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Mobile DNA

Thomas Spaller, Eva Kling, Gernot Glöckner, Falk Hillmann, Thomas Winckler
BACKGROUND: In gene-dense genomes, mobile elements are confronted with highly selective pressure to amplify without causing excessive damage to the host. The targeting of tRNA genes as potentially safe integration sites has been developed by retrotransposons in various organisms such as the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In D. discoideum, tRNA gene-targeting retrotransposons have expanded to approximately 3 % of the genome. Recently obtained genome sequences of species representing the evolutionary history of social amoebae enabled us to determine whether the targeting of tRNA genes is a generally successful strategy for mobile elements to colonize compact genomes...
2016: Mobile DNA
John L Goodier
Retrotransposons have generated about 40 % of the human genome. This review examines the strategies the cell has evolved to coexist with these genomic "parasites", focussing on the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons of humans and mice. Some of the restriction factors for retrotransposition, including the APOBECs, MOV10, RNASEL, SAMHD1, TREX1, and ZAP, also limit replication of retroviruses, including HIV, and are part of the intrinsic immune system of the cell. Many of these proteins act in the cytoplasm to degrade retroelement RNA or inhibit its translation...
2016: Mobile DNA
Roy N Platt, Sarah F Mangum, David A Ray
BACKGROUND: Around 40 million years ago DNA transposons began accumulating in an ancestor of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Since that time, Class II transposons have been continuously reinvading and accumulating in vespertilionid genomes at a rate that is unprecedented in mammals. Miniopterus (Miniopteridae), a genus of long-fingered bats that was recently elevated from Vespertilionidae, is the sister taxon to the vespertilionids and is often used as an outgroup when studying transposable elements in vesper bats...
2016: Mobile DNA
Hongseok Ha, Jui Wan Loh, Jinchuan Xing
BACKGROUND: Mobile element insertions are a major source of human genomic variation. SVA (SINE-R/VNTR/Alu) is the youngest retrotransposon family in the human genome and a number of diseases are known to be caused by SVA insertions. However, inter-individual genomic variations generated by SVA insertions and their impacts have not been studied extensively due to the difficulty in identifying polymorphic SVA insertions. RESULTS: To systematically identify SVA insertions at the population level and assess their genomic impact, we developed a mobile element scanning (ME-Scan) protocol we called ME-Scan-SVA...
2016: Mobile DNA
Edgar Andres Ochoa Cruz, Guilherme Marcello Queiroga Cruz, Andréia Prata Vieira, Marie-Anne Van Sluys
BACKGROUND: The genomic data available nowadays has enabled the study of repetitive sequences and their relationship to viruses. Among them, long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the largest component of most plant genomes, the Gypsy and Copia superfamilies being the most common. Recently it has been found that Del lineage, an LTR-RT of Gypsy superfamily, has putative virus-like attachment (vl-att) sites. This signature, originally described for retroviruses, is recognized by retroviral integrase conferring specificity to the integration process...
2016: Mobile DNA
Shannon H C Eagle, Teresa J Crease
BACKGROUND: The Pokey family of DNA transposons consists of two putatively autonomous groups, PokeyA and PokeyB, and two groups of Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs), mPok1 and mPok2. This TE family is unusual as it inserts into a specific site in ribosomal (r)DNA, as well as other locations in Daphnia genomes. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution of the Pokey family in lineages of the Daphnia pulex species complex, and to test the hypothesis that unusally high PokeyA number in some isolates of Daphnia pulicaria is the result of recent transposition...
2016: Mobile DNA
Georgios Markopoulos, Dimitrios Noutsopoulos, Stefania Mantziou, Demetrios Gerogiannis, Soteroula Thrasyvoulou, Georgios Vartholomatos, Evangelos Kolettas, Theodore Tzavaras
BACKGROUND: Retrotransposons are mobile elements that have a high impact on shaping the mammalian genomes. Since the availability of whole genomes, genomic analyses have provided novel insights into retrotransposon biology. However, many retrotransposon families and their possible genomic impact have not yet been analysed. RESULTS: Here, we analysed the structural features, the genomic distribution and the evolutionary history of mouse VL30 LTR-retrotransposons...
2016: Mobile DNA
Dustin C Hancks, Haig H Kazazian
Over evolutionary time, the dynamic nature of a genome is driven, in part, by the activity of transposable elements (TE) such as retrotransposons. On a shorter time scale it has been established that new TE insertions can result in single-gene disease in an individual. In humans, the non-LTR retrotransposon Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous TE. In addition to mobilizing its own RNA to new genomic locations via a "copy-and-paste" mechanism, LINE-1 is able to retrotranspose other RNAs including Alu, SVA, and occasionally cellular RNAs...
2016: Mobile DNA
Kristine J Kines, Mark Sokolowski, Dawn L deHaro, Claiborne M Christian, Melody Baddoo, Madison E Smither, Victoria P Belancio
BACKGROUND: Approximately 17 % of the human genome is comprised of the Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposon, the only currently active autonomous family of retroelements. Though L1 elements have helped to shape mammalian genome evolution over millions of years, L1 activity can also be mutagenic and result in human disease. L1 expression has the potential to contribute to genomic instability via retrotransposition and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Additionally, L1 is responsible for structural genomic variations induced by other transposable elements such as Alu and SVA, which rely on the L1 ORF2 protein for their propagation...
2016: Mobile DNA
Maximilian Kothe, Verena Seidenberg, Susanne Hummel, Oliver Piskurek
BACKGROUND: As Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs), human-specific Alu elements can be used for population genetic studies. Very recent inserts are polymorphic within and between human populations. In a sample of 30 elements originating from three different Alu subfamilies, we investigated whether they are preserved in prehistorical skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. In the present study, we examined a prehistoric triad of father, mother and daughter...
2016: Mobile DNA
Jun Ni, Kirk J Wangensteen, David Nelsen, Darius Balciunas, Kimberly J Skuster, Mark D Urban, Stephen C Ekker
BACKGROUND: The revolutionary concept of "jumping genes" was conceived by McClintock in the late 1940s while studying the Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) system in maize. Transposable elements (TEs) represent the most abundant component of many eukaryotic genomes. Mobile elements are a driving force of eukaryotic genome evolution. McClintock's Ac, the autonomous element of the Ac/Ds system, together with hobo from Drosophila and Tam3 from snapdragon define an ancient and diverse DNA transposon superfamily named hAT...
2016: Mobile DNA
Susmitha Suresh, Hyo Won Ahn, Kartikeya Joshi, Arun Dakshinamurthy, Arun Kannanganat, David J Garfinkel, Philip J Farabaugh
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13100-015-0053-5.].
2016: Mobile DNA
Bo Gao, Dan Shen, Songlei Xue, Cai Chen, Hengmi Cui, Chengyi Song
BACKGROUND: Teleosts are unique among vertebrates, with a wide range of haploid genome sizes in very close lineages, varying from less than 400 mega base pairs (Mb) for pufferfish to over 3000 Mb for salmon. The cause of the difference in genome size remains largely unexplained. RESULTS: In this study, we reveal that the differential success of transposable elements (TEs) correlates with the variation of genome size across four representative teleost species (zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and tetraodon)...
2016: Mobile DNA
Alexandru Al Ecovoiu, Iulian Constantin Ghionoiu, Andrei Mihai Ciuca, Attila Cristian Ratiu
BACKGROUND: A critical topic of insertional mutagenesis experiments performed on model organisms is mapping the hits of artificial transposons (ATs) at nucleotide level accuracy. Mapping errors may occur when sequencing artifacts or mutations as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small indels are present very close to the junction between a genomic sequence and a transposon inverted repeat (TIR). Another particular item of insertional mutagenesis is mapping of the transposon self-insertions and, to our best knowledge, there is no publicly available mapping tool designed to analyze such molecular events...
2016: Mobile DNA
Xiao Chen, Laura F Landweber
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements are a major player contributing to genetic variation and shaping genome evolution. Multiple independent transposon domestication events have occurred in ciliates, recruiting transposases to key roles in cellular processes. In the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax, the telomere-bearing elements (TBE), a Tc1/mariner transposon, occupy a significant portion of the germline genome and are involved in programmed genome rearrangements that produce a transcriptionally active somatic nucleus from a copy of the germline nucleus during development...
2016: Mobile DNA
Shuang Jiang, Danying Cai, Yongwang Sun, Yuanwen Teng
BACKGROUND: Long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons constitute 42.4 % of the genome of the 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group), implying that retrotransposons have played important roles in Pyrus evolution. Therefore, further analysis of retrotransposons will enhance our understanding of the evolutionary history of Pyrus. RESULTS: We identified 1836 LTR-retrotransposons in the 'Suli' pear genome, of which 440 LTR-retrotransposons were predicted to contain at least two of three gene models (gag, integrase and reverse transcriptase)...
2016: Mobile DNA
Fred Dyda, Alison B Hickman
It has recently become clear that many bacterial and archaeal species possess adaptive immune systems. These are typified by multiple copies of DNA sequences known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). These CRISPR repeats are the sites at which short spacers containing sequences of previously encountered foreign DNA are integrated, and the spacers serve as the molecular memory of previous invaders. In vivo work has demonstrated that two CRISPR-associated proteins - Cas1 and Cas2 - are required for spacer integration, but the mechanism by which this is accomplished remained unclear...
2015: Mobile DNA
Adam D Ewing
The number of software tools available for detecting transposable element insertions from whole genome sequence data has been increasing steadily throughout the last ~5 years. Some of these methods have unique features suiting them for particular use cases, but in general they follow one or more of a common set of approaches. Here, detection and filtering approaches are reviewed in the light of transposable element biology and the current state of whole genome sequencing. We demonstrate that the current state-of-the-art methods still do not produce highly concordant results and provide resources to assist future development in transposable element detection methods...
2015: Mobile DNA
Stefan Roffler, Fabrizio Menardo, Thomas Wicker
BACKGROUND: Helitrons are Class II transposons which are highly abundant in almost all eukaryotes. However, most Helitrons lack protein coding sequence. These non-autonomous elements are thought to hijack recombinase/helicase (RepHel) and possibly further enzymes from related, autonomous elements. Interestingly, many plant Helitrons contain an additional gene encoding a single-strand binding protein homologous to Replication Factor A (RPA), a highly conserved, single-copy gene found in all eukaryotes...
2015: Mobile DNA
Susmitha Suresh, Hyo Won Ahn, Kartikeya Joshi, Arun Dakshinamurthy, Arun Kananganat, David J Garfinkel, Philip J Farabaugh
BACKGROUND: A large number of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cellular factors modulate the movement of the retrovirus-like transposon Ty1. Surprisingly, a significant number of chromosomal genes required for Ty1 transposition encode components of the translational machinery, including ribosomal proteins, ribosomal biogenesis factors, protein trafficking proteins and protein or RNA modification enzymes. RESULTS: To assess the mechanistic connection between Ty1 mobility and the translation machinery, we have determined the effect of these mutations on ribosome biogenesis and Ty1 transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation...
2015: Mobile DNA
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