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International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078056/proton-pump-inhibitor-induced-hypomagnesaemia-and-hypocalcaemia-case-review
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan Sivakumar
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypomagnesaemia is a rare but serious adverse effect of a widely prescribed medication. It has become an increasingly recognised complication since 2006, with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issuing a warning for this risk with regards to long-term PPI use. We present the case of PPI-associated hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia. A 91 year old male presented with tetany from severe hypomagnesaemia and hypocalcaemia. This condition occurred in the context of 18 months of PPI use, and resolved following cessation of PPI therapy and the replenishment of magnesium and calcium stores...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078055/comparative-changes-in-antioxidant-enzymes-and-oxidative-stress-in-cardiac-fast-twitch-and-slow-twitch-skeletal-muscles-following-endurance-exercise-training
#2
Hayden W Hyatt, Ashley J Smuder, Kurt J Sollanek, Aaron B Morton, Michael D Roberts, Andreas N Kavazis
The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise-induced transcriptional and protein responses of heart, soleus (slow oxidative), and plantaris (fast glycolytic) muscle in response to ten days of endurance exercise training. Four-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either a sedentary (SED) or endurance exercise-training (EXE) group (n=8 per group). The heart, plantaris, and soleus were excised and used for biochemical analyses. Our results show that heart and plantaris from EXE animals had higher protein levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) compared to SED animals (P<0...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078054/the-effect-of-thymoquinone-on-the-renal-functions-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-rat
#3
Fayez T Hammad, Loay Lubbad
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thymoquinone, an antioxidant phytochemical compound found in the plant Nigella sativa, on the alterations in renal functional parameters following warm renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the rat. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent left renal ischemia for 35 minutes. Group-TQ (n=15) received thymoquinone 10 mg/kg/day (dissolved in a vehicle (corn oil) orally by gavage starting 4 days prior to IRI and continued 6 days thereafter when the hemodynamic and tubular renal functions of the right and left kidneys were measured using clearance techniques...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078053/amyloid-beta-peptide-22-35-induces-a-negative-inotropic-effect-on-isolated-rat-hearts
#4
Neda Yousefirad, Ziya Kaygısız, Yasemin Aydın
Evidences indicate that deposition of amyloid beta peptides (Aβs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Aβs may influence cardiovascular system and ileum contractions. But the effect of amyloid beta peptide 22-35 (Aβ22-35) on cardiovascular functions and contractions of ileum has not been studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of this peptide on isolated rat heart and ileum smooth muscle. Langendorff-perfused rat heart preparations were established...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078052/dose-rate-plays-a-significant-role-in-synchrotron-radiation-x-ray-induced-damage-of-rodent-testes
#5
Heyu Chen, Ban Wang, Caixia Wang, Wei Cao, Jie Zhang, Yingxin Ma, Yunyi Hong, Shen Fu, Fan Wu, Weihai Ying
Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has significant potential for applications in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying SR X-ray-induced tissue damage remain unclear. Previous studies on regular X-ray-induced tissue damage have suggested that dose-rate could affect radiation damage. Because SR X-ray has exceedingly high dose-rate compared to regular X-ray, it remains to be determined if dose-rate may affect SR X-ray-induced tissue damage. We used rodent testes as a model to investigate the role of dose-rate in SR X-ray-induced tissue damage...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785340/comparison-of-the-therapeutic-effectiveness-of-human-cd34-and-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-improvement-of-experimental-liver-fibrosis-in-wistar-rats
#6
Hayam G Sayyed, Amany Osama, Naglaa K Idriss, Dina Sabry, Azza S Abdelrhim, Rania Bakry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have numerous advantages as grafts for cell transplantation. We hypothesized differing impacts of human UCB cells and rat BM-MSCs on reversal of hepatic injury and revival of liver function in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into 4 groups; control group, CCl4 group, CCl4/CD34(+) group and CCl4/BM-MSCs group...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785339/sirt2-plays-a-significant-role-in-maintaining-the-survival-and-energy-metabolism-of-piec-endothelial-cells
#7
Jie Zhang, Caixia Wang, Hui Nie, Danhong Wu, Weihai Ying
SIRT2, a member of the sirtuin (SIRT1-7) family, is a tubulin deacetylase. It has been reported that SIRT2 mediates cellular stress responses and is highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, while its roles in cell survival and energy metabolism of endothelial cells remain unknown. In the current study, we tested our hypothesis that SIRT2 plays an important role in the cell survival and energy metabolism of endothelial cells, using a porcine vascular endothelial cell line (PIEC) as a cellular model. Our study showed that both SIRT2 inhibitor AGK2 and SIRT2 siRNA led to a significant reduction of the cell survival of PIEC cells...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785338/dose-dependent-effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-early-lifetime-on-apoptosis-in-hippocampus-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Xue Zhou, Wenda Li, Xiaohui Chen, Xiaoyu Yang, Zhibin Zhou, Dihan Lu, Xia Feng
Sevoflurane has become a main method for induction of anesthesia in pediatric populations. Preclinical evidence suggest the neurotoxic effect of volatile anesthetics on the developing brain including sevoflurane. This study investigates the effect of different doses of sevoflurane on the developing brain. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats of postnatal (P) day 7 were exposed to 0.3%, 1.3% and 2.3% sevoflurane for 6 hours. 6 hours after exposure, Nissl staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of the hippocampus and western-blot was done to evaluate the expression changes in cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785337/erratum-a-novel-ampk-activator-from-chinese-herb-medicine-and-ischemia-phosphorylate-the-cardiac-transcription-factor-foxo3
#9
Jingying Wang, Heng Ma, Xiaoyu Zhang, Leilei He, Jianming Wu, Xiaoping Gao, Jun Ren, Ji Li
[This corrects the article on p. 116 in vol. 1, PMID: 20445824.].
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785336/type-3-adenylyl-cyclase-a-key-enzyme-mediating-the-camp-signaling-in-neuronal-cilia
#10
REVIEW
Liyan Qiu, Robert P LeBel, Daniel R Storm, Xuanmao Chen
Cilia are rigid, centriole-derived, microtubule-based organelles present in a majority of vertebrate cells including neurons. They are considered the cellular "antennae" attuned for detecting a range of extracellular signals including photons, odorants, morphogens, hormones and mechanical forces. The ciliary microenvironment is distinct from most actin-based subcellular structures such as microvilli or synapses. In the nervous system, there is no evidence that neuronal cilia process any synaptic structure. Apparently, the structural features of neuronal cilia do not allow them to harbor any synaptic connections...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785335/single-session-of-sprint-interval-training-elicits-similar-cardiac-output-but-lower-oxygen-uptake-versus-ramp-exercise-to-exhaustion-in-men-and-women
#11
Trevor Horn, Garret Roverud, Kandice Sutzko, Melissa Browne, Cristina Parra, Todd A Astorino
Sprint interval training (SIT) elicits comparable long-term adaptations versus continuous exercise training (CEX) including increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and fat utilization. However, there is limited research examining acute hemodynamic responses to SIT. The aim of this study was to examine hemodynamic responses to low-volume SIT. Active men (n=6, VO2max = 39.8 ± 1.7 mL/kg/min) and women (n=7, VO2max = 37.3 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) performed a ramp-based VO2max test (RAMP) to determine workload for the SIT session...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785334/modulatory-influence-of-parkia-biglobosa-protein-isolate-on-testosterone-and-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-brain-and-testes-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-male-rats
#12
Bolajoko Idiat Ogunyinka, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Foluso Oluwagbemiga Osunsanmi, Andrew Rowland Opoku, Abidemi Paul Kappo
Parkia biglobosa seed an important household spice commonly consumed in Nigeria is believed to possess antioxidant activity that may exert modulatory effects in diabetes and diabetic complications. This study investigated the modulatory potential of Parkia biglobosa protein isolate (PBPi) on serum testosterone (sTT) level as well as its influence on biomarkers of oxidative stress in brain and testes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Animals were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg body weight)...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570581/the-effect-of-aliskiren-on-the-renal-dysfunction-following-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-in-the-rat
#13
Fayez T Hammad, Loay Lubbad
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of blocking renin-angiotensin system by direct renin inhibition using aliskiren on the renal dysfunction following reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (UO). METHODS: Wistar rats underwent reversible left UO for 72 hours. Group-Alsk (n=12) received aliskiren (30 mg/kg/day) dissolved in water starting one day before creating UO and continued until the terminal experiment five days post reversal when renal functions were measured using clearance techniques...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570580/sphingolipids-in-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Zachary B Jones, Yi Ren
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Despite progress over the last few decades, the molecular mechanisms of secondary SCI that continue to occur days and weeks after the original trauma remain poorly understood. As a result, current therapies for SCI are only marginally effective. Sphingolipids, a diverse class of bioactive lipids, have been shown to regulate SCI repair and key secondary injury processes such as apoptosis, ischemia and inflammation...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186322/zinc-wave-during-the-treatment-of-hypoxia-is-required-for-initial-reactive-oxygen-species-activation-in-mitochondria
#15
Kira G Slepchenko, Qiping Lu, Yang V Li
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to accumulate during chemical hypoxia, causing adverse effects on cell function and survival. Recent studies show important role zinc accumulation plays in dysfunction associated with hypoxia. It is well known that ROS accumulation also plays a major role in cellular damage by hypoxia. In this study, fluorescent imaging and pharmacological methods were used in live HeLa cells to determine role of zinc in initial ROS accumulation in mitochondria during chemical hypoxia (oxygen glucose depravation with 4 mM sodium dithionite)...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186321/intracellular-zinc-distribution-in-mitochondria-er-and-the-golgi-apparatus
#16
Qiping Lu, Hariprakash Haragopal, Kira G Slepchenko, Christian Stork, Yang V Li
Zinc (Zn(2+)) is required for numerous cellular functions. As such, the homeostasis and distribution of intracellular zinc can influence cellular metabolism and signaling. However, the exact distribution of free zinc within live cells remains elusive. Previously we showed the release of zinc from thapsigargin/IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) storage in cortical neurons. In the present study, we investigated if other cellular organelles also contain free chelatable zinc and function as organelle storage for zinc...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186320/role-of-autophagy-in-megakaryocyte-differentiation-and-platelet-formation
#17
REVIEW
Tao You, Qi Wang, Li Zhu
Autophagy is a conserved biological process for digestion and recycling of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy may trigger cell death or promote cell survival following various forms of stress. The emerging roles of autophagy in megakaryopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, and platelet function have been uncovered using not only in vitro and in vivo genetic models, but also in clinical observations of autophagic structure in patients with thrombocytopenic disorders. Inhibition of autophagy in early stage of megakaryocyte differentiation appears to impede megakaryocyte maturation, reduce platelet formation, and affect platelet function, whereas autophagic deficiency in mature megakaryocytes gives rise to abnormal platelet activation and function without changing platelet size and number...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186319/the-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-attenuates-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#18
Hasibur Rehman, Qinlong Liu, Yasodha Krishnasamy, Zengdun Shi, Venkat K Ramshesh, Khujista Haque, Rick G Schnellmann, Michael P Murphy, John J Lemasters, Don C Rockey, Zhi Zhong
Oxidative stress plays an essential role in liver fibrosis. This study investigated whether MitoQ, an orally active mitochondrial antioxidant, decreases liver fibrosis. Mice were injected with corn oil or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1:3 dilution in corn oil; 1 µl/g, ip) once every 3 days for up to 6 weeks. 4-Hydroxynonenal adducts increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating oxidative stress. MitoQ attenuated oxidative stress after CCl4. Collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating increased collagen formation and deposition...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186318/neuroprotective-effect-of-lidocaine-is-there-clinical-potential
#19
REVIEW
Tiandong Leng, Xiuren Gao, James P Dilger, Jun Lin
Local anesthetic lidocaine has been shown to be protective in animal models of focal and global ischemia as well as in in vitro hypoxic models. Lidocaine has been tested in patients for its potential protective effect on postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This mini-review summarizes the laboratory and clinical evidences and discusses its clinical applications as neuroprotective agent.
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186317/optogenetics-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Kiara T Vann, Zhi-Gang Xiong
Neurodegenerative diseases are devastating conditions that lead to progressive degeneration of neurons. Neurodegeneration may result in ataxia, dementia, and muscle atrophies, etc. Despite enormous research efforts that have been made, there is lack of effective therapeutic interventions for most of these diseases. Optogenetics is a recently developed novel technique that combines optics and genetics to modulate the activity of specific neurons. Optogenetics has been implemented in various studies including neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
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