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International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533892/malate-aspartate-shuttle-inhibitor-aminooxyacetic-acid-blocks-lipopolysaccharides-induced-activation-of-bv2-microglia
#1
Wangsong Shang, Xunbin Wei, Weihai Ying
NADH shuttles, including malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) and glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle, mediate the transfer of the reducing equivalents of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria. In our current study, we used BV2 microglia as a cellular model to determine the roles of NADH shuttles in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced microglial activation. We found that aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), a widely used MAS inhibitor, significantly attenuated LPS-induced increases in the levels of nitric oxide-a hallmarker of microglial activation...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533891/nuclear-uptake-of-an-amino-terminal-fragment-of-apolipoprotein-e4-promotes-cell-death-and-localizes-within-microglia-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#2
Julia E Love, Ryan J Day, Justin W Gause, Raquel J Brown, Xinzhu Pu, Dustin I Theis, Chad A Caraway, Wayne W Poon, Abir A Rahman, Brad E Morrison, Troy T Rohn
Although harboring the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele is a well known risk factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mechanism by which it contributes to disease risk remains elusive. To investigate the role of proteolysis of apoE4 as a potential mechanism, we designed and characterized a site-directed cleavage antibody directed at position D151 of the mature form of apoE4 and E3. Characterization of this antibody indicated a high specificity for detecting synthesized recombinant proteins corresponding to the amino acid sequences 1-151 of apoE3 and E4 that would generate the 17 kDa (p17) fragment...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533890/effect-of-music-tempo-on-exercise-performance-and-heart-rate-among-young-adults
#3
Avinash E Thakare, Ranjeeta Mehrotra, Ayushi Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533889/effects-of-low-dose-acetazolamide-on-exercise-performance-in-simulated-altitude
#4
Ernst Elisabeth, Gatterer Hannes, Burtscher Johannes, Faulhaber Martin, Pocecco Elena, Burtscher Martin
Preventive effects of acetazolamide (ACZ) on acute mountain sickness (AMS) are well established but effects on exercise performance at high altitude or in hypoxia have been less considered and are still inconsistent. We hypothesized that low-dose ACZ would not impair exercise performance at simulated high altitude. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between low-dose ACZ and exercise performance in normobaric hypoxia. Sixteen subjects (8 males and 8 females) were randomly assigned either to receive low-dose ACZ (3×125 mg in 36 hours) or placebo...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533888/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-administration-against-chronic-immobilization-stress-in-rats
#5
Asmaa Ms Gomaa, Heba M Galal, Amal T Abou-Elgait
Chronic stress can impair brain functions and play a well-known role in the development of stress-related disorders such as anxiety. Melatonin (Mel) is a neurohormone which regulate several physiological processes including mood and behavior. This experimental study was designed to evaluate the effect of Mel on chronic immobilization stress (CIS) for 6 weeks in rats and to elucidate its possible underlying mechanisms. Twenty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups: the control group, the Mel-treated group which was injected daily with Mel (10 mg/kg/day; IP) for 6 weeks, the stressed group which was subjected to CIS protocol daily for 6 weeks, and the Mel-treated stressed group which was injected with Mel and concurrently exposed to CIS protocol for 6 weeks...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533887/lidocaine-suppresses-glioma-cell-proliferation-by-inhibiting-trpm7-channels
#6
Tiandong Leng, Suizhen Lin, Zhigang Xiong, Jun Lin
BACKGROUND: Malignant glioma is the most common brain cancer with devastating prognosis. Recurrence of malignant glioma following surgery is very common with few preventive and therapeutic options. Novel targets and therapeutic agents are constantly sought for better outcome. Our previous study established that inhibition of transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channels resulted in significant decrease of human glioma cell growth and proliferation. As local anesthetic lidocaine has been shown to inhibit TRPM7 currents, we hypothesize that lidocaine may suppress glioma cell proliferation through TRPM7 channel inhibition...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337311/consciousness-loss-during-epileptogenesis-implication-for-vlpo-pno-circuits
#7
REVIEW
Maohui Feng, Zhigang He, Baowen Liu, Zhixiao Li, Guorong Tao, Duozhi Wu, Hongbing Xiang
There is a growing concern about consciousness loss during epileptic seizures. Understanding neural mechanisms could lead to a better comprehension of cerebral circuit function in the control of consciousness loss in intractable epilepsy. We propose that ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO)- PnO (nucleus pontis oralis) circuits may serve a major role in the loss of consciousness in drug-refractory epilepsy. Future behavioural and neuroimaging studies are clearly needed to understand the functional connectivity between the VLPO and PnO during loss of consciousness in drug-refractory epilepsy, to greatly prevent unconsciousness in this disorder and improve the quality of life in patients with intractable epilepsy...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078056/proton-pump-inhibitor-induced-hypomagnesaemia-and-hypocalcaemia-case-review
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Sivakumar
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypomagnesaemia is a rare but serious adverse effect of a widely prescribed medication. It has become an increasingly recognised complication since 2006, with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issuing a warning for this risk with regards to long-term PPI use. We present the case of PPI-associated hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia. A 91 year old male presented with tetany from severe hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia. This condition occurred in the context of 18 months of PPI use, and resolved following cessation of PPI therapy and the replenishment of magnesium and calcium stores...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078055/comparative-changes-in-antioxidant-enzymes-and-oxidative-stress-in-cardiac-fast-twitch-and-slow-twitch-skeletal-muscles-following-endurance-exercise-training
#9
Hayden W Hyatt, Ashley J Smuder, Kurt J Sollanek, Aaron B Morton, Michael D Roberts, Andreas N Kavazis
The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise-induced transcriptional and protein responses of heart, soleus (slow oxidative), and plantaris (fast glycolytic) muscle in response to ten days of endurance exercise training. Four-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either a sedentary (SED) or endurance exercise-training (EXE) group (n=8 per group). The heart, plantaris, and soleus were excised and used for biochemical analyses. Our results show that heart and plantaris from EXE animals had higher protein levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) compared to SED animals (P<0...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078054/the-effect-of-thymoquinone-on-the-renal-functions-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-rat
#10
Fayez T Hammad, Loay Lubbad
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thymoquinone, an antioxidant phytochemical compound found in the plant Nigella sativa, on the alterations in renal functional parameters following warm renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the rat. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent left renal ischemia for 35 minutes. Group-TQ (n=15) received thymoquinone 10 mg/kg/day (dissolved in a vehicle (corn oil) orally by gavage starting 4 days prior to IRI and continued 6 days thereafter when the hemodynamic and tubular renal functions of the right and left kidneys were measured using clearance techniques...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078053/amyloid-beta-peptide-22-35-induces-a-negative-inotropic-effect-on-isolated-rat-hearts
#11
Neda Yousefirad, Ziya Kaygısız, Yasemin Aydın
Evidences indicate that deposition of amyloid beta peptides (Aβs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Aβs may influence cardiovascular system and ileum contractions. But the effect of amyloid beta peptide 22-35 (Aβ22-35) on cardiovascular functions and contractions of ileum has not been studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of this peptide on isolated rat heart and ileum smooth muscle. Langendorff-perfused rat heart preparations were established...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078052/dose-rate-plays-a-significant-role-in-synchrotron-radiation-x-ray-induced-damage-of-rodent-testes
#12
Heyu Chen, Ban Wang, Caixia Wang, Wei Cao, Jie Zhang, Yingxin Ma, Yunyi Hong, Shen Fu, Fan Wu, Weihai Ying
Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has significant potential for applications in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying SR X-ray-induced tissue damage remain unclear. Previous studies on regular X-ray-induced tissue damage have suggested that dose-rate could affect radiation damage. Because SR X-ray has exceedingly high dose-rate compared to regular X-ray, it remains to be determined if dose-rate may affect SR X-ray-induced tissue damage. We used rodent testes as a model to investigate the role of dose-rate in SR X-ray-induced tissue damage...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785340/comparison-of-the-therapeutic-effectiveness-of-human-cd34-and-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-improvement-of-experimental-liver-fibrosis-in-wistar-rats
#13
Hayam G Sayyed, Amany Osama, Naglaa K Idriss, Dina Sabry, Azza S Abdelrhim, Rania Bakry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have numerous advantages as grafts for cell transplantation. We hypothesized differing impacts of human UCB cells and rat BM-MSCs on reversal of hepatic injury and revival of liver function in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into 4 groups; control group, CCl4 group, CCl4/CD34(+) group and CCl4/BM-MSCs group...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785339/sirt2-plays-a-significant-role-in-maintaining-the-survival-and-energy-metabolism-of-piec-endothelial-cells
#14
Jie Zhang, Caixia Wang, Hui Nie, Danhong Wu, Weihai Ying
SIRT2, a member of the sirtuin (SIRT1-7) family, is a tubulin deacetylase. It has been reported that SIRT2 mediates cellular stress responses and is highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, while its roles in cell survival and energy metabolism of endothelial cells remain unknown. In the current study, we tested our hypothesis that SIRT2 plays an important role in the cell survival and energy metabolism of endothelial cells, using a porcine vascular endothelial cell line (PIEC) as a cellular model. Our study showed that both SIRT2 inhibitor AGK2 and SIRT2 siRNA led to a significant reduction of the cell survival of PIEC cells...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785338/dose-dependent-effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-early-lifetime-on-apoptosis-in-hippocampus-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Xue Zhou, Wenda Li, Xiaohui Chen, Xiaoyu Yang, Zhibin Zhou, Dihan Lu, Xia Feng
Sevoflurane has become a main method for induction of anesthesia in pediatric populations. Preclinical evidence suggest the neurotoxic effect of volatile anesthetics on the developing brain including sevoflurane. This study investigates the effect of different doses of sevoflurane on the developing brain. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats of postnatal (P) day 7 were exposed to 0.3%, 1.3% and 2.3% sevoflurane for 6 hours. 6 hours after exposure, Nissl staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of the hippocampus and western-blot was done to evaluate the expression changes in cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785337/erratum-a-novel-ampk-activator-from-chinese-herb-medicine-and-ischemia-phosphorylate-the-cardiac-transcription-factor-foxo3
#16
Jingying Wang, Heng Ma, Xiaoyu Zhang, Leilei He, Jianming Wu, Xiaoping Gao, Jun Ren, Ji Li
[This corrects the article on p. 116 in vol. 1, PMID: 20445824.].
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785336/type-3-adenylyl-cyclase-a-key-enzyme-mediating-the-camp-signaling-in-neuronal-cilia
#17
REVIEW
Liyan Qiu, Robert P LeBel, Daniel R Storm, Xuanmao Chen
Cilia are rigid, centriole-derived, microtubule-based organelles present in a majority of vertebrate cells including neurons. They are considered the cellular "antennae" attuned for detecting a range of extracellular signals including photons, odorants, morphogens, hormones and mechanical forces. The ciliary microenvironment is distinct from most actin-based subcellular structures such as microvilli or synapses. In the nervous system, there is no evidence that neuronal cilia process any synaptic structure. Apparently, the structural features of neuronal cilia do not allow them to harbor any synaptic connections...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785335/single-session-of-sprint-interval-training-elicits-similar-cardiac-output-but-lower-oxygen-uptake-versus-ramp-exercise-to-exhaustion-in-men-and-women
#18
Trevor Horn, Garret Roverud, Kandice Sutzko, Melissa Browne, Cristina Parra, Todd A Astorino
Sprint interval training (SIT) elicits comparable long-term adaptations versus continuous exercise training (CEX) including increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and fat utilization. However, there is limited research examining acute hemodynamic responses to SIT. The aim of this study was to examine hemodynamic responses to low-volume SIT. Active men (n=6, VO2max = 39.8 ± 1.7 mL/kg/min) and women (n=7, VO2max = 37.3 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) performed a ramp-based VO2max test (RAMP) to determine workload for the SIT session...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785334/modulatory-influence-of-parkia-biglobosa-protein-isolate-on-testosterone-and-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-brain-and-testes-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-male-rats
#19
Bolajoko Idiat Ogunyinka, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Foluso Oluwagbemiga Osunsanmi, Andrew Rowland Opoku, Abidemi Paul Kappo
Parkia biglobosa seed an important household spice commonly consumed in Nigeria is believed to possess antioxidant activity that may exert modulatory effects in diabetes and diabetic complications. This study investigated the modulatory potential of Parkia biglobosa protein isolate (PBPi) on serum testosterone (sTT) level as well as its influence on biomarkers of oxidative stress in brain and testes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Animals were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg body weight)...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570581/the-effect-of-aliskiren-on-the-renal-dysfunction-following-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-in-the-rat
#20
Fayez T Hammad, Loay Lubbad
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of blocking renin-angiotensin system by direct renin inhibition using aliskiren on the renal dysfunction following reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (UO). METHODS: Wistar rats underwent reversible left UO for 72 hours. Group-Alsk (n=12) received aliskiren (30 mg/kg/day) dissolved in water starting one day before creating UO and continued until the terminal experiment five days post reversal when renal functions were measured using clearance techniques...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
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