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Marco Costantini, Cristina Colosi, Wojciech Święszkowski, Andrea Barbetta
Nowadays, 3D bioprinting technologies are rapidly emerging in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as effective tools enabling the fabrication of advanced tissue constructs that can recapitulate in vitro organ/tissue functions. Selecting the best strategy for bioink deposition is often challenging and time consuming process, as bioink properties - in the first instance, rheological and gelation - strongly influence the suitable paradigms for its deposition. 
 In this short review, we critically discuss one of the available approaches used for bioprinting - namely co-axial wet-spinning extrusion...
October 4, 2018: Biofabrication
Nobuhito Mori, Yuya Morimoto, Shoji Takeuchi
This study describes a perfusable and stretchable culture system for a skin-equivalent. The system is comprised of a flexible culture device equipped with connections that fix vascular channels of the skin-equivalent and functions as an interface for an external pump. Furthermore, a stretching apparatus for the culture device can be fabricated using rapid prototyping technologies, which allows for easy modifications of stretching parameters. When cultured under dynamically stretching and perfusion conditions, the skin-equivalent exhibits improved morphology...
November 15, 2018: Biofabrication
Seokyoung Bang, Byung-Ju Lee, Seung-Ryeol Lee, Sangcheol Na, Jae Myung Jang, Myeongwoo Kang, Sung-Yon Kim, Dal-Hee Min, Joon Myong Song, Won-Kyung Ho, Noo Li Jeon
Auto neuronal synapses, or autapses, are aberrant structures where the synaptic contact of a neuron forms onto its own branch. The functions of autapses, however, remain unknown. Here, we introduce a simple patterning method for capturing a single-cell, in which we maintained the isolated cell until it reached maturity, and developed arrays of autapses for electrophysiological analysis using multi-electrode arrays (MEA). The pattern arrays were formed by selective patterning of poly-L-lysine and various cell repellent materials...
November 13, 2018: Biofabrication
Thuy-Uyen Nguyen, Mozhgan Shojaee, Chris A Bashur, Vipuil Kishore
Biomimetic tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) have immense potential to replace diseased small-diameter arteries (<4 mm) for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, biomimetic approaches developed thus far only partially recapitulate the physicochemical properties of the native vessel. While it is feasible to fabricate scaffolds that are compositionally similar to native vessels (collagen and insoluble elastic matrix) using freeze-drying, these scaffolds do not mimic the aligned topography of collagen and elastic fibers found in native vessels...
November 9, 2018: Biofabrication
Abdalla Abdal-Ha, Stephen Hamlet, Sašo Ivanovski
Nanoscale fibers mimicking the extracellular matrix of natural tissue can be produced by conventional electrospinning, but this approach results in two-dimensional thin dense fibrous mats which can hinder effective cell infiltration. The aim of the present study was to design a thick, three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical scaffold with an open pore structure assembled from short polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers using a facile airbrushing approach. In addition, magnesium particles were incorporated into the PCL solution to both enhance the mechanical properties of the scaffold and stimulate cellular activity following cell seeding...
November 1, 2018: Biofabrication
Elke Kunisch, Anne-Kathrin Knauf, Eliane Hesse, Uwe Freudenberg, Carsten Werner, Friederike Bothe, Solvig Diederichs, Wiltrud Richter
Repaired cartilage tissue lacks the typical zonal structure of healthy native cartilage needed for appropriate function. Current grafts for treatment of full thickness cartilage defects focus primarily on a nonzonal design and this may be a reason why inferior nonzonal regeneration tissue developed in vivo. No biomaterial-based solutions have been developed so far to induce a proper zonal architecture into a non-mineralized and a calcified cartilage layer. The objective was to grow bizonal cartilage with a calcified cartilage bottom zone wherein main tissue development is occurring in vivo...
October 30, 2018: Biofabrication
Xuanyue Li, Jingyi Xia, Calin T Nicolescu, Miles W Massidda, Tyler J Ryan, Joe Tien
Current methods to treat large soft-tissue defects mainly rely on autologous transfer of adipocutaneous flaps, a method that is often limited by donor site availability. Engineered vascularized adipose tissues can potentially be a viable and readily accessible substitute to autologous flaps. In this study, we engineered a small-scale adipose tissue with pre-patterned vasculature that enables immediate perfusion. Vessels formed after one day of perfusion and displayed barrier function after three days of perfusion...
October 30, 2018: Biofabrication
Ju Young Park, Hyunryul Ryu, Byungjun Lee, Dong-Heon Ha, Minjun Ahn, Suryong Kim, Jae Yun Kim, Noo Li Jeon, Dong-Woo Cho
We used 3D cell printing to emulate an airway coupled with a naturally-derived blood vessel network in vitro. Decellularized extracellular matrix bioink derived from porcine tracheal mucosa (tmdECM) was used to encapsulate and print endothelial cells and fibroblasts within a designated polycarprolactone (PCL) frame. Providing a niche that emulates conditions in vivo, tmdECM gradually drives endothelial re-orientation, which leads to the formation of a lumen and blood vessel network. A fully-differentiated in vitro airway model was assembled with the printed vascular platform, and collectively reproduced a functional interface between the airway epithelium and the vascular network...
October 30, 2018: Biofabrication
Andrea Mazzocchi, Mahesh Devarasetty, Richard Huntwork, Shay Soker, Aleksander Skardal
Current 3D printing of tissue is restricted by the use of biomaterials that do not recapitulate the native properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). These restrictions have thus far prevented optimization of composition and structure of the in vivo tissue microenvironment. The artificial nature of currently used biomaterials affects cellular phenotype and function of the bioprinted tissues, and results in inaccurate modeling of disease and drug metabolism significantly. Collagen type I is the major structural component in the ECM, and is widely used as a 3D hydrogel, but is less applicable for 3D bioprinting due to low viscosity and slow polymerization...
October 30, 2018: Biofabrication
Wenfang Li, Xueyan Hu, Shuaitao Yang, Shuping Wang, Chenghong Zhang, Hai Wang, Yuen Yee Cheng, Yiwei Wang, Tianqing Liu, Kedong Song
Cancer biology and drug discovery are heavily dependent on conventional 2D cell culture systems. However, a 2D culture is significantly limited by its ability to reflect 'true biology' of tumor in vivo. Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell culture models have been introduced to aid cancer drug discovery by better modeling the tumor microenvironment. Here, decellularized lung scaffolds cultured with MCF-7 cancer cells were bioengineered as a platform to study tumor development and anti-cancer drug evaluation...
October 30, 2018: Biofabrication
Bin Wang, Xiaolong Tu, Jin Wei, Li Wang, Yong Chen
Substrate elasticity regulates cell functions including cell aggregation and stem cell differentiation. The ability to manufacture substrates of desired elasticity over a broad range is therefore crucial for both fundamental research and advanced applications. In this work, we developed a method to fabricate dense elastomer pillars of different heights on a rigid substrate, providing an effective elasticity ranging from 3 to 168 kPa. Assisted with an elastomer stencil of honeycomb pattern for cell seeding, we obtained uniform colonies of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and differentiated cardiomyocytes on the pillar substrates of different modulus...
October 30, 2018: Biofabrication
D Petta, A R Armiento, D Grijpma, M Alini, D Eglin, M D'Este
Extrusion-based three-dimensional bioprinting relies on bioinks engineered to combine viscoelastic properties for extrusion and shape retention, and biological properties for cytocompatibility and tissue regeneration. To satisfy these conflicting requirements, bioinks often utilize either complex mixtures or complex modifications of biopolymers. In this paper we introduce and characterize a bioink exploiting a dual crosslinking mechanism, where an enzymatic reaction forms a soft gel suitable for cell encapsulation and extrusion, while a visible light photo-crosslinking allows shape retention of the printed construct...
September 25, 2018: Biofabrication
Minghao Nie, Shoji Takeuchi
Nature builds living organisms in a bottom-up fashion, starting from the expression of genetic information on a cellular level, to the proliferation, differentiation, and self-assembly of cells into tissues/organs during embryo development and wound-healing processes. To mimic this bottom-up approach, it is essential to handle and manipulate small-scale biomaterials using specific technologies, such as microfluidic techniques. Microfluidics provides the tool-sets that deal with the behavior, precise control and manipulation of small amounts of fluids...
September 17, 2018: Biofabrication
Y Pang, S S Mao, R Yao, J Y He, Z Z Zhou, L Feng, K T Zhang, S J Cheng, W Sun
An advanced in vitro cervical tumor model was established by 3D printing to study the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a very important stage of dissemination of carcinoma leading to metastatic tumors. A HeLa/hydrogel grid construct composed of gelatin, alginate, Matrigel and HeLa cells was fabricated by forced extrusion in a layer-by-layer fashion. HeLa cells rapidly proliferated, formed spheroids and presented tumorigenic characteristic in the 3D-printed structure. With the supplement of TGF-β, aggregated HeLa cells started to disintegrate, and some of them changed into fibroblast-like spindle morphology, which indicated that EMT was induced...
September 10, 2018: Biofabrication
Shinji Sakai, Kei Mochizuki, Yanfei Qu, Matthew Mail, Masaki Nakahata, Masahito Taya
Hydrogels were prepared by contacting air containing 10-50 ppm H2 O2 with an aqueous solution containing polymer(s) possessing phenolic hydroxyl (Ph) moieties (polymer-Ph) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In this system, HRP catalyzes cross-linking of the Ph moieties by consuming H2 O2 diffused from the air. The hydrogelation rate and mechanical properties of the resultant hydrogels can be tuned by controlling the H2 O2 concentration in air, the exposure time of the air containing H2 O2 to the solution containing polymer-Phs and HRP, and the HRP concentration...
September 5, 2018: Biofabrication
Carmine Onofrillo, Serena Duchi, Cathal D O'Connell, Romane Blanchard, Andrea J O'Connor, Mark Scott, Gordon G Wallace, Peter F M Choong, Claudia Di Bella
Cartilage injuries cause pain and loss of function, and if severe may result in osteoarthritis (OA). 3D bioprinting is now a tangible option for the delivery of bioscaffolds capable of regenerating the deficient cartilage tissue. Our team has developed a handheld device, the Biopen, to allow in situ additive manufacturing during surgery. Given its ability to extrude in a core/shell manner, the Biopen can preserve cell viability during the biofabrication process, and it is currently the only biofabrication tool tested as a surgical instrument in a sheep model using homologous stem cells...
August 21, 2018: Biofabrication
Giuseppe Criscenti, Carmelo De Maria, Alessia Longoni, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Hugo A M Fernandes, Giovanni Vozzi, Lorenzo Moroni
The fabrication of bioactive scaffolds able to mimic the in vivo cellular microenvironment is a challenge for regenerative medicine. The creation of sites for the selective binding of specific endogenous proteins represents an attractive strategy to fabricate scaffolds able to elicit specific cell response. Here, electrospinning (ESP) and soft-molecular imprinting (soft-MI) techniques were combined to fabricate a soft-molecular imprinted electrospun bioactive scaffold (SMIES) for tissue regeneration. Scaffolds functionalized using different proteins and growth factors (GFs) arranged onto the surface were designed, fabricated and validated with different polyesters, demonstrating the versatility of the developed approach...
August 20, 2018: Biofabrication
Seth Polk, Nardos Sori, Nick Thayer, Nathan Kemper, Yas Maghdouri-White, Anna A Bulysheva, Michael P Francis
INTRODUCTION: Current collagen fiber manufacturing methods for biomedical applications, such as electrospinning and extrusion, have had limited success in clinical translation, partially due to scalability, cost, and complexity challenges. Here we explore an alternative, simplified and scalable collagen fiber formation method, termed 'pneumatospinning,' to generate submicron collagen fibers from benign solvents. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical grade type I atelocollagen from calf corium was electrospun or pneumatospun as sheets of aligned and isotropic fibrous scaffolds...
August 14, 2018: Biofabrication
Kideok Kim, Sung-Hwan Kim, Gi-Hun Lee, Joong Yull Park
A cell spheroid culture has the benefit of simulating in vivo three-dimensional cell environments. Microwell systems have been developed to mass-produce large quantities of uniform spheroids, and are frequently used in research areas, such as cell biology, anticancer drug development, and regenerative therapy. Recently reported concave-bottomed microwell systems have delivered more benefits in producing spheroids of higher quality and facilitating more effective research. However, microwell fabrication methods are often complicated or expensive, and there are inherent limitations in the functions and characteristics of existing microwells...
August 14, 2018: Biofabrication
Tilman Ahlfeld, Falko Doberenz, David Kilian, Corina Vater, Paula Korn, Günter Lauer, Anja Lode, Michael Gelinsky
Due to their characteristic resemblance of the mineral component of bone, calcium phosphates are widely accepted as optimal bone substitute materials. Recent research focused on the development of pasty calcium phosphate cement (CPC) formulations, which can be fabricated into various shapes by low-temperature extrusion-based additive manufacturing, namely 3D plotting. While it could be demonstrated that sensitive substances like growth factors can be integrated in such printed CPC scaffolds without impairment of their biological activity live cells cannot be suspended in CPC as they may not be functional when enclosed in a solid and stiff matrix...
July 27, 2018: Biofabrication
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