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Journal of Diabetes Investigation

Dan Kawamori
Glucagon secreted by pancreatic α-cells plays pivotal roles in the systemic energy homeostasis mainly by regulating systemic glucose mobilization together with another important metabolic hormone, insulin. Recent application of the incretin-based therapies to clinical diabetes refocused on the central roles of glucagon in the development of diabetic hyperglycemia. This revival of glucagon also enhanced the progress of basic research in α-cell biology, as targeting glucagon is now expected to be the next therapeutic approach in diabetes treatment...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Ryo Shigemoto, Takatoshi Anno, Eiichi Ohnuki, Satoru Kosaka, Niro Okimoto, Kohei Kaku, Hideaki Kaneto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Tomoe Kinoshita, Shinji Kamei, Yoshiko Nakamura, Masashi Shimoda, Takatoshi Anno, Atsushi Obata, Tomohiko Kimura, Hidenori Hirukawa, Fuminori Tatsumi, Kenji Kohara, Shuhei Nakanishi, Tomoatsu Mune, Kohei Kaku, Hideaki Kaneto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Cherng-Lan Hsu, Wayne H-H Sheu
It is well established that history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) will increase risks of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and often subsequently link to future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recommendations from The American Diabetes Association (ADA) indicates that GDM is one of risk factors for future CVD in women based on previous evidence showing strong associations between GDM and CVD, such as myocardial infarction and stroke1 . However, most of those relationships were obtained from analysis of retrospective data...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Gen Mizutani, Yusuke Hikima, Atsushi Satomura, Takujiro Iuchi, Ritsuko Nakajima, Yumi Miyashita, Shigemitsu Yasuda, Yoichi Oikawa, Masashi Isshiki, Ikuo Inoue, Mitsuhiko Noda, Akira Shimada
Thiamazole might trigger the onset of type 1 diabetes.
June 14, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Taiki Sugimoto, Kenji Toba, Takashi Sakurai
We investigated the status of glycemic control in elderly patients with cognitive impairment relative to the glycemic targets recommended for elderly patients by the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS)/Japan Geriatrics Society (JGS) Joint Committee. Our results indicated that use of drugs associated with severe hypoglycemia led to excessively lower HbA1c in many patients in categories II and III.
June 14, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Xia Wang, Lin Yang, Ying Cheng, Peilin Zheng, Jingping Hu, Gan Huang, Zhiguang Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor was proved to improve glycemic control and βcell function in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). The potential immune modulation mechanism is still unknown. Thus we tested T lymphocyte subsets and expression of relevant transcription factors in LADA patients with sitagliptin intervention for up to one-year study. METHODS: 40 LADA patients were randomly assigned to sitagliptin and (or) insulin treatment (SITA group, n=20) or insulin alone treatment (CONT group, n=20)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Eiichi Araki, Takafumi Senokuchi, Noboru Furukawa
The major aim of the treatment of diabetes is to prevent the occurrence and progression of micro- and macrovascular complications, and finally to maintain their quality of life (QOL) and to prolong their lives just as in healthy people. It is now clear that the tight glycemic control benefits the prevention of micro-vascular complications 1, 2 . However, the benefit is not yet clear for macro-vascular complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 8, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Xiaoping Chen, Xiaomu Kong
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are prevalent all over the world. Obese patients with more visceral fat are more likely to suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher risk of obesity and diabetes related complications (especially arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 5, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Sumito Sunagawa, Takashi Shirakura, Noboru Hokama, Chisayo Kozuka, Masato Yonamine, Toyotaka Namba, Satoko Morishima, Sawako Nakachi, Yukiko Nishi, Tomomi Ikema, Shiki Okamoto, Chieko Matsui, Naoki Hase, Mizuho Tamura, Michio Shimabukuro, Hiroaki Masuzaki
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: There is a controversy whether hyperuricemia is an independent risk for cardiometabolic diseases. Serum level of uric acid is affected by a wide variety of factors involved in its production and excretion. On the other hand, evidence has accumulated that locally and systemically activated xanthine oxidase (XO), a rate limiting enzyme for production of uric acid, is linked to metabolic derangement in humans and rodents. We therefore explored the clinical implication of plasma XO activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Mads Svart, Nikolaj Rittig, Niels Møller, Holger J Møller, Henning Gronbaek
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is associated with inflammation and increased lipolysis. The macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163) is associated with obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether sCD163 correlates with, key elements of lipolysis in type-1 diabetes (DM1) patients during mild diabetic ketoacidosis. METHODS: We investigated nine patients with DM1 twice during: (i) euglycaemic control conditions (CTR) and a bolus of saline and (ii) hyperglycaemic ketotic conditions (KET) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration combined with insulin deprivation...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Mohammad Kurd, Vahid Valipour Dehnou, Seyed Asadollah Tavakoli, Daniel E Gahreman
AIMS: To investigate the effect of endurance training on Hippocampus DJ-1 and CB2 protein and blood glucose concentration in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into Diabetic (D), Diabetic and Exercise (DE), Exercise (E), and Control (C) groups. The endurance training was performed five times per week for six weeks. The hippocampus DJ-1 and CB2 were measured using an ELISA method. RESULTS: The level of DJ-1 in D group was significantly higher than other groups (p ≤ 0...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Yanfei Wang, Can Hou, Jonathan Wisler, Kanhaiya Singh, Chao Wu, Zhiguo Xie, Qianjin Lu, Zhiguang Zhou
AIM: Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification pattern that activates gene transcription. However, the genome-wide histone H3 acetylation in newly onset T1D patients has been less described. Accordingly, we aimed to unveil the genome-wide promoter acetylation profile in CD4+ T lymphocytes from T1D patients, especially for those with glutamate decarboxylase antibody (GADA) positive...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Hirobumi Igawa, Akihiro Kikuchi, Hirofumi Misu, Kiyo-Aki Ishii, Shuichi Kaneko, Toshinari Takamura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that the organism's nutritional status changes the protein levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in a tissue-specific manner. Although the mechanisms underlying the regulation of IRS-1 in the nutrient-rich conditions associated with diabetes and insulin resistance have been well studied, those under nutrient-poor conditions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how IRS-1 protein levels change depending on the nutritional status of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Athasit Kijmanawat, Panyu Panburana, Sirimon Reutrakul, Chayada Tangshewinsirikul
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of probiotic supplements on insulin resistance in pregnant women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between June 2016 and February 2017. Pregnant women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study at 24-28 weeks of gestation and randomized to receive either probiotic supplements containing Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus or placebo daily for four consecutive weeks...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Takahiro Minamii, Munenobu Nogami, Wataru Ogawa
One hundred years have passed since guanidine, a precursor compound of biguanides and thus of metformin, was found to have a glucose-lowering effect in live animals1 . In this historical study, C. K. Watanabe1 did not set out to identify glucose-lowering agents but rather to understand the mechanism underlying the development of tetany in animals that have undergone parathyroidectomy. Watanabe 1 concluded that guanidine is a pathogenic factor responsible for tetany because its administration in rabbits resulted in "tetany-like" muscle cramps associated with low blood glucose levels...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Yue Sun, Jenny Lee, Ronald C Ma, Timothy Kwok
INTRODUCTION: Older people with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at high risk for cognitive impairment or dementia. The clinical predictors for cognitive decline in older people with DM were elucidated. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a vitamin B12 intervention trial in older people with DM. 271 non-demented subjects were followed up at nine months interval for 27 months. We explored the association between baseline clinical features with changes in cognitive measures (clinical dementia rating scale, neuropsychological test battery including executive function z scores, psychomotor speed z scores and memory z scores)...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Yoshio Fujitani
The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with age. The age-dependent decline in functional β-cell mass contributes to the increased risk of onset of diabetes, reflecting the central role of pancreatic β cells in glucose homeostasis. Indeed, the replication rate of human and rodent β cells is known to decline sharply with age, and such a characteristic of β cells may explain the increased onset of type 2 diabetes in the older population. The molecular mechanism involved in the age-dependent decline of β-cell proliferation has been extensively studied, mainly using rodents and in vitro culture systems, but its molecular basis is still largely unknown...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Dan Kawamori, Naoto Katakami, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Kazuyuki Miyashita, Fumie Sakamoto, Tetsuyuki Yasuda, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Iichiro Shimomura
Currently, the clinical dynamics of glucagon needs to be revised based on previous data obtained from conventional glucagon radioimmunoassays. In this study, we evaluated plasma glucagon levels in type 1 diabetes patients using a newly-developed sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and its association with clinical parameters and markers of diabetes complications were statistically assessed. The plasma glucagon level in 77 Japanese type 1 diabetes patients was 28.1±17.7 pg/mL, and comparable to that reported previously for type 2 diabetes patients...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Moritaka Goto, Shinji Furuta, Satoko Yamashita, Hiroyuki Hashimoto, Wataru Yano, Noriyuki Inoue, Noriaki Kato, Kohei Kaku
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Recent data showed that DPP-4 inhibitors exert a lipid-lowering effect in diabetic patients. However, the mechanism of action is not yet clearly understood. We investigated the effect of anagliptin on cholesterol metabolism and transport in the small intestine using non-diabetic hyperlipidemic animals, to clarify the mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ApoE-deficient mice were orally administered anagliptin in the normal chow...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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