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Oncology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959380/povidone-iodine-for-the-management-of-oral-mucositis-during-cancer-therapy
#1
Jeeve Kanagalingam, Akhil Chopra, Min Hee Hong, Wisam Ibrahim, Antonio Villalon, Jin-Ching Lin
Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and often dose-limiting side effect of cancer therapy. Povidone iodine (PVP-I) formulations have been shown to decrease the incidence and severity of OM, but the relevance of these findings remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to review evidence for the use of PVP-I for OM management. An algorithm identified relevant articles published online, and a panel of experts with experience in the management of OM reviewed the findings. Six studies fulfilled the criteria for full review...
June 14, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814999/centralization-of-liver-cancer-surgery-and-impact-on-multidisciplinary-teams-working-on-stage-iv-colorectal-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Elroy Patrick Weledji
Surgical resection is the most effective treatment approach for colorectal liver metastases but only a minority of patients is suitable for upfront surgery. The treatment strategies of stage IV colorectal cancer have shifted towards a continuum of care in which medical and surgical treatment combinations are tailored to the clinical setting of the individual patient. The optimization of treatment through appropriate decision-making and multimodal therapy for stage IV colorectal cancer require a joint multidisciplinary meeting in a centralized liver cancer unit...
June 14, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781723/developing-a-comprehensive-cardio-oncology-program-at-a-cancer-institute-the-moffitt-cancer-center-experience
#3
REVIEW
Michael G Fradley, Allen C Brown, Bernadette Shields, Federico Viganego, Rongras Damrongwatanasuk, Aarti A Patel, Gregory Hartlage, Natalee Roper, Julie Jaunese, Larry Roy, Roohi Ismail-Khan
Cardio-oncology is a multidisciplinary field focusing on the management and prevention of cardiovascular complications in cancer patients and survivors. While the initial focus of this specialty was on heart failure associated with anthracycline use, novel anticancer agents are increasingly utilized and are associated with many other cardiotoxicities including hypertension, arrhythmias and vascular disease. Since its inception, the field has developed at a rapid pace with the establishment of programs at many major academic institutions and community practices...
June 14, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680539/current-management-options-in-metastatic-renal-cell-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Sittu Govindasamy Dinakaran Gangadaran
Renal cancer accounts for 2.4% of all cancers. Localised disease accounts for the majority of renal cancers (70-75%), however 20-25% of these ultimately develop distant metastasis. The median overall survival of un treated metastatic disease is 5 months with 1-year survival of only 29%. The management of metastatic renal cell cancers traditionally relied on systemic immunotherapy with attendant high morbidity but after the year 2005 the use of effective targeted therapy with tolerable side effect profile has improved the survival from 10...
June 14, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584572/journey-of-trail-from-bench-to-bedside-and-its-potential-role-in-immuno-oncology
#5
REVIEW
George E Naoum, Donald J Buchsbaum, Fady Tawadros, Ammad Farooqi, Waleed O Arafat
Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells has increasingly been the focus of many therapeutic approaches in oncology field. Since its identification as a TNF family member, TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) paved a new path in apoptosis inducing cancer therapies. Its selective ability to activate extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways in cancer cells only, independently from p53 mutations responsible for conventional therapeutics resistance, spotted TRAIL as a potent cancer apoptotic agent. Many recombinant preparations of TRAIL and death receptor targeting monoclonal antibodies have been developed and being tested pre-clinically and clinically both as a single agent and in combinations...
March 3, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584571/novel-strategies-to-improve-the-endocrine-therapy-of-breast-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Aurelio Bartolome Castrellon
Endocrine therapy (ET) constitutes the usual first-line of therapy for patients in the treatment of metastatic hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to first-line endocrine treatment due to intrinsic resistance, while others may initially respond but eventually progress with secondary acquired resistance leading to disease progression. Mechanisms of resistance to anti-estrogen therapy include, loss of expression for estrogen or progesterone receptor, upregulation of epidermal receptor growth factor 2, increased receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, leading to activation of various intracellular pathways that are involved in signal transduction such as PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin, and others...
March 3, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584570/bone-metastases-an-overview
#7
REVIEW
Filipa Macedo, Katia Ladeira, Filipa Pinho, Nadine Saraiva, Nuno Bonito, Luisa Pinto, Francisco Goncalves
Bone is a frequent site of metastases and typically indicates a short-term prognosis in cancer patients. Once cancer has spread to the bones it can rarely be cured, but often it can still be treated to slow its growth. The majority of skeletal metastases are due to breast and prostate cancer. Bone metastasis is actually much more common than primary bone cancers, especially in adults. The diagnosis is based on signs, symptoms and imaging. New classes of drugs and new interventions are given a better quality of life to these patients and improved the expectancy of life...
March 3, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382191/chemotherapy-resistance-mechanisms-in-advanced-skin-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Dinesh Upadhya, Vinitha Ramanath Pai
Melanoma is a most dangerous and deadly type of skin cancer, and considered intrinsically resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has become a major public health concern as the incidence of melanoma has been rising steadily over recent decades with a 5-year survival remaining less than 5%. Detection of the disease in early stage may be curable, but late stage metastatic disease that has spread to other organs has an extremely poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 10 months. Since metastatic melanoma is unresponsive to therapy that is currently available, research is now focused on different treatment strategies such as combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
March 3, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382190/paradoxical-role-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-in-glioma-a-suppressor-or-a-promoter
#9
REVIEW
Richard A Seidu, Min Wu, Zhaoliang Su, Huaxi Xu
Gliomas represent 60% of primary intracranial brain tumors and 80% of all malignant types, with highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although glioma has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathology remain poorly understood. Clarification of the molecular mechanisms involved in their development and/or treatment resistance is highly required. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that can also act as an extracellular trigger of inflammation, proliferation and migration, through receptor for advanced glycation end products and toll like receptors in a number of cancers including gliomas...
March 3, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382189/the-role-of-carboplatin-in-the-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-treatment-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Aurelio Bartolome Castrellon, Ihor Pidhorecky, Vicente Valero, Luis Estuardo Raez
Triple negative breast (TNBC) cancer constitutes a heterogeneous group of disease with histologic and molecular differences. Complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in TNBC is associated with improved outcomes. Efforts have been made in identifying drug combinations that will increase the response rate to preoperative chemotherapy. In this review we present recent studies that have incorporated carboplatin (Cb) in the NACT of TNBC. We discuss the homologous recombination deficiency score and the somatic or germline mutation for BRCA as potential biomarkers for future selection of patients that could benefit from the addition of Cb to NACT...
March 3, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382188/an-updated-review-of-cribriform-carcinomas-with-emphasis-on-histopathological-diagnosis-and-prognostic-significance
#11
REVIEW
Giovanni Branca, Antonio Ieni, Valeria Barresi, Giovanni Tuccari, Rosario Alberto Caruso
Cribriform is a histopathological term used to describe a neoplastic epithelial proliferation in the form of large nests perforated by many quite rounded different-sized spaces. This growth pattern may be seen in carcinomas arising in different organs, and shows important prognostic implications. Therefore, recent data in literature suggest that cribriform carcinoma is a histologically and clinically distinctive type of tumour that should be separated from other similar tumour types. In this article, the pathology of cribriform adenocarcinoma of the prostate, lung, breast, stomach, colon, thyroid, and skin is discussed with particular reference to morphologic and immunohistochemical features, differential diagnosis, and clinical behaviour...
March 3, 2017: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058098/urinary-bladder-cancer-biomarkers-and-target-therapy-new-era-for-more-attention
#12
REVIEW
Amrallah A Mohammed, Hani El-Tanni, Hani M El-Khatib, Ahmad A Mirza, Abdulrahim A Mirza, Turki H Alturaifi
Currently, bladder cancer (BCa) evaluation depends mainly on traditional clinicopathological parameters encompassing tumor stage and grade, which will not reflect the behavior of the disease. Diverse molecular alterations are responsible for the heterogeneous course. The differences in molecular pathogenesis between non-invasive BCa and invasive BCa have been recognized. Molecular biomarkers are promising to predict progression and survival. The management of advanced BCa remains somewhat primitive in comparison with other more common malignancies...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058097/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes-and-response-to-drug-therapy-new-insights
#13
REVIEW
Saeid Shahrabi, Abbas Khosravi, Mohammad Shahjahani, Fakher Rahim, Najmaldin Saki
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic neoplasms ocurring mostly in the elderly. The clinical outcome of MDS patients is still poor despite progress in treatment approaches. About 90% of patients harbor at least one somatic mutation. This review aimed to assess the potential of molecular abnormalities in understanding pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis and in guiding choice of proper therapy in MDS patients. Papers related to this topic from 2000 to 2016 in PubMed and Scopus databases were searched and studied...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058096/breast-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-a-literature-review-of-adjuvant-hormonal-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Stephen Kinsey-Trotman, Zumin Shi, Beverley Fosh
This review paper analyzed publications of adjuvant tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor use following surgery for breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Key endpoint analyses were risk of invasive and noninvasive malignancies and new contralateral breast cancers. Metaanalysis of three studies showed a relative risk of 0.69 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.79, P<0.05) for breast malignancies with tamoxifen treatment in a mixed radiotherapy treatment/naïve cohort. Subgroup analysis of DCIS populations in multiple studies showed a trend to benefit with aromatase inhibitor treatment...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994771/a-novel-role-of-lamins-from-genetic-disease-to-cancer-biomarkers
#15
REVIEW
Kunnathur Murugesan Sakthivel, Poonam Sehgal
Lamins are the key components of the nuclear lamina and by virtue of their interactions with chromatin and binding partners act as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Of late, the diverse roles of lamins in cellular processes have made them the topic of intense debate for their role in cancer progression. The observations about aberrant localization or misexpression of the nuclear lamins in cancerous tissues have often led to the speculative role of lamins as a cancer risk biomarker. Here we discuss the involvement of lamins in several cancer subtypes and their potential role in predicting the tumor progression...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994770/bone-marrow-blood-vessels-normal-and-neoplastic-niche
#16
REVIEW
Saeid Shahrabi, Hadi Rezaeeyan, Ahmad Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Shahjahani, Najmaldin Saki
Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016) of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994769/targeting-hepatocellular-carcinoma-what-did-we-discover-so-far
#17
REVIEW
Ana Filipa Brito, Ana Margarida Abrantes, José Guilherme Tralhão, Maria Filomena Botelho
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasingly considered an issue of global importance. Its rates of incidence and mortality have been markedly increasing over the last decades. Among risk factors, some should be highlighted, namely the infections by hepatitis B and C virus, as well as clinical cases of cirrhosis. HCC is characterized as asymptomatic disease in the initial stages which most often leads to a late diagnosis. At molecular and genetic level HCC represents a highly complex tumor entity, including a wide variety of mutations, thus accounting for different mechanisms of resistance towards therapeutic approaches...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994768/hypertension-and-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
Lisa Derosa, Hassane Izzedine, Laurence Albiges, Bernard Escudier
Arterial hypertension (HTN) is a class effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies, including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Data are conflicting regarding the role of the renin-angiotensin system on angiogenesis and recent data suggest that the use of angiotensin system inhibitors (ASIs; angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) is associated with improved survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), particularly when used with VEGF targeted therapies...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471584/progress-in-treatment-of-viral-infections-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#19
REVIEW
Maria Moschovi, Maria Adamaki, Spiros A Vlahopoulos
In children, the most commonly encountered type of leukemia is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). An important source of morbidity and mortality in ALL are viral infections. Even though allogeneic transplantations, which are often applied also in ALL, carry a recognized risk for viral infections, there are multiple factors that make ALL patients susceptible to viral infections. The presence of those factors has an influence in the type and severity of infections. Currently available treatment options do not guarantee a positive outcome for every case of viral infection in ALL, without significant side effects...
April 15, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471583/splice-variants-of-androgen-receptor-and-prostate-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Orazio Caffo, Francesca Maines, Antonello Veccia, Stefania Kinspergher, Enzo Galligioni
Over the last ten years, two new-generation hormonal drugs and two chemotherapeutic agents have been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Unfortunately, some patients have primary resistance to them and the others eventually develop secondary resistance. It has recently been suggested that the presence of androgen receptor splice variants plays a leading role in the primary and secondary resistance to the new hormonal drugs, whereas their presence seem to have only a partial effect on the activity of the chemotherapeutic agents...
April 15, 2016: Oncology Reviews
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