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Nutrients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538698/diet-hypotheses-in-light-of-the-microbiota-revolution-new-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Tomasz P Wypych, Benjamin J Marsland
From an evolutionary standpoint, allergy has only recently emerged as a significant health problem. Various hypotheses were proposed to explain this, but they all indicated the importance of rapid lifestyle changes, which occurred in industrialized countries in the last few decades. In this review, we discuss evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that indicate changes in dietary habits may have played an important role in this phenomenon. Based on the example of dietary fiber, we discuss molecular mechanisms behind this and point towards the importance of diet-induced changes in the microbiota...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538696/immune-components-in-human-milk-are-associated-with-early-infant-immunological-health-outcomes-a-prospective-three-country-analysis
#2
Daniel Munblit, Marina Treneva, Diego G Peroni, Silvia Colicino, Li Yan Chow, Shobana Dissanayeke, Alexander Pampura, Attilio L Boner, Donna T Geddes, Robert J Boyle, John O Warner
The role of breastfeeding in improving allergy outcomes in early childhood is still unclear. Evidence suggests that immune mediators in human milk (HM) play a critical role in infant immune maturation as well as protection against atopy/allergy development. We investigated relationships between levels of immune mediators in colostrum and mature milk and infant outcomes in the first year of life. In a large prospective study of 398 pregnant/lactating women in the United Kingdom, Russia and Italy, colostrum and mature human milk (HM) samples were analysed for immune active molecules...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538678/effects-of-commercial-apple-varieties-on-human-gut-microbiota-composition-and-metabolic-output-using-an-in-vitro-colonic-model
#3
Athanasios Koutsos, Maria Lima, Lorenza Conterno, Mattia Gasperotti, Martina Bianchi, Francesca Fava, Urska Vrhovsek, Julie A Lovegrove, Kieran M Tuohy
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties-Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady-were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538677/complementary-intradermal-and-patch-testing-for-increased-diagnostic-accuracy-of-nickel-allergy-in-non-celiac-wheat-insensitivity
#4
LETTER
Brittanya A Limone, Annelise Rasmussen, Sue Min Kwon, Sharon E Jacob
D'Alcamo et al. astutely highlighted a potential immunologic association between nickel allergy, determined by positive epicutaneous patch testing, and the rise of non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) in the world of gluten-related diseases. Consecutive algorithms including both patch and intradermal testing could provide vital information to more accurately define the patient populations with NCWS, systemic nickel allergy syndrome, and nickel-associated allergic contact dermatitis.
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538676/older-australians-can-achieve-high-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-during-a-6-month-randomised-intervention-results-from-the-medley-study
#5
Courtney Davis, Jonathan Hodgson, Janet Bryan, Manohar Garg, Richard Woodman, Karen Murphy
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is thought to be achievable in non-Mediterranean regions, but this has yet to be investigated. We aimed to determine if an older Australian population could adhere to a MedDiet for six months. We conducted a randomised, parallel dietary intervention trial with two dietary arms: the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) group and the habitual diet (HabDiet) control group. A 15-point Mediterranean diet adherence score and food and nutrient intakes were estimated from three-day weighed food records collected at baseline, two and four months...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545241/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-hn001-and-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-14-attenuate-gardnerella-vaginalis-infected-bacterial-vaginosis-in-mice
#6
Se-Eun Jang, Jin-Ju Jeong, Su-Young Choi, Hyunji Kim, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta(®)) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV)...
May 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545223/retraction-hsia-et-al-post-intake-of-s-ethyl-cysteine-and-s-methyl-cysteine-improved-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-nutrients-2016-8-507
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531168/a-novel-millet-based-probiotic-fermented-food-for-the-developing-world
#8
Elisa Di Stefano, Jessica White, Shannon Seney, Sharareh Hekmat, Tim McDowell, Mark Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Probiotic yogurt, comprised of a Fiti sachet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106, has been used in the developing world, notably Africa, to alleviate malnutrition and disease. In sub-Saharan African countries, fermentation of cereals such as millet, is culturally significant. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation capability of millet when one gram of the Fiti sachet consortium was added. An increase of 1.8 and 1.4 log CFU/mL was observed for S. thermophilus C106 and L...
May 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531166/-epiafzelechin-protects-against-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-in-adult-mice-and-modulate-osteoblastic-and-osteoclastic-functions-in-vitro
#9
Ka-Chun Wong, Sisi Cao, Xiaoli Dong, Man-Chun Law, Tak-Hang Chan, Man-Sau Wong
The present study was designed to characterize the bone protective effects of (-)-epiafzelechin (EAF), a flavan-3-ol, in mature ovariectomized mice model and its ability to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic activity. Mature C57BL/6 mice (three to four months old) were either ovariectomised (OVX) or sham-operated and subjected to treatment (vehicle, 17β-oestradiol (E2, 200 μg/kg/day) or EAF (500 μg/kg/day) orally for six weeks. EAF and E2 significantly reduced urinary calcium (Ca) excretion, serum osteocalcin (OCN), and urinary deoxy-pyridinoline (DPD); increased bone mineral density (BMD); and improved micro-architectural properties in OVX mice...
May 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531142/optimal-energy-delivery-rather-than-the-implementation-of-a-feeding-protocol-may-benefit-clinical-outcomes-in-critically-ill-patients
#10
Chen-Yu Wang, Chun-Te Huang, Chao-Hsiu Chen, Mei-Fen Chen, Shiu-Lan Ching, Yi-Chia Huang
Malnutrition is common in intensive care units (ICU), and volume based feeding protocols have been proposed to increase nutrient delivery. However, the volume based approach compared to trophic feeding has not been proven entirely successful in critically ill patients. Our study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes both before and after the implementation of the feeding protocol, and to also evaluate the effects of total energy delivery on outcomes in these patients. We retrospectively collected all patient data, one year before and after the implementation of the volume-based feeding protocol, in the ICU at Taichung Veterans General Hospital...
May 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531133/urban-rural-disparities-in-energy-intake-and-contribution-of-fat-and-animal-source-foods-in-chinese-children-aged-4-17-years
#11
Ji Zhang, Dantong Wang, Alison L Eldridge, Feifei Huang, Yifei Ouyang, Huijun Wang, Bing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Excessive energy intake and poor food choices are major health concerns associated with overweight and obesity risk. This study aims to explore disparities in energy intake and the contributions from fat and animal source foods among Chinese school-aged children and adolescents in different communities based on urbanization levels. DESIGN: Three consecutive 24 h recalls were used to assess dietary intake. Subjects' height and weight were measured using standard equipment...
May 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531130/comparative-safety-and-efficacy-profile-of-a-novel-oil-in-water-vaccine-adjuvant-comprising-vitamins-a-and-e-and-a-catechin-in-protective-anti-influenza-immunity
#12
Sapna Patel, Yasser Faraj, Debra K Duso, William W Reiley, Erik A Karlsson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Michael Vajdy
Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS), based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus...
May 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531113/retrospective-evaluation-of-metformin-and-or-metformin-plus-a-new-polysaccharide-complex-in-treating-severe-hyperinsulinism-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-with-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Stefano Stagi, Franco Ricci, Martina Bianconi, Maria Amina Sammarco, Giovanna Municchi, Sonia Toni, Lorenzo Lenzi, Alberto Verrotti, Maurizio de Martino
Background: Pharmacological treatment of obesity and glucose-insulin metabolism disorders in children may be more difficult than in adults. Thus, we evaluate the effects of metformin in comparison with metformin plus a polysaccharide complex (Policaptil Gel Retard(®), PGR) on body weight and metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Patients and methods: We retrospectively collected 129 children and adolescents (67 girls, 62 boys; median age 12.6 years) treated for a minimum of two years with metformin and low glycemic index (LGI) diet...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531112/effects-of-polyphenols-on-oxidative-stress-mediated-injury-in-cardiomyocytes
#14
REVIEW
Rosanna Mattera, Monica Benvenuto, Maria Gabriella Giganti, Ilaria Tresoldi, Francesca Romana Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Guido Tettamanti, Laura Masuelli, Vittorio Manzari, Andrea Modesti, Roberto Bei
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Oxidative or nitrosative stress-mediated injury lead to cardiomyocytes apoptosis or necrosis. The reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) concentration is dependent on their production and on the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531110/multifaceted-health-benefits-of-mangifera-indica-l-mango-the-inestimable-value-of-orchards-recently-planted-in-sicilian-rural-areas
#15
REVIEW
Marianna Lauricella, Sonia Emanuele, Giuseppe Calvaruso, Michela Giuliano, Antonella D'Anneo
Historically, Mangifera indica L. cultivations have been widely planted in tropical areas of India, Africa, Asia, and Central America. However, at least 20 years ago its spreading allowed the development of some cultivars in Sicily, an island to the south of Italy, where the favourable subtropical climate and adapted soils represent the perfect field to create new sources of production for the Sicilian agricultural supply chain. Currently, cultivations of Kensington Pride, Keitt, Glenn, Maya, and Tommy Atkins varieties are active in Sicily and their products meet the requirements of local and European markets...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531099/vitamin-a-status-of-women-and-children-in-yaound%C3%A3-and-douala-cameroon-is-unchanged-one-year-after-initiation-of-a-national-vitamin-a-oil-fortification-program
#16
Reina Engle-Stone, Martin Nankap, Alex Ndjebayi, Marie-Madeleine Gimou, Avital Friedman, Marjorie J Haskell, Ann Tarini, Kenneth H Brown
Vitamin A (VA) fortification of cooking oil is considered a cost-effective strategy for increasing VA status, but few large-scale programs have been evaluated. We conducted representative surveys in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 2 years before and 1 year after the introduction of a mandatory national program to fortify cooking oil with VA. In each survey, 10 different households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters (n = ~300). Malaria infection and plasma indicators of inflammation and VA (retinol-binding protein, pRBP) status were assessed among women aged 15-49 years and children aged 12-59 months, and casual breast milk samples were collected for VA and fat measurements...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531098/increase-in-weight-in-low-birth-weight-and-very-low-birth-weight-infants-fed-fortified-breast-milk-versus-formula-milk-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Kris Yuet Wan Lok, Pui Hing Chau, Heidi Sze Lok Fan, Kam Ming Chan, Bill H Chan, Genevieve P C Fung, Marie Tarrant
There has been a dramatic rise in preterm births in developed countries owing to changes in clinical practices and greater use of assisted reproductive techniques. However, few studies have examined the growth and outcomes of preterm infants according to the type of feeding (with fortified breast milk or formula). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of breast milk feedings and formula on the growth and short-term outcomes of preterm infants in Hong Kong. In a single-center retrospective cohort study, we included 642 preterm infants at gestational age <37 weeks with birth weights <2200 g...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531097/evolution-not-revolution-nutrition-and-obesity
#18
Elaine C Rush, Mary R Yan
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534861/advising-consumption-of-green-vegetables-beef-and-full-fat-dairy-products-has-no-adverse-effects-on-the-lipid-profiles-in-children
#19
Ellen José van der Gaag, Romy Wieffer, Judith van der Kraats
In children, little is known about lipid profiles and the influence of dietary habits. In the past, we developed a dietary advice for optimizing the immune system, which comprised green vegetables, beef, whole milk, and full-fat butter. However, there are concerns about a possible negative influence of the full-fat dairy products of the diet on the lipid profile. We investigated the effect of the developed dietary advice on the lipid profile and BMI (body mass index)/BMI-z-score of children. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 1-16 years, of whom a lipid profile was determined in the period between June 2011 and November 2013 in our hospital...
May 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534852/effects-of-ketogenic-diets-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-evidence-from-animal-and-human-studies
#20
REVIEW
Christophe Kosinski, François R Jornayvaz
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Nutrients
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