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International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology

Fayez T Hammad, Loay Lubbad
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of blocking renin-angiotensin system by direct renin inhibition using aliskiren on the renal dysfunction following reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (UO). METHODS: Wistar rats underwent reversible left UO for 72 hours. Group-Alsk (n=12) received aliskiren (30 mg/kg/day) dissolved in water starting one day before creating UO and continued until the terminal experiment five days post reversal when renal functions were measured using clearance techniques...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Zachary B Jones, Yi Ren
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Despite progress over the last few decades, the molecular mechanisms of secondary SCI that continue to occur days and weeks after the original trauma remain poorly understood. As a result, current therapies for SCI are only marginally effective. Sphingolipids, a diverse class of bioactive lipids, have been shown to regulate SCI repair and key secondary injury processes such as apoptosis, ischemia and inflammation...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Kira G Slepchenko, Qiping Lu, Yang V Li
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to accumulate during chemical hypoxia, causing adverse effects on cell function and survival. Recent studies show important role zinc accumulation plays in dysfunction associated with hypoxia. It is well known that ROS accumulation also plays a major role in cellular damage by hypoxia. In this study, fluorescent imaging and pharmacological methods were used in live HeLa cells to determine role of zinc in initial ROS accumulation in mitochondria during chemical hypoxia (oxygen glucose depravation with 4 mM sodium dithionite)...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Qiping Lu, Hariprakash Haragopal, Kira G Slepchenko, Christian Stork, Yang V Li
Zinc (Zn(2+)) is required for numerous cellular functions. As such, the homeostasis and distribution of intracellular zinc can influence cellular metabolism and signaling. However, the exact distribution of free zinc within live cells remains elusive. Previously we showed the release of zinc from thapsigargin/IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) storage in cortical neurons. In the present study, we investigated if other cellular organelles also contain free chelatable zinc and function as organelle storage for zinc...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Tao You, Qi Wang, Li Zhu
Autophagy is a conserved biological process for digestion and recycling of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy may trigger cell death or promote cell survival following various forms of stress. The emerging roles of autophagy in megakaryopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, and platelet function have been uncovered using not only in vitro and in vivo genetic models, but also in clinical observations of autophagic structure in patients with thrombocytopenic disorders. Inhibition of autophagy in early stage of megakaryocyte differentiation appears to impede megakaryocyte maturation, reduce platelet formation, and affect platelet function, whereas autophagic deficiency in mature megakaryocytes gives rise to abnormal platelet activation and function without changing platelet size and number...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Hasibur Rehman, Qinlong Liu, Yasodha Krishnasamy, Zengdun Shi, Venkat K Ramshesh, Khujista Haque, Rick G Schnellmann, Michael P Murphy, John J Lemasters, Don C Rockey, Zhi Zhong
Oxidative stress plays an essential role in liver fibrosis. This study investigated whether MitoQ, an orally active mitochondrial antioxidant, decreases liver fibrosis. Mice were injected with corn oil or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1:3 dilution in corn oil; 1 µl/g, ip) once every 3 days for up to 6 weeks. 4-Hydroxynonenal adducts increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating oxidative stress. MitoQ attenuated oxidative stress after CCl4. Collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating increased collagen formation and deposition...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Tiandong Leng, Xiuren Gao, James P Dilger, Jun Lin
Local anesthetic lidocaine has been shown to be protective in animal models of focal and global ischemia as well as in in vitro hypoxic models. Lidocaine has been tested in patients for its potential protective effect on postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This mini-review summarizes the laboratory and clinical evidences and discusses its clinical applications as neuroprotective agent.
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Kiara T Vann, Zhi-Gang Xiong
Neurodegenerative diseases are devastating conditions that lead to progressive degeneration of neurons. Neurodegeneration may result in ataxia, dementia, and muscle atrophies, etc. Despite enormous research efforts that have been made, there is lack of effective therapeutic interventions for most of these diseases. Optogenetics is a recently developed novel technique that combines optics and genetics to modulate the activity of specific neurons. Optogenetics has been implemented in various studies including neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Ming-Shu Mo, You-Sheng Xiao, Zhuo-Hua Wu, Cong-Cong Sun, Li-Min Zhang, Luan Cen, Xiang Chen, Shao-Gang Qu, Xin-Ling Yang, Ping-Yi Xu
Our aim is to explore the linkage between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRA and Parkinson's disease (PD). 542 sporadic PD patients and 674 healthy controls were recruited to investigate this association in the Chinese population by the screening of 15 SNPs in HLA-DRA, and the association of rs3129882 was further re-evaluated by performing meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. No SNPs in HLA-DRA were significantly associated with PD in the Chinese patients. Although the rs3129882 allele-G frequency in the Caucasian population was lower than that in Chinese population, meta-analysis showed no association of rs3129882 allele-G with PD in the Chinese or Caucasian population...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Shyamal Kanti Das, Soumendra Nath Karmakar
Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Ling Ye, Yunxia Zuo, Peng Zhang, Pingliang Yang
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on skeletal muscle contractility. In the first part, twenty-two American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA I-II) female adult patients undergoing elective hysterectomy surgery inhaled sevoflurane 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) in succession. Neuromuscular function was assessed at each dose. In the second part, forty-four ASA I-II female adult patients were randomized into four groups: group 1 (propofol + atracurium, sevoflurane 0 MAC), and groups 2 to 4 (atracurium + sevoflurane 1...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Raziye Akcılar, Gündüz Yümün, Zeynep Bayat, Okan Donbaloğlu, Kubilay Erselcan, Ezgi Ece, Hülya Kökdaşgil, Osman Genç
To evaluate the association between the apelin -1860T>C polymorphism and plasma apelin levels in Turkish patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 276 individuals were enrolled in the present study, including 158 patients with CAD and 118 individuals without CAD as controls. The presence of the apelin -1860T>C gene polymorphism and plasma apelin levels were determined using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Yi Zeng, Yutong Ye, Desen Liang, Chao Guo, Lijie Li
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic evaluation of the efficacy of lansoprazole and omeprazole for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. METHODS: Online databases, including CHKD, VIP, China Info, the National Digital Library of China, Google Scholar, PubMed, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, and Wiley Online Library were searched for related studies. The quality of the studies was evaluated in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, and relevant information was extracted from them...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Zhi-Gang He, Bao-Wen Liu, Hong-Bing Xiang
Melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems are widely distributed in the CNS and have been established as a crucial regulatory component in diverse physiological functions. The pharmacology of both melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems including their individual receptors, signaling mechanisms, agonists and antagonists has been extensively studied. Several lines of evidence showed that there existed a cross interaction between the receptors of melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems. The data available at present had expanded our understanding of melanocortinergic and dopaminergic system interaction in neural modulation, which will be main discussed in this paper...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Xiang Shen, Yan-Ying Xie, Chen Chen, Xiao-Ping Wang
This study was designed to illustrate the effects of electroacupuncture on cognitive function in rats with Parkinson's disease (PD). The PD model was established by injecting 6-OHDA into the rat brain. Rats with PD were then subjected to electroacupuncture and levodopa treatment for 2 weeks. The level of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in rat brain homogenates was assessed, for the cerebral cholinergic system is a major chemical pathway consisting of cognitive functions. Immunohistochemistry was applied to observe ChAT expression in the rat hippocampus and corpus striatum...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Rao Fu, Danielle Gregor, Zengliu Peng, Jing Li, Alex Bekker, Jianghong Ye
The mechanisms of hyperalgesia in alcoholics are not completely clear, and the development of animal models would therefore be necessary in investigating the underlying changes. Several studies including our own have demonstrated that the intermittent access to 20% ethanol two-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) promotes escalation of drinking, and induces physical dependence in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat, one of the strains most commonly used in preclinical alcohol research. In this study, we investigated whether the IA2BC procedure could produce hyperalgesia in SD rats...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Jessica L Freeling, Yifan Li
The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis through the balance of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS). Especially evident in the heart, maintenance of this balance is important for the control of heart rate, conduction, and contractility. It is known that aging, similar to various cardiovascular diseases, results in an increase in SNS activity and a decrease in PSNS activity, which may contribute to age-related cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. Intracardiac ganglia relay and integrate the PSNS signals to the heart...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Suleiman Al Hammadi, Saeeda Almarzooqi, Hidaya Mohammed Abdul-Kader, Dhanya Saraswathiamma, Abdul-Kader Souid
Idelalisib (an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-delta) is approved for treatment of B-cell malignancies, with a Boxed Warning concerning potentially fatal hepatic, lung, and intestinal toxicities. The mechanisms of these tissue-specific adverse events have yet to be elucidated. This in vitro study investigated whether these effects could be attributed, at least in part, to altered cellular bioenergetics. A phosphorescence analyzer was used to measure cellular mitochondrial O2 consumption (kc , µM O2 min(-1) mg(-1)) in C57BL/6 mouse organs in the presence of 10 µM idelalisib or dimethyl-sulfoxide...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Caixia Wang, Jie Zhang, Mingchao Zhang, Heyu Chen, Weihai Ying
NADH shuttles mediate the transfer of the reducing equivalents of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria. Increasing evidence has suggested that malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), one of the two types of NADH shuttles, plays important roles in certain biological processes. Aralar/AGC1, a Ca(2+)-dependent aspartate-glutamate carrier on mitochondrial membrane, is a component of MAS. It has been reported that Aralar plays crucial roles in linking increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations to enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism of neurons under certain conditions, while the role of the carrier in cell survival remains unknown...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Jingying Wang, Heng Ma, Xiaoyu Zhang, Leilei He, Jianming Wu, Xiaoping Gao, Jun Ren, Ji Li
Oleanolic Acid (OA) is a nature product extracted from Chinese Herb Medicine which is traditionally used as treatment of diabetes and ischemic heart diseases. Mounting evidence showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has cardioprotective effect against ischemic injury and the forkhead transcription factor 3 (FOXO3) was recently identified as a downstream target of AMPK. We hypothesize that OA may protect against ischemic dysfunction of cardiomyocytes via activation of AMPK signaling pathway. Male C57BL/6 mice which were subjected to in vivo regional cardiac ischemia stimulated AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation, as well as phosphorylation of downstream FOXO3 (Ser(413)) and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC)...
2015: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
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