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North American Journal of Medical Sciences

Denis Suler, David Mullins, Travis Rudge, John Ashurst
CONTEXT: Scours, or calf diarrhea, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease commonly found in the calves of dairy farms. It primarily presents with diarrhea that can be life threatening to the animal and is also contagious and threatening to the other livestock. Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of scours and can be transmitted to humans via fecal-oral route, resulting in diarrheal illnesses. Cryptosporidiosis infection usually occurs as a waterborne outbreak with the potential to affect many people at once...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Faisal Inayat, Abu Hurairah, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk
Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or "black esophagus" is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis.
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Faisal Inayat
CONTEXT: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) mimics acute coronary syndrome and is accompanied by reversible left ventricular apical ballooning in the absence of angiographically significant coronary artery stenosis. It is a transient condition that typically precedes physical or emotional triggers. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented to our institution with symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection. 24 hours after admission, the patient complained of severe, retrosternal chest pain...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Rahul Vasudev, Upamanyu Rampal, Hiten Patel, Kunal Patel, Mahesh Bikkina, Fayez Shamoon
CONTEXT: Takotsubo translates to "octopus pot" in Japanese. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by a transient regional systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. Catecholamine excess is the one most studied and favored theories explaining the pathophysiology of TTC. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 52-year-old Hispanic female admitted for venlafaxine-induced TTC with a review literature on all the cases of Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI)-associated TTC published so far...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
K Maheshkumar, K Dilara, K N Maruthy, L Sundareswaren
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a simple and noninvasive technique capable of assessing autonomic nervous system modulation on heart rate (HR) in healthy as well as disease conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare (validate) the HRV using a temporal series of electrocardiograms (ECG) obtained by simple analog amplifier with PC-based sound card (audacity) and Biopac MP36 module. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on the inclusion criteria, 120 healthy participants, including 72 males and 48 females, participated in the present study...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Lisa K Sykes, Mark R Geier
BACKGROUND: Obesity among children and adolescents in the United States has tripled since 1980, and has become a major public health concern. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines and the children's subsequent risk of an obesity diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hypothesis-testing, case-control study was undertaken to evaluate exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines, which were administered at specific intervals in the first 6 months of life, among cases diagnosed with childhood obesity and controls by examining automated medical records for children born from 1991 to 2000 who were continuously enrolled in the Vaccine Safety Datalink database...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Charat Thongprayoon, Michael A Mao, Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai, Insara J J Sathick, Stephen B Erickson
BACKGROUND: The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors in patients with chronic kidney disease, and especially in diabetic kidney disease, has been shown to provide renoprotective effects and slow progression to end-stage renal disease. However, this protective effect in kidney transplant patient populations is unclear. AIM: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of RAS inhibitors on kidney allograft survival...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Charles J Glueck, Vybhav Jetty, Matan Rothschild, Gregory Duhon, Parth Shah, Marloe Prince, Kevin Lee, Michael Goldenberg, Ashwin Kumar, Naila Goldenberg, Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, mediated in part by independent positive relationships with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and inverse relationships with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride, and homocysteine. AIMS: In this study, we assessed relationships between fasting serum vitamin D and lipids, lipoprotein cholesterols, and homocysteine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 1534 patients sequentially referred to our center from 2007 to 2016...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Agazi G Gebreselassie, Delamo I Bekele, Yonette Paul, Julius S Ngwa, Daniel A Larbi
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines do not support the routine use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head in the diagnostic workup of syncope. There is a lack of research to support whether these guidelines apply to the Black population. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the yield of neuroimaging in the evaluation of Syncope in a predominantly Black patient population and to test whether current guidelines based on studies conducted in other populations hold true in this group...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Salman Y Guraya
BACKGROUND: Online social networking sites (SNSs) (e.g., Facebook, MySpace, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube) have emerged as rapidly growing mechanisms to exchange personal and professional information among university students. This research aims to determine the medical students' extent of usage of SNSs for educational purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane library, and Excerpta Medica Data Base (EMBASE) were searched to retrieve articles from 2004 to 2014, applying predefined search terms and inclusion criteria...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Ujwala R Newadkar, Lalit Chaudhari, Yogita K Khalekar
Facial paralysis is one of the common problem leading to facial deformation. Bell's palsy (BP) is defined as a lower motor neuron palsy of acute onset and idiopathic origin. BP is regarded as a benign common neurological disorder of unknown cause. It has an acute onset and is almost always a mononeuritis. The facial nerve is a mixed cranial nerve with a predominant motor component, which supplies all muscles concerned with unilateral facial expression. Knowledge of its course is vital for anatomic localization and clinical correlation...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Faisal Inayat, Salman Farooq, Ali Raza Ghani, Ghazi A Mirrani, Muhammed Waqas Athar
CONTEXT: Coronary embolization is potentially a fatal sequela of endocarditis. Although the primary cause of acute coronary syndrome is atherosclerotic disease, it is imperative to consider septic embolism as an etiological factor. CASE REPORT: Herein, we report a case of ventricular fibrillation and ST-segment depression myocardial infarction occurring in a patient who initially presented with fever and increased urinary frequency. Coronary angiography revealed new 99% occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA)...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Demilade A Adedinsewo, Oluwaseun Odewole, Taylor Todd
CONTEXT: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ingestion...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Hasan S Massloom
CONTEXT: Diagnosis of congenital Bochdalek's hernia (BH) in adulthood is extremely rare and requires a fastidious surgical repair, the failure of which might result in a recurrence with severe complications. We report a rare case of a giant, right BH that recurred after surgical repair and was complicated with complete bowel obstruction. CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old Saudi male, with past surgical history of laparotomy that failed to repair BH, presented to the emergency room with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and hypovolemic shock...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Pragya Shrestha, Dilli R Poudel, Ranjan Pathak, Sushil Ghimire, Rashmi Dhital, Madan R Aryal, Maryam Mahmood, Paras Karmacharya
BACKGROUND: Statins modify inflammatory cell signaling during the immune response to infection. This has been considered as a pleotropic effect. Effects of statins in inflammatory conditions such as bacteremia have been found to be controversial. AIMS: We examined the effect of statins on the mortality of bacteremia patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Major databases were searched for the pertinent clinical trials. RESULTS: Six cohort studies comprising 7553 patients were included...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Vernon Bond, Bryan H Curry, Richard G Adams, Thomas Obisesan, Sudhakar Pemminati, Vasavi R Gorantla, Kishan Kadur, Richard M Millis
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive individuals are known to exhibit greater increases in blood pressure during an isometric handgrip exercise (IHE) than their normotensive counterparts. AIM: This study tests the hypothesis that, compared to normotensive individuals, prehypertensive individuals exhibit an exaggerated response to IHE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the effects of IHE were compared in matched prehypertensive vs. normotensive healthy African-American females...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Anup K Tiwary, Dharmendra K Mishra, S S Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Topical squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone are still the most effective therapy for alopecia areata among widely available treatment options. Hence, it is important to know which one is more effective and safer between the two. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare topical squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone for the treatment of alopecia areata in terms of their efficacy and side effects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the time period of January-March 2015, a total of 40 patients were selected for this study from the outpatient department of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Fatemeh Abdollahi, Munn-Sann Lye, Mehran Zarghami
Postpartum depression is the most prevalent emotional problem during a women's lifespan. Untreated postpartum depression may lead to several consequences such as child, infant, fetal, and maternal effects. The main purpose of this article is to briefly describe different theoretical perspectives of postpartum depression. A literature search was conducted in Psych Info, PubMed, and Science Direct between 1950 and 2015. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Different theories were suggested for developing postpartum depression...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Hem Desai, Ryan Wong, Ahmed Khurshid Pasha
CONTEXT: Daptomycin is the only antibiotic available with in vitro bactericidal activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Its increased use has resulted in cases of decreased daptomycin efficacy. Recent in vitro studies have shown effective use of beta (β)-lactam and daptomycin antibiotics, as a combination therapy, in the treatment of VRE. We describe a case of effective treatment in a patient with VRE infection using dual ampicillin and daptomycin therapy that shows bench-to-bedside application of the abovementioned finding...
May 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Sikarin Upala, Wai Chung Yong, Anawin Sanguankeo
CONTEXT: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a rare condition that causes a variety of clinical symptoms due to autoimmune processes involving multiple endocrine organs. Its vague presentation can cause missed or delayed treatment for adrenal insufficiency, resulting in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. CASE REPORT: A 21-yr-old man presented with lethargy, hypotension, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. He was binge drinking the day before presentation...
May 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
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