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Nutrients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329266/relative-validity-of-a-24-h-recall-in-assessing-intake-of-key-nutrients-in-a-cohort-of-australian-toddlers
#1
Elizabeth Beaton, Janine Wright, Gemma Devenish, Loc Do, Jane Scott
There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR). A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers (n = 699) at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE) project...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329258/association-between-haem-and-non-haem-iron-intake-and-serum-ferritin-in-healthy-young-women
#2
Isabel Young, Helen M Parker, Anna Rangan, Tania Prvan, Rebecca L Cook, Cheyne E Donges, Kate S Steinbeck, Nicholas J O'Dwyer, Hoi Lun Cheng, Janet L Franklin, Helen T O'Connor
Iron is an essential micronutrient for human health and inadequate intake may result in iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Unlike other recent studies investigating iron status in young women, this cross-sectional study analysed dietary intake and biochemical data from healthy young (18-35 years) women (n = 299) to determine the association between both haem iron (HI) and non-haem iron (NHI) intakes and serum ferritin (SF). Dietary restraint and possible inflammation secondary to obesity were also measured and accounted for, and energy intake was adjusted for using the residuals method...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329254/low-carbohydrate-high-protein-high-fat-diets-rich-in-livestock-poultry-and-their-products-predict-impending-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-chinese-individuals-that-exceed-their-calculated-caloric-requirement
#3
Ruiqi Shan, Wei Duan, Lei Liu, Jiayue Qi, Jian Gao, Yunlong Zhang, Shanshan Du, Tianshu Han, Xiuyu Pang, Changhao Sun, Xiaoyan Wu
The evidence on the association between long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is controversial. Until now, data is limited for Chinese populations, especially in considering the influence of extra energy intake. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the association of low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in populations consuming extra calories and those with normal caloric intake, We also determined whether the association is mediated by insulin resistance (IR) or β-cell dysfunction...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329251/pharmacological-investigation-of-the-anti-inflammation-and-anti-oxidation-activities-of-diallyl-disulfide-in-a-rat-emphysema-model-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-extract
#4
Yan Liu, Ang Li, Xiuli Feng, Xiao Sun, Xiaosong Zhu, Zhongxi Zhao
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the main organosulfur ingredient in garlic, with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DADS on reducing the inflammation and redox imbalance in a rat emphysema model that was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Briefly, DADS exerted an anti-inflammation effect on emphysema rats through decreasing cell influx in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and suppressing pro-inflammation cytokine production including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) via inhibiting the NF-κB pathway...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329244/infant-development-at-the-age-of-6-months-in-relation-to-feeding-practices-iron-status-and-growth-in-a-peri-urban-community-of-south-africa
#5
Marinel Rothman, Mieke Faber, Namukolo Covic, Tonderayi M Matsungo, Marike Cockeran, Jane D Kvalsvig, Cornelius M Smuts
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between feeding practices, iron deficiency, anaemia, stunting, and impaired psychomotor development during infancy is limited. This study assessed the association between psychomotor development with early feeding practices, growth, iron status, and anaemia. METHODS: This was cross-sectional baseline data of a randomised controlled trial which included 6-month-old infants and their mothers or primary caregivers (n = 750) in a peri-urban community in the North West province of South Africa...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329236/gender-associated-impact-of-early-leucine-supplementation-on-adult-predisposition-to-obesity-in-rats
#6
Nora López, Juana Sánchez, Andreu Palou, Francisca Serra
Early nutrition plays an important role in development and may constitute a relevant contributor to the onset of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of maternal leucine (Leu) supplementation during lactation on progeny in rats. A chow diet, supplemented with 2% Leu, was supplied during lactation (21 days) and, from weaning onwards, was replaced by a standard chow diet. Then, at adulthood (6 months of age), this was replaced with hypercaloric diets (either with high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) content), for two months, to induce obesity...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329233/dose-dependent-effects-of-randomized-intraduodenal-whey-protein-loads-on-glucose-gut-hormone-and-amino-acid-concentrations-in-healthy-older-and-younger-men
#7
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein-effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329215/dietary-supplement-of-large-yellow-tea-ameliorates-metabolic-syndrome-and-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-in-db-db-mice
#8
Yun Teng, Daxiang Li, Ponmari Guruvaiah, Na Xu, Zhongwen Xie
Yellow tea has been widely recognized for its health benefits. However, its effects and mechanism are largely unknown. The current study investigated the mechanism of dietary supplements of large yellow tea and its effects on metabolic syndrome and the hepatic steatosis in male db/db mice. Our data showed that dietary supplements of large yellow tea and water extract significantly reduced water intake and food consumption, lowered the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and significantly reduced blood glucose level and increased glucose tolerance in db/db mice when compared to untreated db/db mice...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329201/population-reference-values-for-serum-methylmalonic-acid-concentrations-and-its-relationship-with-age-sex-race-ethnicity-supplement-use-kidney-function-and-serum-vitamin-b12-in-the-post-folic-acid-fortification-period
#9
Vijay Ganji, Mohammad R Kafai
Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999-2000, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569)...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324705/influence-of-chitosan-treatment-on-surrogate-serum-markers-of-cholesterol-metabolism-in-obese-subjects
#10
Dieter Lütjohann, Milka Marinova, Karsten Wolter, Winfried Willinek, Norman Bitterlich, Martin Coenen, Christoph Coch, Frans Stellaard
Chitosan treatment results in significantly lower serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. To assess the working mechanisms of chitosan, we measured serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol, sitosterol, cholestanol), synthesis (lathosterol, lanosterol, desmosterol), and degradation to bile acids (7α-hydroxy-cholesterol, 27-hydroxy-cholesterol), corrected for cholesterol concentration (R_sterols). Over 12 weeks, 116 obese subjects (Body Mass Index, BMI 31.7, range 28...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324682/malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis-syndrome-mia-and-diet-recommendations-among-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-treated-with-maintenance-hemodialysis
#11
Małgorzata Maraj, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Paulina Dumnicka, Agnieszka Gala-Błądzińska, Katarzyna Gawlik, Dorota Pawlica-Gosiewska, Anna Ząbek-Adamska, Małgorzata Mazur-Laskowska, Piotr Ceranowicz, Marek Kuźniewski
Malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome is one of the causes of increased mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to assess the inflammation and nutritional status of patients in end-stage kidney disease treated with maintenance hemodialysis. The study included a group of 98 hemodialyzed patients with stage 5 CKD (38 women and 60 men). Albumin, prealbumin (PRE), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in serum samples collected before mid-week dialysis. Fruit and vegetables frequency intakes were assessed with a questionnaire...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324670/dietary-carotenoid-intakes-and-prostate-cancer-risk-a-case-control-study-from-vietnam
#12
Dong Van Hoang, Ngoc Minh Pham, Andy H Lee, Duong Nhu Tran, Colin W Binns
The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Vietnam, but there have been few studies of the risk factors associated with this change. This retrospective case-control study investigated the relation of the intake of carotenoids and their food sources to prostate cancer risk. A sample of 652 participants (244 incident prostate cancer patients, aged 64-75 years, and 408 age frequency-matched controls) were recruited in Ho Chi Minh City during 2013-2015. The habitual diet was ascertained with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and other factors including demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed via face-to-face interviews by trained nurses...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324654/zinc-status-and-autoimmunity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Alessandro Sanna, Davide Firinu, Patrizia Zavattari, Paolo Valera
Zinc is an essential trace element for living organisms and their biological processes. Zinc plays a key role in more than 300 enzymes and it is involved in cell communication, proliferation, differentiation and survival. Zinc plays also a role in regulating the immune system with implications in pathologies where zinc deficiency and inflammation are observed. In order to examine the experimental evidence reported in the literature regarding zinc levels in the body of patients with autoimmune disorders compared to control individuals, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324652/food-addiction-and-binge-eating-lessons-learned-from-animal-models
#14
REVIEW
Marta G Novelle, Carlos Diéguez
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered "addictive" under normal circumstances, people can become "addicted" to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of "eating addiction" are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324643/nutritional-status-of-bariatric-surgery-candidates
#15
Aliaa Al-Mutawa, Alfred Kojo Anderson, Salman Alsabah, Mohammad Al-Mutawa
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320461/factors-associated-with-binge-eating-behavior-among-malaysian-adolescents
#16
Wan Ying Gan, Normasliana Mohamad, Leh Shii Law
Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, family meal environments, family cohesion, perception of body size, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, perfectionistic self-presentation, and binge eating behavior...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320449/changing-trends-in-nutritional-behavior-among-university-students-in-greece-between-2006-and-2016
#17
Charikleia Kyrkou, Foteini Tsakoumaki, Maria Fotiou, Aristea Dimitropoulou, Maria Symeonidou, Georgios Menexes, Costas G Biliaderis, Alexandra-Maria Michaelidou
The objective of the present survey was to study the dietary behavior of university students residing away from the family home. In this context, we (a) compared their dietary habits in two time periods, namely 2006 and 2016; and (b) explored the possible impact of gender on the behavioral changes in nutritional choices. A total of four hundred and five university students (2006, n = 242; 2016, n = 163) participated in the study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire, while data about demographic and lifestyle factors were also collected...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320446/physical-activity-physical-fitness-body-composition-and-nutrition-are-associated-with-bone-status-in-university-students
#18
Gotzone Hervás, Fátima Ruiz-Litago, Jon Irazusta, Ainhoa Fernández-Atutxa, Ana Belen Fraile-Bermúdez, Idoia Zarrazquin
Understanding the modifiable factors that improve and maximize peak bone mass at an early age is necessary to design more effective intervention programs to prevent osteoporosis. To identify these modifiable factors, we analyzed the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body composition, and dietary intake with bone stiffness index (SI), measured by quantitative ultrasonometry in young university students (18-21 years). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was the strongest predictor of SI (β = 0...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320437/is-hypovitaminosis-d-related-to-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-and-high-fasting-glucose-level-in-healthy-subjects-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#19
REVIEW
Shamaila Rafiq, Per Bendix Jeppesen
There is evidence that vitamin D status is associated with type 2 diabetes. Many observational studies have been performed investigating the relationship of vitamin D status and circulating biomarkers of glycemic regulation. To find out whether this association holds, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross sectional and longitudinal studies. We searched Pubmed, Medline and Embase, all through June 2017. The studies were selected to determine the effect of vitamin D on the parameters of glucose metabolism in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320433/benefits-of-fish-oil-consumption-over-other-sources-of-lipids-on-metabolic-parameters-in-obese-rats
#20
Paula Novato Gondim, Priscila Vieira Rosa, Daniel Okamura, Viviam De Oliveira Silva, Eric Francelino Andrade, Daniel Arrais Biihrer, Luciano José Pereira
This study evaluated the effect of the consumption of different levels and sources of lipids on metabolic parameters of Wistar rats. Animals were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) containing 20% of lard for 12 weeks to cause metabolic obesity. Subsequently, the animals were divided into six groups and were fed diets with lipid concentrations of 5% or 20% of lard (LD), soybean oil (SO) or fish oil (FO), for 4 weeks. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (two-way) followed by Tukey post hoc test (p < 0.05)...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
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