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Nutrients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168741/dose-dependent-effects-of-oral-tyrosine-administration-on-plasma-tyrosine-levels-and-cognition-in-aging
#1
Ondine van de Rest, Mirjam Bloemendaal, Rianne de Heus, Esther Aarts
The effects of tyrosine on plasma response and cognition in aging are unknown. We assessed the dose-dependent response to tyrosine administration in older adults in both plasma tyrosine concentrations and working memory performance. In this double blind randomized cross-over trial 17 older adults (aged 60-75 years) received a single administration of 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg body weight of tyrosine. For comparison, 17 young adults (aged 18-35 years) received a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight of tyrosine. Tyrosine plasma concentrations were determined before and 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after tyrosine intake...
November 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168739/early-or-late-feeding-after-icu-admission
#2
REVIEW
Annika Reintam Blaser, Mette M Berger
The feeding of critically ill patients has recently become a controversial issue, as several studies have provided unexpected and contradictory results. Earlier beliefs regarding energy requirements in critical illness-especially during the initial phase-have been challenged. In the current review, we summarize existing evidence about fasting and the impact of early vs. late feeding on the sick organism's responses. The most important points are the non-nutritional advantages of using the intestine, and recognition that early endogenous energy production as an important player in the response must be integrated in the nutrient prescription...
November 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168737/prevalence-and-predictors-of-subclinical-micronutrient-deficiency-in-german-older-adults-results-from-the-population-based-kora-age-study
#3
Romy Conzade, Wolfgang Koenig, Margit Heier, Andrea Schneider, Eva Grill, Annette Peters, Barbara Thorand
Subclinical micronutrient deficiency in older adults is associated with chronic age-related diseases and adverse functional outcomes. In Germany, the older population is at risk of insufficient micronutrient intake, but representative studies on micronutrient status in old and very old adults are scarce. This study's objectives were to estimate the prevalence of subclinical vitamin D, folate, vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies among older adults, aged 65 to 93, from the KORA-Age study in Augsburg, Germany (n = 1079), and to examine associated predictors, using multiple logistic regression...
November 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168736/association-between-vitamin-intake-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-small-for-gestational-age
#4
Inmaculada Salcedo-Bellido, Juan Miguel Martínez-Galiano, Rocío Olmedo-Requena, Juan Mozas-Moreno, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Jose J Jimenez-Moleon, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez
Pregnancy increases the requirements of certain nutrients, such as vitamins, to provide nutrition for the newborn. The aim was to analyze the association between dietary intake of vitamins during pregnancy and risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) newborn. A matched case-control study was conducted (518 cases and 518 controls of pregnant women) in Spain. Dietary vitamin intake during pregnancy was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, categorized into quintiles. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with conditional regression logistic models...
November 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168731/factors-influencing-the-phenotypic-characterization-of-the-oral-marker-prop
#5
REVIEW
Beverly J Tepper, Melania Melis, Yvonne Koelliker, Paolo Gasparini, Karen L Ahijevych, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
In the last several decades, the genetic ability to taste the bitter compound, 6-n-propyltiouracil (PROP) has attracted considerable attention as a model for understanding individual differences in taste perception, and as an oral marker for food preferences and eating behavior that ultimately impacts nutritional status and health. However, some studies do not support this role. This review describes common factors that can influence the characterization of this phenotype including: (1) changes in taste sensitivity with increasing age; (2) gender differences in taste perception; and (3) effects of smoking and obesity...
November 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165404/benefits-of-nut-consumption-on-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-multiple-potential-mechanisms-of-actions
#6
REVIEW
Yoona Kim, Jennifer B Keogh, Peter M Clifton
Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies...
November 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165385/prevalence-of-pre-diabetes-across-ethnicities-a-review-of-impaired-fasting-glucose-ifg-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-igt-for-classification-of-dysglycaemia
#7
REVIEW
Wilson C Y Yip, Ivana R Sequeira, Lindsay D Plank, Sally D Poppitt
Prediabetes can be defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to identify individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The World Health Organization (WHO, 1999) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2003) utilise different cut-off values for IFG (WHO: 6.1-6.9 mmol/L; ADA: 5.6-6.9 mmol/L) but the same cut-off values for IGT (7.8-11.0 mmol/L). This review investigates whether there are differences in prevalence of IFG, IGT, and combined IFG&IGT between ethnicities, in particular Asian Chinese and European Caucasians...
November 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165355/acute-effects-of-nitrate-rich-beetroot-juice-on-blood-pressure-hemostasis-and-vascular-inflammation-markers-in-healthy-older-adults-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#8
Kyle Raubenheimer, Danica Hickey, Michael Leveritt, Robert Fassett, Joaquin Ortiz de Zevallos Munoz, Jason D Allen, David Briskey, Tony J Parker, Graham Kerr, Jonathan M Peake, Natalie M Pecheniuk, Oliver Neubauer
Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits are evident in older adults. We investigated the effects of 140 mL of nitrate-rich (HI-NI; containing 12.9 mmol nitrate) versus nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (LO-NI; containing ≤0...
November 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165353/a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-association-between-24-h-urine-osmolality-and-weight-status-in-older-adults
#9
Patrícia Padrão, Ana S Sousa, Rita S Guerra, Luísa Álvares, Alejandro Santos, Nuno Borges, Cláudia Afonso, Teresa F Amaral, Pedro Moreira
Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP 65 study. A quota sampling was implemented to achieve a nationally representative sample of Portuguese older adults (≥65 years) according to age, sex, education and region. From a sample size of 1500 participants, 1315 were eligible for the present analysis, 57...
November 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165348/emotion-regulation-in-binge-eating-disorder-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra Dingemans, Unna Danner, Melissa Parks
The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness), seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms...
November 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160843/public-and-healthcare-professionals-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-binge-eating-disorder-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Deborah Lynn Reas
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160841/the-overlapping-area-of-non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity-ncgs-and-wheat-sensitive-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs-an-update
#12
REVIEW
Carlo Catassi, Armin Alaedini, Christian Bojarski, Bruno Bonaz, Gerd Bouma, Antonio Carroccio, Gemma Castillejo, Laura De Magistris, Walburga Dieterich, Diana Di Liberto, Luca Elli, Alessio Fasano, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Matthew Kurien, Elena Lionetti, Chris J Mulder, Kamran Rostami, Anna Sapone, Katharina Scherf, Detlef Schuppan, Nick Trott, Umberto Volta, Victor Zevallos, Yurdagül Zopf, David S Sanders
Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms. This review article will provide clinicians with an update that directly impacts on the management of a subgroup of their IBS patients whose symptoms are triggered by wheat ingestion...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160817/impact-of-high-dose-multi-strain-probiotic-supplementation-on-neurocognitive-performance-and-central-nervous-system-immune-activation-of-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#13
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Jason M Brenchley, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Mariangela Fratino, Claudia Pinacchio, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Carolina Scagnolari, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160809/evaluation-of-dietary-intakes-and-supplement-use-in-paralympic-athletes
#14
Robyn F Madden, Jane Shearer, Jill A Parnell
Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18) and female (n = 22) athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156647/effects-of-nutritional-interventions-during-pregnancy-on-infant-and-child-cognitive-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Rachael M Taylor, Shanna M Fealy, Alessandra Bisquera, Roger Smith, Clare E Collins, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Alexis J Hure
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the current literature and meta-analyses results from nutritional interventions during pregnancy that aimed to optimise infant and child cognitive outcomes...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156619/standard-vs-calorie-dense-immune-nutrition-in-haemodynamically-compromised-cardiac-patients-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#16
Sergey Efremov, Vladimir Lomivorotov, Christian Stoppe, Anna Shilova, Vladimir Shmyrev, Michail Deryagin, Alexander Karaskov
BACKGROUND: The aim of study was to test the hypothesis that early enteral nutrition (EN) with calorie-dense and protein rich enteral formula improves enteral energy and protein delivery in critically ill cardiac patients. METHODS: Prospective randomized pilot study of 40 ventilated adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with use of cardiopulmonary bypass receiving inotropic support postoperatively. Patients were to receive either standard isocaloric (1000 Kcal/L and 38 g/L protein) early EN (n = 20) or calorie-dense and protein-rich (1300 Kcal/L and 66...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156608/fatty-acids-antioxidants-and-physical-activity-in-brain-aging
#17
REVIEW
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Gustavo da Costa Ferreira, Isis Hara Trevenzoli, Karen de Jesus Oliveira, Ricardo Augusto de Melo Reis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in the brains of the young and the aged in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and during brain aging due to adiposity- and physical inactivity-mediated metabolic disturbances, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156563/wnt-inhibitory-activity-of-malus-pumila-miller-cv-annurca-and-malus-domestica-cv-limoncella-apple-extracts-on-human-colon-rectal-cells-carrying-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-mutations
#18
Gennaro Riccio, Maria Maisto, Sara Bottone, Nadia Badolati, Giovanni Battista Rossi, Gian Carlo Tenore, Mariano Stornaiuolo, Ettore Novellino
Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv...
November 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149076/the-association-between-food-addiction-and-early-maladaptive-schemas-in-overweight-and-obese-women-a-preliminary-investigation
#19
Claudio Imperatori, Marco Innamorati, David Lester, Massimo Continisio, Michela Balsamo, Aristide Saggino, Mariantonietta Fabbricatore
In recent years, there has been a growing focus on early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) as core features associated with eating psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i) the association between dysfunctional eating patterns (i.e., food addiction and binge eating) and EMSs, and (ii) the association between food addiction and EMSs after controlling for potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology). Participants were 70 overweight and obese women seeking low-energy-diet therapy...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149073/micronutrient-deficiencies-among-breastfeeding-infants-in-tanzania
#20
Alexandra L Bellows, Emily R Smith, Alfa Muhihi, Christina Briegleb, Ramadhani A Noor, Salum Mshamu, Christopher Sudfeld, Honorati Masanja, Wafaie W Fawzi
Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels from 446 infants at two weeks of age, 408 infants at three months of age, and 427 mothers three months post-partum. We used log-Poisson regression to estimate relative risk of being deficient in vitamin D and vitamin B12 for infants in each age group...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
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