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Journal of Diabetes Investigation

Wenjia Yang, Xiaoling Cai, Xueying Gao, Yifei Chen, Chen Ling, Linong Ji
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining insulin therapy with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors compared to combining insulin therapy with placebo or other antihyperglycaemic agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted via electronic databases. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the addition of DPP-4 inhibitors to insulin with the addition of placebo or other active hypoglycaemic agents to insulin therapy, study duration of no less than 12 weeks performed in type 2 diabetes patients, and the availability of outcome data to evaluate a change in the HbA1c ...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Sae Uno, Akihisa Imagawa, Junji Kozawa, Kenji Fukui, Hiromi Iwahashi, Iichiro Shimomura
AIM/INTRODUCTION: The patients with type 1 diabetes are classified into three subtypes: acute-onset, fulminant, and slowly progressive in Japan. Acute-onset type 1 diabetes would be equivalent to type 1A diabetes, the typical type 1 diabetes in Western countries. The insulin secretion capacity in Japanese subjects with long-standing type 1A diabetes is unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify the course of endogenous insulin secretion during long-term follow-up and factors associated with residual insulin secretion in patients with acute-onset type 1 diabetes (autoimmune)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Shunsuke Yamane, Nobuya Inagaki
Gut hormonal substances released in response to nutrients include incretins, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Together, incretins are responsible for 50%-60% of postprandial insulin secretion. Oral glucose administration leads to greater insulin release from pancreatic islets than intravenous glucose loading that yields equivalent blood glucose levels; this phenomenon is called the incretin effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Kazuyuki Tobe, Hideki Suganami, Kohei Kaku
INTRODUCTION: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus that improve control of plasma glucose and body weight, giving great hope for the clinical utility of these agents. However, it is unclear for which patients that SGLT2 inhibitors will be useful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from long-term tofogliflozin monotherapy in an open-label, randomized controlled trial in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Xiaoling Cai, Xueying Gao, Wenjia Yang, Yifei Chen, Simin Zhang, Lingli Zhou, Xueyao Han, Linong Ji
AIMS: To evaluate whether there is disparity of the efficacy and all cause mortality and other adverse effects between Asian and non-Asian patients with SGLT2 inhibitors treatment. METHODS: Randomized clinical trials publicly available before January 2017, comparing SGLT2 inhibitors treatment with placebo in type 2 diabetes patients were identified. The registration number of this meta-analysis is CRD42016047666. The association between treatment and outcomes was estimated by computing the weighted mean difference (WMD) for HbA1C level, blood pressure level, lipid profile levels and body weight and the odds ratios (ORs) for adverse events...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Arihiro Kiyosue, Yutaka Seino, Keiji Nishijima, Heidrun Bosch-Traberg, Kohei Kaku
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this post hoc analysis was to investigate the safety and efficacy of liraglutide in combination with one oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) across different OAD classes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis using data from a 52-week, open-label, parallel-group trial, in which patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with a single OAD (α-glucosidase inhibitor, glinide, metformin or thiazolidinedione) were randomized to either pre-trial OAD in combination with liraglutide 0...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Timothy J Kieffer, Knut Woltjen, Kenji Osafune, Daisuke Yabe, Nobuya Inagaki
Diabetes is characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose as a result of insufficient production of insulin from loss or dysfunction of pancreatic islet beta cells. Here we review several approaches to replace beta cells that were recently discussed at a symposium held in Kyoto, Japan. Transplant of donor human islets can effectively treat diabetes and eliminate the need for insulin injections, supporting research aimed at identifying abundant supplies of cells. Studies demonstrating the feasibility of producing mouse islets in rats support the concept of generating pigs with human pancreas that can serve as donors of human islets, although scientific and ethical challenges remain...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Shuangxin Liu, Lixia Xu, Jianchao Ma, Renwei Huang, Ting Lin, Zhuo Li, Huabang Liang, Sijia Li, Ruizhao Li, Li Zhang, Yiming Tao, Zhilian Li, Yuanhan Chen, Zhiming Ye, Bin Zhang, Wenjian Wang, Houqing Xiao, Xinling Liang, Wei Shi
We present the case of a 42-year-old female patient who attempted suicide by taking approximately 100 tablets of metformin (500 mg). Laboratory tests revealed severe lactic acidosis with lactate levels of 24 mmol/L and pH of 7.09. The patient was treated with high-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVH) and resin-sorbent hemoperfusion. Metformin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) during CVVH and hemoperfusion treatment. Before extracorporeal treatment, plasma metformin concentration was 208...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Sen He, Yi Zheng, Xiaoping Chen
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Recently, a new anthropometric parameter (a new hip index, HI) was developed, and HI demonstrates a U-shaped relationship to mortality in the American populations. It is well known that there is an inverse relationship between hip circumference (HC) and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). Accordingly, the study sought to investigate whether HI could predict the future DM, as compared with HC and waist to hip ratio (WHR), in a general Chinese population. METHODS: In 2007, we performed a health examination of 687 subjects (mean age 48...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Kousei Kanto, Hiroyuki Ito, Shinsuke Noso, Naru Babaya, Yoshihisa Hiromine, Yasunori Taketomo, Junko Toma, Fumimaru Niwano, Sara Yasutake, Yumiko Kawabata, Hiroshi Ikegami
AIMS: Differences in the efficacy and safety of anti-diabetic drugs among different ethnic groups are well documented. Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Western countries, but high doses of metformin have been approved only recently for clinical use in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dosage and dosing frequency on the efficacy and safety of high-dose metformin in Japanese patients. METHODS: A total of 71 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were prospectively studied for the effects of dosage and dosing frequency on the efficacy and safety of metformin during hospitalization...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Se Hee Min, Jeong-Hwa Yoon, Seokyung Hahn, Young Min Cho
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The combination of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) may provide an additive or synergistic glucose lowering effect as they have a complementary mode of action. In this study, we examined the efficacy and safety of the addition of a DPP4 inhibitor to patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) inadequately controlled with an AGI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Angela Shin-Yu Lien, Jawl-Shan Hwang, Yi-Der Jiang
Frequent complaint of fatigue for people with chronic condition is a strong predictor for functional limitations, disability, increasing mortality, and other adverse outcomes. With a high prevalence of diabetes in older people worldwide, fatigue symptoms, including frailty, muscle weakness, impaired mobility, functional limitation and loss of independence, are usually complained. Fatigue symptoms accompanied by the complications of neuromuscular dysfunction due to poor glycemic control, cardiovascular disease or peripheral vascular deficit were commonly shown for people with diabetes [1]...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Xinyi Yang, Shuaihui Liu, Rui Zhang, Bei Sun, Saijun Zhou, Rui Chen, Pei Yu
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic value of microRNA as biomarkers in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). METHODS: Two hundred and thirty diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and fifty-three normal (NC) participants were enrolled, DM group further divided into normoalbuminuria (NA), microalbuminuria (MA) and large amount of albuminuria group (LA). MicroRNAs of serum and urine were quantificated using real-time PCR. General clinical information was collected and analyzed for the risk factors...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Ronald Cw Ma, Stefano Del Prato, Baptist Gallwitz, Vyankatesh K Shivane, Diane Lewis-D'Agostino, Zelie Bailes, Sanjay Patel, Jisoo Lee, Maximilian von Eynatten, Maximiliano Di Domenico, Stuart A Ross
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an epidemic in Asia, yet clinical trials of glucose-lowering therapies often enrol predominantly Western populations. We explored the initial combination of metformin and linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in newly diagnosed T2DM patients in Asia with marked hyperglycemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a post-hoc subgroup analysis of a multinational, parallel-group clinical trial in which 316 newly diagnosed T2DM patients with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Antonio Nino, Inaha Okuda, Timothy H Wilson, Lin Yue, Hiromu Nakajima, Maho Tsuboi, Molly C Carr, Yutaka Seino
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: This phase 3, randomized, double-blind 24-week study with extension to 1 year assessed efficacy and safety of albiglutide compared with placebo in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled by diet and exercise with or without a single oral antidiabetic drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients received weekly albiglutide 30 mg (n=160), albiglutide 50 mg (n=150), or placebo switched to albiglutide 30 mg after 24 weeks (n=77)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Natsu Otowa-Suematsu, Kazuhiko Sakaguchi, Hisako Komada, Tomoaki Nakamura, Anna Sou, Yushi Hirota, Masaru Kuroda, Toshiro Shinke, Ken-Ich Hirata, Wataru Ogawa
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Increased glycemic variability is an important contributing factor to coronary artery disease. Although various parameters of glycemic variability can be derived by continuous glucose monitoring, the clinical relevance of individual parameters has remained unclear. We have now analyzed the relation of such parameters to coronary plaque vulnerability MATERIALS AND METHODS: The standard deviation of glucose levels (SD glucose), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), continuous overlapping net glycemic action calculated every 1 h (CONGA-1), and mean of daily differences (MODD) were calculated from continuous glucose monitoring data for 53 subjects hospitalized for percutaneous coronary intervention...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Daisuke Tsujino, Rimei Nishimura, Yoshiko Onda, Chiaki Seo, Kiyotaka Ando, Kazunori Utsunomiya
INTRODUCTION: We compared the efficacy of insulin detemir and biphasic insulin aspart-30 given in the morning as an add-on to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study enrolled 30 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (8%≤HbA1c<11%) being treated with OHA mono- or combination therapy with biguanides, sulfonylureas, or thiazolidinediones. The patients were randomly assigned to insulin detemir (group D) or insulin aspart-30 (group A) given in the morning as add-on to OHAs...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Yoshio Nagai, Ami Nishine, Eriko Hashimoto, Taiga Nakayama, Yosuke Sasaki, Mariko Murakami, Satoshi Ishii, Hiroyuki Kato, Yasushi Tanaka
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: A prospective, 4-week, single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target study was performed to develop an algorithm for safe and effective switching from basal insulin to once-daily insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to continue their current basal insulin therapy (n=10) or to switch to IDegAsp on a 1: 1 unit basis (n=10)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Yusuke Baba, Hiyori Kaneko, Minoru Takemoto, Kana Ide, Yuki Haga, Tatsuo Kanda, Shinsuke Akita, Yoshitaka Kubota, Masayuki Kuroda, Yutaka Kitagawa, Koutaro Yokote
Lipodystrophy is a rare condition that is often accompanied by one or more metabolic diseases. Here we report a case of lipoatrophic diabetes induced by juvenile dermatomyositis. Although pioglitazone was not effective for lowering blood glucose levels, our observation suggested that it improved liver function slightly. The effectiveness of metreleptin for lowering blood glucose levels could not be determined, as we administered it in short period. Liver biopsy revealed burned-out nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Nan Deng, Xiaoyi Zhang, Fangfang Zhao, Ya Wang, Hong He
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Insulin-treated diabetic patients are at high risk for lipohypertrophy (LH), but this clinical problem has been overlooked by some medical staff. In addition, studies differed with each other significantly in prevalence of LH. This systematic review aimed to determine pooled prevalence levels of LH among insulin injection diabetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and Scopus) were searched for eligible studies from their inception until April 2017 and reference lists were searched manually to identify additional studies...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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