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International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30245777/the-evaluation-of-malignant-mucosal-melanoma-of-nasal-cavity-with-a-rare-occasion
#1
Ahmet H Kepekci, Cenk Kig, Gul I Gundogan
Malignant mucosal melanoma is an uncommon disease with a low rate of survival. Malignancies of nasal mucosa which usually presents with nasal obstruction, epistaxis and back drip are difficult to treat and often have poor prognosis. The present case had presented to our clinic with classic symptoms and diagnostic findings of nasal polyposis. Consistently, the patient had previously been diagnosed with and treated for nasal polyposis in another ENT clinic. Physical examination, rhinoscopic examination, computed tomography (CT) scan of the head did not reveal any findings which might imply malignant formations...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042814/the-peptide-glycyl-%C3%AA-histidyl-%C3%AA-lysine-is-an-endogenous-antioxidant-in-living-organisms-possibly-by-diminishing-hydroxyl-and-peroxyl-radicals
#2
Satoru Sakuma, Mai Ishimura, Yukinori Yuba, Yuhki Itoh, Yohko Fujimoto
Despite evidence that tripeptide glycyl-ʟ-histidyl-ʟ-lysine (GHK) is an endogenous antioxidant, its mechanism and importance are not fully understood. In the present study, the ability of GHK to reduce levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caco-2 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry with the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Further, types of ROS diminished by GHK were assessed by utilizing an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique. GHK reduced the tert -butyl hydroperoxide-induced increase in ROS levels in Caco-2 cells at concentrations of 10 µM or less...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042813/the-role-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-nfkb-genes-expression-in-muscle-to-improve-hyperglycemia-in-stz-induced-diabetic-rat-following-magnesium-sulfate-administration
#3
Fatemeh Khosravi, Fatemeh Kharazmi, Mitra Kamran, Kianoosh Malekzadeh, Ardeshir Talebi, Nepton Soltani
The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of magnesium (Mg2+ ) on activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ( PPAR-γ ) and inhibition of nuclear factor-KB (NFKB p65) in muscle to increase glucose transporter 4 ( GLUT4 ) gene expression. Fifty rats were divided into five groups, namely non-diabetic control (NDC), Mg2+ -treated non-diabetic control (Mg2+ -NDC), chronic diabetic (CD), Mg2+ -treated chronic diabetic (Mg2+ -CD), and insulin-treated chronic diabetic (Ins-CD)...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755644/potential-implication-of-sgk1-dependent-activity-change-in-bv-2-microglial-cells
#4
Hayato Asai, Koichi Inoue, Eisuke Sakuma, Yoshiaki Shinohara, Takatoshi Ueki
It has recently been established that microglial activation is involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological and psychiatric disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia. The pathological molecular machineries underlying microglial activation and its accelerating molecules have been precisely described in the diseased central nervous system (CNS). However, to date, the details of physiological mechanism, which represses microglial activation, are still to be elucidated. Our latest report demonstrated that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinases (SGK1 and SGK3) were expressed in multiple microglial cell lines, and their inhibitor enhanced the toxic effect of lipopolysaccharide on microglial production of inflammatory substances such as TNFα and iNOS...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755643/tumor-associated-macrophages-deliver-iron-to-tumor-cells-via-lcn2
#5
Xiaoyue Duan, Kun He, Jing Li, Man Cheng, Hongjiao Song, Jinqiu Liu, Ping Liu
Cancer cells exhibit an increasing iron demand associated with the tumor progression. But the mechanism of iron accumulation in the tumor microenvironment is still unclear. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment may act as extra iron source. However, evidence is still lacking in TAMs as iron donors. In the present study, we found that iron concentration was significantly increased at tumor metastatic stage, which could be attributed to up-regulated expression of lipocalin2 (Lcn2)...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755642/an-improved-method-for-increasing-the-efficiency-of-gene-transfection-and-transduction
#6
Baomin Shi, Mengzhou Xue, Yi Wang, Yufeng Wang, Davey Li, Xiaomin Zhao, Xinbo Li
Transfection and transduction using lentivirus has gained attention in biomedical research. To date, how to reach the maximum transfection and viral transduction efficiency is still challenging. Here we compared the transfection and viral transduction efficiency using commercially available transfection reagents including FuGENE 6, Lipofectamine 2000 and Lipofectamine 3000 in different cell lines and primary cultured cells. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was clearly seen in Eppendorf tubes from harvested cells using Lipofectamine 3000 without using a microscope and UV activation...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755641/ischemic-preconditioning-attenuates-acute-lung-injury-after-partial-liver-transplantation
#7
Qinlong Liu, Hasibur Rehman, Yasodha Krishnasamy, John J Lemasters, Zhi Zhong
Pulmonary complications frequently occur after liver transplantation and are often life-threatening. Thus, we investigated whether hepatic ischemic preconditioning (IP) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) after small-for-size liver transplantation. Rat livers were explanted after 9-min ischemia plus 5-min reperfusion, reduced to 50% of original size ex vivo , and implanted into recipients with approximately twice the donor body weight, resulting in quarter-size liver grafts (QSG). After QSG transplantation, hepatic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα ) expression increased markedly and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), was released from QSG into the blood...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755640/melatonin-and-tumeric-ameliorate-aging-induced-changes-implication-of-immunoglobulins-cytokines-dj-1-nrf2-and-apoptosis-regulation
#8
Ismail Ahmed Ismail, Hanan A El-Bakry, Safaa S Soliman
Aging is associated with several biological, physiological, cellular and histological changes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on different signaling pathways, including antioxidant system, apoptosis and immune status. Several natural products were used to ameliorate and block aging-related changes. Melatonin and turmeric have been known to ameliorate and decrease aging-related changes. However, the exact mechanism(s) of their action is not fully understood. In the present study, we tried to uncover the regulatory mechanism(s) by which melatonin and turmeric work against aging...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593851/acupuncture-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Pei Chen, Jing Li, Xiao Han, Dennis Grech, Ming Xiong, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a common medical and social problem, affecting about 240 million people in the world. To address this major health concern, the currently available treatments for AUD need to be improved. Acupuncture, a popular form of complementary and alternative therapy, is emerging as an effective treatment for AUD. This review summarizes how preclinical and clinical studies are related to the application of acupuncture for AUD. These studies suggest that if used correctly, acupuncture may effectively reduce alcohol intake, attenuate alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and rebalance AUD-induced maladaptation in neurotransmitters and hormones in related brain areas...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593850/systemic-delivery-of-selective-ep1-and-ep3-receptor-antagonists-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-mice
#10
Cristina R Reschke, Alice B Poersch, Cíntia J Masson, Ana C Jesse, Joseane R Marafiga, Quéli F Lenz, Mauro S Oliveira, David C Henshall, Carlos F Mello
Neuroinflammation plays a major role in brain excitability and may contribute to the development of epilepsy. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is a direct mediator of inflammatory responses and, through EP receptors, plays an important role in neuronal excitability. Pharmacological evidence supports that centrally-administered EP1 and EP3 receptor antagonists reduced acutely evoked seizures in rats. Translation of these findings would benefit from evidence of efficacy with a more clinically relevant route of delivery and validation in another species...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593849/ascorbic-acid-and-sodium-benzoate-synergistically-aggravates-testicular-dysfunction-in-adult-wistar-rats
#11
Olaniyi S Kehinde, Oyewopo I Christianah, Oyewopo A Oyetunji
BACKGROUND: The effect of the concomitant use of sodium benzoate (NaB) and ascorbic acid on human health remains controversial. Therefore, the current study is designed to investigate the effect of NaB and ascorbic acid on the testicular function of adult Wistar rats. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were randomly allotted into Control (vehicle; received 1 ml of distilled water), NaB-treated (SB-treated; received 100 mg/kg body weight; b.w ), ascorbic acid-treated (AA-treated; received 150 mg/kg b...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593848/saturated-fatty-acids-bound-to-albumin-enhance-osteopontin-expression-and-cleavage-in-renal-proximal-tubular-cells
#12
Alyssa Cobbs, Kristopher Ballou, Xiaoming Chen, Jasmine George, Xueying Zhao
Osteopontin (OPN) is one of the proinflammatory cytokines upregulated in the kidneys of diabetic animals and patients with nephropathy. An increase in urinary albumin and albumin-bound fatty acids (FA) presents a proinflammatory environment to the proximal tubules in proteinuric kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy. This study was designed to examine if FA overload could stimulate OPN expression and cleavage in renal tubule epithelial cells. OPN gene and protein expression was examined in the kidney of Zucker diabetic (ZD) rats and cultured proximal tubular cells exposed to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA conjugated with palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant saturated plasma FA...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593847/the-crosstalk-between-autonomic-nervous-system-and-blood-vessels
#13
REVIEW
Yulan Sheng, Li Zhu
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), comprised of two primary branches, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular wall contractility and tension. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves work together to balance the functions of autonomic effector organs. The neurotransmitters released from the varicosities in the ANS can regulate the vascular tone. Norepinephrine (NE), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) function as vasoconstrictors, whereas acetylcholine (Ach) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) can mediate vasodilation...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593846/new-insights-into-nod-like-receptors-nlrs-in-liver-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Tao Xu, Yan Du, Xiu-Bin Fang, Hao Chen, Dan-Dan Zhou, Yang Wang, Lei Zhang
Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways is of central importance in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular innate immune sensors of microbes and danger signals that control multiple aspects of inflammatory responses. Recent studies demonstrated that NLRs are expressed and activated in innate immune cells as well as in parenchymal cells in the liver. For example, NLRP3 signaling is involved in liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and silencing of NLRP3 can protect the liver from I/R injury...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348800/methanolic-extract-of-cola-nitida-elicits-dose-dependent-diuretic-natriuretic-and-kaliuretic-activities-without-causing-electrolyte-impairment-hepatotoxicity-and-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#15
Olukayode Isaac Adeosun, Kehinde S Olaniyi, Oluwatobi A Amusa, Gbemisola Z Jimoh, Adesola A Oniyide
Cola nitida (Kolanut) is conventionally used in tropical Africa for the treatment of all kinds of ailments such as migraine, morning sickness, metabolic disorders etc. However, this study was designed to investigate the diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities of methanolic extract of Cola nitida (MECN) in male Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into control (25 ml/kg b.w .), furosemide (20 mg/kg b.w ; standard), MECN1 (100 mg/kg), MECN2 (200 mg/kg), MECN3 (300 mg/kg), MECN4 (400 mg/kg), MECN5 (500 mg/kg), MECN6 (600 mg/kg) groups with n=6...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348799/low-dose-ethanol-excites-lateral-habenula-neurons-projecting-to-vta-rmtg-and-raphe
#16
Rao Fu, Qinghua Mei, Wanhong Zuo, Jing Li, Danielle Gregor, Alex Bekker, Jianghong Ye
It is unclear how social drinking can contribute to the development of addiction in susceptible individuals. However, alcohol's aversive properties are a well-known factor contributing to its abuse. The lateral habenula (LHb) is a key brain structure responding to various aversive stimuli, including those related to alcohol. We recently reported that ethanol at 10 mM or less that can be achieved by social drinking activates many LHb neurons and drives aversive conditioning. The current study sought to identify LHb circuits that are activated by a low-dose of ethanol using immunohistochemistry and anatomic tracing techniques on adult Sprague-Dawley rats...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348798/trpm7-is-a-unique-target-for-therapeutic-intervention-of-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Jun Lin, Zhi-Gang Xiong
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and long-term disabilities. The current therapy is limited to thrombolysis and mechanical recanalization, which have limited success. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying ischemic brain injury is therefore needed for the development of more effective interventions. Glutamate receptor-mediated Ca2+ overload and neurotoxicity have been well established for decades. However, clinical trials failed to show a satisfactory effect with the antagonists of glutamate receptors...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348797/experimentally-induced-ventricular-arrhythmias
#18
Gary F Merrill
Hypoxia and reoxygenation, ischemia and reperfusion, catecholamine infusion, ouabain, sodium pentobarbital and caffeine, can all be used experimentally to induce ventricular arrhythmias. According to the Lambeth Convention guidelines our experimentally-induced ventricular arrhythmias include but are not limited to: ventricular premature beats (VPB), ventricular salvos (VS), ventricular bigeminy (VB), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VTn), sustained ventricular tachycardia (VTs) and ventricular fibrillation (VF, or if the heart is not defibrillated, sudden cardiac death)...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348796/condition-specific-transcriptional-regulation-of-neuronal-ion-channel-genes-in-brain-ischemia
#19
Luisa Hernandez-Encarnacion, Pankaj Sharma, Roger Simon, An Zhou
In the context of seeking novel therapeutic targets for treating ischemic stroke, the preconditioning ischemia-induced brain ischemic tolerance has been used as a model of endogenously operative, broad-based neuroprotective mechanisms. Targeting such mechanisms is considered potentially less prone to adverse side effects, as those seen in many failed clinical trials that focus on single targets using exogenous compounds. Results from previous studies have revealed an overall decrease in potassium channel activity in tolerance development...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348795/therapeutic-angiogenesis-of-exosomes-for-ischemic-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Gygeria E Manuel, Takerra Johnson, Dong Liu
Angiogenesis is the process through which new blood vessels are formed, while therapeutic angiogenesis aims to promote and control the angiogenic response. Ischemia results from the lack of blood flow with oxygen and nutrients. Therapeutic angiogenesis is crucial in preserving brain tissue and bodily functions after ischemic stroke. Various approaches have been proposed to promote angiogenesis in ischemic diseases. Traditional protein/gene and subsequent stem/progenitor cell approaches have not shown consistent efficacy for ischemic diseases in clinical trials...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
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