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Valeria Tutino, Valentina De Nunzio, Maria Gabriella Caruso, Caterina Bonfiglio, Isabella Franco, Antonella Mirizzi, Giampiero De Leonardis, Raffaele Cozzolongo, Vito Giannuzzi, Gianluigi Giannelli, Maria Notarnicola, Alberto R Osella
Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), through the eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), are able to modulate the inflammatory processes, whereas omega-3 PUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. An unbalanced AA/EPA ratio in favor of AA leads to the development of different metabolic disorders, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different diets, alone and in combination with two physical activity programs, on the AA/EPA ratio value in erythrocyte membranes of patients with NAFLD...
September 13, 2018: Nutrients
Huilin Liu, Meihong Liu, Xueqi Fu, Ziqi Zhang, Lingyu Zhu, Xin Zheng, Jingsheng Liu
The development and progression of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) is influenced by the intestinal microbiota. Astaxanthin, a type of oxygenated carotenoid with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been proven to relieve liver injury. However, the relationship between the gut microbiota regulation effect of astaxanthin and AFLD improvement remains unclear. The effects of astaxanthin on the AFLD phenotype, overall structure, and composition of gut microbiota were assessed in ethanol-fed C57BL/6J mice...
September 13, 2018: Nutrients
Behnaz Shakersain, Debora Rizzuto, Hui-Xin Wang, Gerd Faxén-Irving, Federica Prinelli, Laura Fratiglioni, Weili Xu
The joint effect of diet and leisure activity on cognitive function remains unknown. We aimed to verify the hypothesis that an active lifestyle reinforces the effect of the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP) on cognitive function. A total of 2223 dementia-free Swedish adults aged ≥60 with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores ≥27 were followed for an average of 6 years. MMSE was tested during follow-ups. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. The NPDP index was calculated and tertiled (low, moderate, and high adherence)...
September 13, 2018: Nutrients
Melissa J Vilaro, Sarah E Colby, Kristin Riggsbee, Wenjun Zhou, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Melissa D Olfert, Tracey E Barnett, Tanya Horacek, Morgan Sowers, Anne E Mathews
This study assessed food choice priorities (FCP) and associations with consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), fiber, added sugars from non-beverage sources, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among college students. Freshmen from eight U.S. universities ( N = 1149) completed the Food Choice Priorities Survey, designed for college students to provide a way to determine the factors of greatest importance regarding food choices, and the NCI Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Changes in FCP and dietary intake from fall 2015 to spring 2016 were assessed...
September 13, 2018: Nutrients
Anna Mas-Capdevila, Zara Pons, Amaya Aleixandre, Francisca I Bravo, Begoña Muguerza
The antihypertensive properties of different doses of a chicken foot hydrolysate, Hpp11 and the mechanisms involved in this effect were investigated. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were administered water, Captopril (50 mg/kg) or Hpp11 at different doses (25, 55 and 85 mg/kg), and the systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded. The SBP of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats administered water or Hpp11 was also recorded. Additionally, plasmatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was determined in the SHR administered Hpp11...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Adriana V Gaitán, JodiAnne T Wood, Fan Zhang, Alexandros Makriyannis, Carol J Lammi-Keefe
Recognized as the gold standard, human milk (HM) is an extremely complex yet fascinating biofluid tailored to meet an infant's nutritional requirements throughout development. Endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds (endocannabinoid metabolome, ECM) are endogenous lipid mediators derived from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that have been identified in HM. Previous research has shown that arachidonoylglycerol might play a role in establishing the infant's suckling response during lactation by activating the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in the infant's brain...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Joanne S J Chia, Jennifer L McRae, Ashwantha Kumar Enjapoori, Christophe M Lefèvre, Sonja Kukuljan, Karen M Dwyer
The contribution of cows' milk containing beta-casein protein A1 variant to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been controversial for decades. Despite epidemiological data demonstrating a relationship between A1 beta-casein consumption and T1D incidence, direct evidence is limited. We demonstrate that early life exposure to A1 beta-casein through the diet can modify progression to diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, with the effect apparent in later generations. Adult NOD mice from the F0 generation and all subsequent generations (F1 to F4) were fed either A1 or A2 beta-casein supplemented diets...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Donatella Granchi, Renata Caudarella, Claudio Ripamonti, Paolo Spinnato, Alberto Bazzocchi, Annamaria Massa, Nicola Baldini
The relationship involving acid-base imbalance, mineral metabolism and bone health status has previously been reported but the efficacy of the alkalizing supplementation in targeting acid overload and preventing bone loss has not yet been fully elucidated. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the hypothesis that potassium citrate (K citrate) modifies bone turnover in women with postmenopausal osteopenia was tested. Three hundred and ten women were screened; 40 women met the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the treatment or the placebo group...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Didier Brassard, Simone Lemieux, Amélie Charest, Annie Lapointe, Patrick Couture, Marie-Ève Labonté, Benoît Lamarche
Traditional food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are influenced by systematic error, but web-based FFQ (WEB-FFQs) may mitigate this source of error. The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of interview-based and web-based FFQs to assess energy requirements (mERs). The mER was measured in a series of controlled feeding trials in which participants daily received all foods and caloric drinks to maintain stable body weight over 4 to 6 weeks. FFQs assessing dietary intakes and hence mean energy intake were either interviewer-administered by a registered dietitian (IA-FFQ, n = 127; control method) or self-administered using a web-based platform (WEB-FFQ, n = 200; test method), on a single occasion...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Yongzeng Ding, Bhargava Mullapudi, Carolina Torres, Emman Mascariñas, Georgina Mancinelli, Andrew M Diaz, Ronald McKinney, Morgan Barron, Michelle Schultz, Michael Heiferman, Mireille Wojtanek, Kevin Adrian, Brian DeCant, Sambasiva Rao, Michel Ouellette, Ming-Sound Tsao, David J Bentrem, Paul J Grippo
Pancreatic cancer remains a daunting foe despite a vast number of accumulating molecular analyses regarding the mutation and expression status of a variety of genes. Indeed, most pancreatic cancer cases uniformly present with a mutation in the KRAS allele leading to enhanced RAS activation. Yet our understanding of the many epigenetic/environmental factors contributing to disease incidence and progression is waning. Epidemiologic data suggest that diet may be a key factor in pancreatic cancer development and potentially a means of chemoprevention at earlier stages...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Melanie W Larsson, Mads V Lind, Anni Larnkjær, Anette P Due, Irina C Blom, Jonathan Wells, Ching T Lai, Christian Mølgaard, Donna T Geddes, Kim F Michaelsen
Some infants experience excessive weight gain (EWG) during exclusive breastfeeding, but causes and consequences are unknown. The objective was to identify factors associated with early EWG. Infants with EWG (HW-group) were examined at 5, 9 and 18 mo and compared to a breastfed group with normal weight gain (NW-group). Anthropometry, body composition, milk and blood samples, and milk intake were measured. Mean body-mass-index-for-age z -scores (BAZ) increased 1.93 from birth to 5 mo in the HW-group ( n = 13) while the NW-group ( n = 17) was unchanged (-0...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Giuseppe Della Pepa, Claudia Vetrani, Marilena Vitale, Gabriele Riccardi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common metabolic diseases and represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality because of its related complications. The alarming rise in T2DM prevalence worldwide poses enormous challenges in relation to its social, economic, and a clinical burden requiring appropriate preventive strategies. Currently, lifestyle modifications-including approaches to promote a moderate body weight reduction and to increase regular physical exercise-are the first crucial intervention for T2DM prevention...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Eunyoung Park, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt Burton-Freeman
Avocados are distinctive fruits having both fats and fibers along with various micronutrients and bioactive phytochemicals. This study aimed to assess the effects of replacing carbohydrate energy in meals with half or whole avocado on postprandial indices of metabolic and vascular health. A single-center, randomized, controlled, 3-arm, 6 h, crossover study was conducted in overweight/obese middle-aged adults ( n = 31). Participants consumed energy-matched breakfast meals containing 0 g (Control), 68 g (Half-A) or 136 g (Whole-A) fresh Hass avocado on 3 separate occasions...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Corrine Hanson, Elizabeth Lyden, Ann Anderson-Berry, Nicholas Kocmich, Amy Rezac, Shirley Delair, Jeremy Furtado, Matthew Van Ormer, N I Izevbigie, E D Olateju, G A Adaba, E A Anigilaje, Tahiru Tahiru, Stephen Obaro
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient in pregnancy, and other carotenoids have been independently associated with maternal-infant outcomes. The objective of this study was to quantify the status of vitamin A and carotenoids in Nigerian maternal-infant pairs at delivery, compare these to a cohort from a developed nation, and determine the impact on clinical outcomes. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 99 Nigerian mother-infant pairs. Concentrations of lutein + zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α- and β-carotenes, and retinol were measured using HPLC...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Amirsalar Samkani, Mads J Skytte, Mads N Thomsen, Arne Astrup, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Jens F Rehfeld, Thure Krarup, Steen B Haugaard
Postprandial responses to food are highly dependent on the macronutrient composition of the diet. We investigated the acute effects of transition from the recommended moderately high carbohydrate (HC) diet towards a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, lipemia, and appetite-regulating hormones in non-diabetic adults. Fourteen subjects, including five males (Mean ± SD: age 62 ± 6.5; BMI 32 ± 7.6 kg/m²; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) 40 ± 3.0 mmol/mol; HOMA2-IR 2...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Joanna Suliburska, Katarzyna Skrypnik, Monika Szulińska, Justyna Kupsz, Leszek Markuszewski, Paweł Bogdański
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive drugs affect mineral metabolism, inflammation, and the oxidative state. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antihypertensive monopharmacotherapy with diuretics, β-blockers, calcium antagonists (Ca-antagonists), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) on zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) status, parameters of oxidative and inflammatory states, and glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with newly diagnosed primary arterial hypertension (AH)...
September 11, 2018: Nutrients
Juan S Henao Agudelo, Leandro C Baia, Milene S Ormanji, Amandda R P Santos, Juliana R Machado, Niels O Saraiva Câmara, Gerjan J Navis, Martin H de Borst, Ita P Heilberg
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease and inflammation promote loss of Klotho expression. Given the well-established anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids, we aimed to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation in a model of CKD. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received supplementation with an adenine-enriched diet (AD, n = 5) or standard diet (CTL, n = 5) for 10 days. Two other experimental groups were kept under the adenine diet for 10 days. Following adenine withdrawal on the 11th day, the animals returned to a standard diet supplemented with fish oil (Post AD-Fish oil, n = 9) or not (Post AD-CTL, n = 9) for an additional period of 7 days...
September 11, 2018: Nutrients
Sarah J Borengasser, Peter R Baker, Mattie E Kerns, Leland V Miller, Alexandra P Palacios, Jennifer F Kemp, Jamie E Westcott, Seth D Morrison, Teri L Hernandez, Ana Garces, Lester Figueroa, Jacob E Friedman, K Michael Hambidge, Nancy F Krebs
Elevated branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are well-established biomarkers of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Mounting evidence suggests that low- and middle-income countries are suffering from a "double burden" of both undernutrition (growth stunting) and overnutrition (obesity) as these countries undergo a "nutrition transition". The purpose of this study was to examine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, kg/m²) and a daily lipid-based micronutrient supplement (LNS, Nutriset) would lead to cross-sectional differences in circulating levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) in Guatemalan women experiencing short stature during early pregnancy...
September 11, 2018: Nutrients
Stef J Koppelman, Mieke Smits, Monic Tomassen, Govardus A H de Jong, Joe Baumert, Steve L Taylor, Renger Witkamp, Robert Jan Veldman, Raymond Pieters, Harry Wichers
The oral mucosa is the first immune tissue that encounters allergens upon ingestion of food. We hypothesized that the bio-accessibility of allergens at this stage may be a key determinant for sensitization. Light roasted peanut flour was suspended at various pH in buffers mimicking saliva. Protein concentrations and allergens profiles were determined in the supernatants. Peanut protein solubility was poor in the pH range between 3 and 6, while at a low pH (1.5) and at moderately high pHs (>8), it increased...
September 11, 2018: Nutrients
Yanni Pan, Xingyao Long, Ruokun Yi, Xin Zhao
The present study investigated the preventive effect of polyphenols in Liubao tea (PLT) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver injury in mice. The mice were initially treated with PLT, followed by induction of liver injury using 10 mL/kg CCl₄. Then liver and serum indices, as well as the expression levels of related messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and proteins in liver tissues were measured. The results showed that PLT reduces the liver quality and indices of mice with liver injury. PLT also downregulates aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides (TGs), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and upregulates superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the sera of mice with liver injury...
September 10, 2018: Nutrients
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