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Justyna Strycharz, Ewa Świderska, Adam Wróblewski, Marta Podolska, Piotr Czarny, Janusz Szemraj, Aneta Balcerczyk, Józef Drzewoski, Jacek Kasznicki, Agnieszka Śliwińska
microRNAs are increasingly analyzed in adipogenesis, whose deregulation, especially visceral, contributes to the development of diabetes. Hyperglycemia is known to affect cells while occurring acutely and chronically. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of hyperglycemia on human visceral pre/adipocytes from the perspective of microRNAs. The relative expression of 78 microRNAs was determined by TaqMan Low Density Arrays at three stages of HPA-v adipogenesis conducted under normoglycemia, chronic, and intermittent hyperglycemia (30 mM)...
November 15, 2018: Nutrients
Michela Alfarano, Donato Pastore, Vincenzo Fogliano, Casper G Schalkwijk, Teresa Oliviero
Studies demonstrate that the potential health-beneficial effect of sulforaphane (SR), a compound formed in broccoli, is the result of a number of mechanisms including upregulation of phase two detoxification enzymes. Recent studies suggest that SR increases expression/activity of glyoxalase 1 (Glo1), an enzyme involved in the degradation of methylglyoxal, is major precursor of advanced glycation end products. Those compounds are associated with diabetes complications and other age-related diseases. In this study, the effect of SR on the expression/activity of Glo1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 8 healthy volunteers was investigated...
November 15, 2018: Nutrients
Celine Marie Reyes, Marilyn C Cornelis
Coffee, tea, caffeinated soda, and energy drinks are important sources of caffeine in the diet but each present with other unique nutritional properties. We review how our increased knowledge and concern with regard to caffeine in the diet and its impact on human health has been translated into food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG). Using the Food and Agriculture Organization list of 90 countries with FBDG as a starting point, we found reference to caffeine or caffeine-containing beverages (CCB) in 81 FBDG and CCB consumption data (volume sales) for 56 of these countries...
November 15, 2018: Nutrients
Mathijs Drummen, Elke Dorenbos, Anita C E Vreugdenhil, Gareth Stratton, Anne Raben, Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga, Tanja C Adam
The objective was to assess the effects of a weight loss and subsequent weight maintenance period comprising two diets differing in protein intake, on brain reward reactivity to visual food cues. Brain reward reactivity was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 overweight/obese individuals with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance (HOMA-IR: 3.7 ± 1.7; BMI: 31.8 ± 3.2 kg/m²; fasting glucose: 6.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L) before and after an 8-week low energy diet followed by a 2-year weight maintenance period, with either high protein (HP) or medium protein (MP) dietary guidelines...
November 15, 2018: Nutrients
Kenia M B Carvalho, Débora B Ronca, Nathalie Michels, Inge Huybrechts, Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia, Ascensión Marcos, Dénes Molnár, Jean Dallongeville, Yannis Manios, Beatriz D Schaan, Luis Moreno, Stefaan de Henauw, Livia A Carvalho
Stress increases inflammation but whether adherence to Mediterranean diet counteracts this association and how early can these effects be observed is not well known. We tested whether (1) cortisol is associated to inflammation, (2) cortisol is associated to the adolescent Mediterranean diet score (aMDS), (3) aMDS lessens inflammation, (4) aMDS associates with cortisol levels and inflammation. Two hundred and forty-two adolescents (137 females; 12.5⁻17.5 years old) provided salivary cortisol, blood and 2-day 24-h dietary recall from which aMDS was derived...
November 15, 2018: Nutrients
Leda Roncoroni, Luca Elli, Luisa Doneda, Karla A Bascuñán, Maurizio Vecchi, Federico Morreale, Alice Scricciolo, Vincenza Lombardo, Nicoletta Pellegrini
Our aim was to evaluate the intake of foods containing fermentable oligo/di/mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) as a possible factor that induces gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease (CD) patients. We collected seven-day weighed food records for 104 CD patients and 91 healthy volunteers. All evaluated food items were from sources with high and low content of FODMAP, which were divided into cereals and sweets, sweeteners and soft drinks, fruits, dried fruits, and vegetables. Nutrient intake was calculated using the food database of the European Institute of Oncology...
November 15, 2018: Nutrients
Natalia Drabińska, Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Paweł Abramowicz, Elżbieta Jarocka-Cyrta
Prebiotics have been shown to improve absorption of some nutrients, including vitamins. This pilot study evaluated the effect of the prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) on fat-soluble vitamins status, parathormone, and calcium-related elements in pediatric celiac disease (CD) patients ( n = 34) on a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Participants were randomized into a group receiving 10 g of Synergy 1 or placebo (maltodextrin) together with a GFD. At baseline and after 3 months of intervention, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], parathormone, vitamin E and A, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, total protein, and albumin were determined...
November 15, 2018: Nutrients
Michael Essman, Barry M Popkin, Camila Corvalán, Marcela Reyes, Lindsey Smith Taillie
BACKGROUND: Chile has the highest sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales of any country and a growing burden of childhood obesity. This study examines SSB intake in Chilean children after a 5% SSB tax increase in 2014 but prior to marketing, labeling, and school policies implemented in 2016. METHODS: 24-h recalls were collected in 2016 from two cohorts comprised of preschoolers 3⁻5 years of age ( n = 961) and adolescents 12⁻14 years of age ( n = 770) from low⁻moderate income neighborhoods...
November 15, 2018: Nutrients
Sara Hurtado-Barroso, Paola Quifer-Rada, José Fernando Rinaldi de Alvarenga, Silvia Pérez-Fernández, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventos
Bioactive dietary compounds play a critical role in health maintenance. The relation between bioactive compound intake and cardiovascular health-related biomarkers has been demonstrated in several studies, although mainly with participants who have altered biochemical parameters (high blood pressure, high cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, etc.). The aim of this study was to evaluate if adopting a diet low in polyphenol-rich food for two weeks would affect vascular biomarkers in healthy men. In a crossover study, 22 healthy men were randomly assigned to their usual diet (UD), consuming healthy food rich in polyphenols, or to a low antioxidant diet (LAD), with less than two servings of fruit and vegetables per day and avoiding the intake of cocoa products, coffee and tea...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Vo Van Giau, Si Ying Wu, Angelo Jamerlan, Seong Soo A An, Sang Yun Kim, John Hulme
The bidirectional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in human health. Increasing numbers of studies suggest that the gut microbiota can influence the brain and behavior of patients. Various metabolites secreted by the gut microbiota can affect the cognitive ability of patients diagnosed with neurodegenerative diseases. Nearly one in every ten Korean senior citizens suffers from Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. This review highlights the impact of metabolites from the gut microbiota on communication pathways between the brain and gut, as well as the neuroinflammatory roles they may have in AD patients...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Tracey M Robertson, Abdulrahman Z Alzaabi, M Denise Robertson, Barbara A Fielding
Potatoes have been an affordable, staple part of the diet for many hundreds of years. Recently however, there has been a decline in consumption, perhaps influenced by erroneous reports of being an unhealthy food. This review provides an overview of the nutritional value of potatoes and examines the evidence for associations between potato consumption and non-communicable diseases. Potatoes are an important source of micronutrients, such as vitamin C, vitamin B6, potassium, folate, and iron and contribute a significant amount of fibre to the diet...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Masaki Takahashi, Mamiho Ozaki, Moon-Il Kang, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Mayuko Fukazawa, Tamao Iwakami, Pei Jean Lim, Hyeon-Ki Kim, Shinya Aoyama, Shigenobu Shibata
We examined the effects of meal timing on postprandial glucose metabolism, including the incretin response and metabolites in healthy adults. Nineteen healthy young men completed two trials involving blood collection in a fasting state and at 30, 60 and 120 min after meal provision in a random order: (1) morning (~0900 h) and (2) evening (~1700 h). The blood metabolome of eight participants was analyzed using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Postprandial glucose concentrations at 120 min ( p = 0...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Paul E Marik
Sepsis is a devastating disease that carries an enormous toll in terms of human suffering and lives lost. Over 100 novel pharmacologic agents that targeted specific molecules or pathways have failed to improve the outcome of sepsis. Preliminary data suggests that the combination of Hydrocortisone, Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine (HAT therapy) may reduce organ failure and mortality in patients with sepsis and septic shock. HAT therapy is based on the concept that a combination of readily available, safe and cheap agents, which target multiple components of the host's response to an infectious agent, will synergistically restore the dysregulated immune response and thereby prevent organ failure and death...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Lorian Taylor, Abdulelah Almutairdi, Nusrat Shommu, Richard Fedorak, Subrata Ghosh, Raylene A Reimer, Remo Panaccione, Maitreyi Raman
The primary objective of this study was to explore the macro- and micro-nutrient intakes and dietary patterns of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Secondary objectives were to (a) compare the micronutrient intakes of CD patients with a representative sample of individuals, (b) describe the macro- and micronutrient intakes of male and female CD patients, and (c) describe Mediterranean diet scores (P-MDS) of male and female CD patients in remission that were recruited from an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) clinic in Calgary, AB...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Huifeng Jin, Jessie Nicodemus-Johnson
Dyslipidemia is a precursor to a myriad of cardiovascular diseases in the modern world. Age, gender, and diet are known modifiers of lipid levels, however they are not frequently investigated in subset analyses. Food and nutrient intakes from National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2001⁻2013 were used to assess the correlation between lipid levels (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and total cholesterol (TC):HDL cholesterol ratio) and nutritional intake using linear regression...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Patrice Jones, Mark Lucock, Martin Veysey, Emma Beckett
We thank Elias and Williams for their interest in our review [...].
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Fabian Grass, Martin Hübner, Jenna K Lovely, Jacopo Crippa, Kellie L Mathis, David W Larson
Early re-alimentation is advocated by enhanced recovery pathways (ERP). This study aimed to assess compliance to ERP-set early re-alimentation policy and to compare outcomes of early fed patients and patients in whom early feeding was withhold due to the independent decision making of the surgeon. For this purpose, demographic, surgical and outcome data of all consecutive elective colorectal surgical procedures (2011⁻2016) were retrieved from a prospectively maintained institutional ERP database. The primary endpoint was postoperative ileus (POI)...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Andrea Ardid-Ruiz, Maria Ibars, Pedro Mena, Daniele Del Rio, Begoña Muguerza, Cinta Bladé, Lluís Arola, Gerard Aragonès, Manuel Suárez
Bioactive compounds such as polyphenols have increased in importance in recent years, and among them, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has generated great interest as an anti-obesity agent. Recent investigations have highlighted the importance of leptin signaling in lipid metabolism in peripheral organs. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate whether resveratrol can reduce fat accumulation in peripheral tissues by increasing their leptin sensitivity and (2) to identify which resveratrol-derived circulating metabolites are potentially involved in these metabolic effects...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Claudia Ceci, Pedro M Lacal, Lucio Tentori, Maria Gabriella De Martino, Roberto Miano, Grazia Graziani
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound endowed with strong antioxidant and anticancer properties that is present in high quantity in a variety of berries, pomegranates, and dried fruits. The antitumor activity of EA has been mostly attributed to direct antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. Moreover, EA can inhibit tumour cell migration, extra-cellular matrix invasion and angiogenesis, all processes that are crucial for tumour infiltrative behaviour and the metastatic process. In addition, EA may increase tumour sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Giulia Sita, Patrizia Hrelia, Agnese Graziosi, Fabiana Morroni
Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate (ITC) derived from cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli and broccoli sprouts, has been widely investigated due to its promising health-promoting properties in disease, and low toxicity in normal tissue. Although not yet fully understood, many mechanisms of anticancer activity at each step of cancer development have been attributed to this ITC. Given the promising data available regarding SFN, this review aimed to provide an overview on the potential activities of SFN related to the cellular mechanisms involved in glioblastoma (GBM) progression...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
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