hydrogels as shell material with low concentrated, soft biopolymer hydrogels as core leads to mechanically stable and robust 3D scaffolds. Alginate, chitosan, gellan gum, gelatin and collagen hydrogels were utilized successfully as core materials-hydrogels which are too soft for 3D plotting of open-porous structures without an additional mechanical support...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Yi-Cheun Yeh, Christopher B Highley, Liliang Ouyang, Jason A Burdick
Three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds have great potential in biomedicine; however, it is important that we are able to design such scaffolds with a range of diverse properties towards specific applications. Here, we report the extrusion-based 3D printing of biodegradable and photocurable acrylated polyglycerol sebacate (Acr-PGS) to fabricate scaffolds with elastic properties. Two Acr-PGS macromers were synthesized with varied molecular weights and viscosity, which were then blended to obtain photocurable macromer inks with a range of viscosities...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
I A Otto, C C Breugem, J Malda, A L Bredenoord
Biofabrication technologies have the potential to improve healthcare by providing highly advanced and personalized biomedical products for research, treatment and prevention. As the combining of emerging techniques and integrating various biological and synthetic components becomes increasingly complex, it is important that relevant stakeholders anticipate the translation of biofabricated 3D tissue products into patients and society. Ethics is sometimes regarded as a brake on scientific progress, yet from our perspective, ethics in parallel with research anticipates societal impacts of emerging technologies and stimulates responsible innovation...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Andrew C Daly, Susan E Critchley, Emily M Rencsok, Daniel J Kelly
Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair capabilities. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden hydrogels are commonly used for fibrocartilage and articular cartilage tissue engineering, however they typically lack the mechanical integrity for implantation into high load bearing environments. This has led to increased interested in 3D bioprinting of cell laden hydrogel bioinks reinforced with stiffer polymer fibres. The objective of this study was to compare a range of commonly used hydrogel bioinks (agarose, alginate, GelMA and BioINK™) for their printing properties and capacity to support the development of either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage in vitro...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Adeola D Olubamiji, Zohreh Izadifar, Jennifer L Si, David M L Cooper, B Frank Eames, Daniel X B Chen
Three-dimensional (3D)-printed poly(ε)-caprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds are increasingly being explored for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) applications. However, ensuring that the mechanical properties of these PCL-based constructs are comparable to that of articular cartilage that they are meant to regenerate is an area that has been under-explored. This paper presents the effects of PCL's molecular weight (MW) and scaffold's pore geometric configurations; strand size (SZ), strand spacing (SS), and strand orientation (SO), on mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL scaffolds...
June 2016: Biofabrication
Stephanie Knowlton, Chu Hsiang Yu, Fulya Ersoy, Sharareh Emadi, Ali Khademhosseini, Savas Tasoglu
Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers potential to fabricate high-throughput and low-cost fabrication of microfluidic devices as a promising alternative to traditional techniques which enables efficient design iterations in the development stage. In this study, we demonstrate a single-step fabrication of a 3D transparent microfluidic chip using two alternative techniques: a stereolithography-based desktop 3D printer and a two-step fabrication using an industrial 3D printer based on polyjet technology. This method, compared to conventional fabrication using relatively expensive materials and labor-intensive processes, presents a low-cost, rapid prototyping technique to print functional 3D microfluidic chips...
June 2016: Biofabrication
Xiaoxiao Han, Richard Bibb, Russell Harris
Vascular vessels, including arteries, veins and capillaries, are being printed using additive manufacturing technologies, also known as 3D printing. This paper demonstrates that it is important to follow the vascular design by nature as close as possible when 3D printing artificial vascular branches. In previous work, the authors developed an algorithm of computational geometry for constructing smooth junctions for 3D printing. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) is used to compare the wall shear stress and blood velocity field for the junctions of different designs...
June 2016: Biofabrication
Reza Amin, Stephanie Knowlton, Alexander Hart, Bekir Yenilmez, Fariba Ghaderinezhad, Sara Katebifar, Michael Messina, Ali Khademhosseini, Savas Tasoglu
Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space...
June 2016: Biofabrication
John A Reid, Peter A Mollica, Garett D Johnson, Roy C Ogle, Robert D Bruno, Patrick C Sachs
The precision and repeatability offered by computer-aided design and computer-numerically controlled techniques in biofabrication processes is quickly becoming an industry standard. However, many hurdles still exist before these techniques can be used in research laboratories for cellular and molecular biology applications. Extrusion-based bioprinting systems have been characterized by high development costs, injector clogging, difficulty achieving small cell number deposits, decreased cell viability, and altered cell function post-printing...
June 2016: Biofabrication
Yifei Jin, Ashley Compaan, Tapomoy Bhattacharjee, Yong Huang
Freeform fabrication of soft structures has been of great interest in recent years. In particular, it is viewed as a critical step toward the grand vision of organ printing--the on-demand design and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) human organ constructs for implantation and regenerative medicine. The objective of this study is to develop a novel granular gel support material-enabled, two-step gelation-based 'printing-then-gelation' approach to fabricate 3D alginate structures using filament extrusion...
June 2016: Biofabrication
Blanche C Ip, Francis Cui, Anubhav Tripathi, Jeffrey R Morgan
We previously developed the Bio-Pick, Place, and Perfuse (Bio-P3) instrument to fabricate large perfusable tissue constructs by stacking and aligning scaffold-free living microtissues with integrated lumens. The Bio-P3 required an actuating mechanism to manipulate living microtissues of various sizes and shapes that are fragile, and must remain in an aqueous environment. The optical transparency of the Bio-P3 gripping device was essential to provide unobstructed visuals for accurate alignment of microtissues...
June 2016: Biofabrication
Sara C Neves, Carlos Mota, Alessia Longoni, Cristina C Barrias, Pedro L Granja, Lorenzo Moroni
Additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored surface topography constitute a clear advantage in tissue regeneration strategies to steer cell behavior. 3D fibrous scaffolds of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer presenting different fiber surface features were successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing combined with wet-spinning, in a single step, without any post-processing. The optimization of the processing parameters, mainly driven by different solvent/non-solvent combinations, led to four distinct scaffold types, with average surface roughness values ranging from 0...
June 2016: Biofabrication
A Totaro, F Urciuolo, G Imparato, P A Netti
The in vitro fabrication of an endogenous cardiac muscle would have a high impact for both in vitro studies concerning cardiac tissue physiology and pathology, as well as in vivo application to potentially repair infarcted myocardium. To reach this aim, we engineered a new class of cardiac tissue precursor (CTP), specifically conceived in order to promote the synthesis and the assembly of a cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM). The CTPs were obtained by culturing a mixed cardiac cell population, composed of myocyte and non-myocyte cells, into porous gelatin microspheres in a dynamic bioreactor...
June 2016: Biofabrication
Katharina S U Schirmer, Robert Gorkin, Stephen Beirne, Elise Stewart, Brianna C Thompson, Anita F Quigley, Robert M I Kapsa, Gordon G Wallace
Tissue engineering scaffolds for nerve regeneration, or artificial nerve conduits, are particularly challenging due to the high level of complexity the structure of the nerve presents. The list of requirements for artificial nerve conduits is long and includes the ability to physically guide nerve growth using physical and chemical cues as well as electrical stimulation. Combining these characteristics into a conduit, while maintaining biocompatibility and biodegradability, has not been satisfactorily achieved by currently employed fabrication techniques...
June 2016: Biofabrication
Marius Köpf, Daniela F Duarte Campos, Andreas Blaeser, Kshama S Sen, Horst Fischer
In recent years, novel biofabrication technologies have enabled the rapid manufacture of hydrogel-cell suspensions into tissue-imitating constructs. The development of novel materials for biofabrication still remains a challenge due to a gap between contradicting requirements such as three-dimensional printability and optimal cytocompatibility. We hypothesise that blending of different hydrogels could lead to a novel material with favourable biological and printing properties. In our work, we combined agarose and type I collagen in order to develop a hydrogel blend capable of long-term cell encapsulation of human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) and 3D drop-on-demand printing...
June 2016: Biofabrication
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