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Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881468/a-new-wipe-sampling-instrument-for-measuring-the-collection-efficiency-of-trace-explosives-residues
#1
Elizabeth L Robinson, Edward Sisco, Matthew E Staymates, Jeffrey A Lawrence
Trace explosives detection, a crucial component of many security screening environments, commonly employs wipe-sampling. Since collection of an explosive residue is necessary for detection, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the parameters that affect the efficiency of collection. Current wipe-sampling evaluation techniques for explosive particles have their limits: manual sampling (with fingers or a wand) is limited in its ability to isolate a single parameter and the TL-slip/peel tester is limited to a linear sample path...
January 14, 2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707044/enhanced-microchip-electrophoresis-separations-combined-with-electrochemical-detection-utilizing-a-capillary-embedded-in-polystyrene
#2
Benjamin T Mehl, R Scott Martin
The ability to use microchip-based electrophoresis for fast, high-throughput separations provides researchers with a tool for close-to real time analysis of biological systems. While PDMS-based electrophoresis devices are popular, the separation efficiency is often an issue due to the hydrophobic nature of PDMS. In this study, a hybrid microfluidic capillary device was fabricated to utilize the positive features of PDMS along with the electrophoretic performance of fused silica. A capillary loop was embedded in a polystyrene base that can be coupled with PDMS microchannels at minimal dead volume interconnects...
January 7, 2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662551/dissecting-the-dissociation-patterns-of-fucosylated-glycopeptides-undergoing-cid-a-case-study-in-improving-automated-glycopeptide-analysis-scoring-algorithms
#3
Jude C Lakbub, Xiaomeng Su, David Hua, Eden P Go, Heather Desaire
The need to investigate the fragmentation of fucosylated glycopeptides is driven by recent work showing that at least one, and perhaps many, glycopeptide analysis scoring algorithms are less effective at identifying fucosylated glycopeptides than non-fucosylated glycopeptides. Herein, we study the CID fragmentation characteristics of fucosylated glycopeptides and the scoring rules of the glycopeptide analysis software, GlycoPep Grader, in an effort to improve automated assignments of these important glycopeptides...
2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568335/paper-spray-mass-spectrometry-for-high-throughput-quantification-of-nicotine-and-cotinine
#4
James E Keating, John T Minges, Scott H Randell, Gary L Glish
The rapid release of new tobacco products requires high-throughput quantitative methods to support tobacco research. Sample preparation for LC-MS and GC-MS is time consuming and limits throughput. Paper spray tandem mass spectrometry (PS-MS/MS) is proposed and validated as a simple and rapid method for quantification of nicotine and cotinine in complex matrices to support tobacco-related research. Air liquid interface (ALI) human tracheobronchial epithelial cell (HTBEC) cultures were exposed to tobacco smoke using a Vitrocell VC-10 smoking machine...
2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449902/sers-fluorescence-bimodal-nanoprobes-for-in-vitro-imaging-of-fatty-acid-responsive-receptor-gpr120
#5
Lifu Xiao, Abdul K Parchur, Timothy A Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou
G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), as a member of the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors, has been shown to function as a sensor for dietary fat in the gustatory and digestive systems. Its specific role in the chemoreception of fatty acids, which is thought to be crucial in understanding the mechanism surrounding the control of fat intake and, accordingly, in the treatment of obesity, remains unclear. Here we report a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-fluorescence bimodal microscopic technique for detection and imaging of GPR120 in single living cells...
2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062391/metabolic-comparison-of-dorsal-versus-ventral-cells-directly-in-the-live-8-cell-frog-embryo-by-microprobe-single-cell-ce-esi-ms
#6
Rosemary M Onjiko, David O Plotnick, Sally A Moody, Peter Nemes
Single-cell mass spectrometry (MS) empowers the characterization of metabolomic changes as cells differentiate to different tissues during early embryogenesis. Using whole-cell dissection and capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization (CE-ESI) MS, we recently uncovered metabolic cell-to-cell differences in the 8- and 16-cell embryo of the South African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ), raising the question whether metabolic cell heterogeneity is also detectable across the dorsal-ventral axis of the 8-cell embryo...
September 14, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187865/a-novel-method-of-nicotine-quantification-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-and-aerosols
#7
Mumiye A Ogunwale, Yizheng Chen, Whitney S Theis, Michael H Nantz, Daniel J Conklin, Xiao-An Fu
The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) has emerged as popular electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDs). However, the general safety and validity of e-cigarettes for nicotine delivery efficacy are still not well understood. This study developed a new method for efficient measurement of nicotine levels in both the liquids (e-liquids) used in e-cigarettes and the aerosols generated from the e-cigarettes. Protonation of the pyrrolidine nitrogen of nicotine molecules by addition of excess hydrochloric acid affords an aminium salt that is readily quantified by Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)...
August 7, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966665/si-traceable-determination-of-arsenic-species-in-kelp-thallus-laminariae
#8
Lee L Yu, Rachel C Stanoyevitch, Rolf Zeisler
A dietary supplement, kelp contains a significant amount of arsenic that is mostly arsenosugars. The determination of arsenosugars is difficult due to a lack of arsenosugar calibration standard, because arsenosugar compounds are not commercially available. This work reports the determination of arsenicals in a kelp extract with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The hydrophilic fraction of arsenicals was reproducibly extracted from a candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3232 Kelp Powder ( Thallus Laminariae ) in development at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)...
August 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824713/recent-liquid-chromatographic-approaches-and-developments-for-the-separation-and-purification-of-carbohydrates
#9
Gabe Nagy, Tianyuan Peng, Nicola L B Pohl
Carbohydate purification remains a bottleneck in securing analytical standards from natural sources or by chemical or enzymatic synthesis. This review highlights the scope and remaining limitations of recent approaches and methods development in liquid chromatography for robust and higher-throughput carbohydrate separation and isolation.
June 28, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690683/microchip-based-3d-cell-culture-using-polymer-nanofibers-generated-by-solution-blow-spinning
#10
Chengpeng Chen, Alexandra D Townsend, Scott A Sell, R Scott Martin
Polymer nano/micro fibers have found many applications including 3D cell culture and the creation of wound dressings. The fibers can be produced by a variety of techniques that include electrospinning, the primary disadvantage of which include the requirement for a high voltage supply (which may cause issues such as polymer denaturation) and lack of portability. More recently, solution blow spinning, where a high velocity sheath gas is used instead of high voltage, has been used to generate polymer fibers. In this work, we used blow spinning to create nano/microfibers for microchip-based 3D cell culture...
June 14, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674558/analysis-of-stable-isotope-assisted-metabolomics-data-acquired-by-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#11
X Wei, P K Lorkiewicz, B Shi, J K Salabei, B G Hill, S Kim, C J McClain, X Zhang
Stable isotope assisted metabolomics (SIAM) uses stable isotope tracers to support studies of biochemical mechanisms. We report a suite of data analysis algorithms for automatic analysis of SIAM data acquired on a high resolution mass spectrometer. To increase the accuracy of isotopologue assignment, metabolites detected in the unlabeled samples were used as reference metabolites to generate possible isotopologue candidates for analysis of peaks detected in the labeled samples. An iterative linear regression model was developed to deconvolute the overlapping isotopic peaks of isotopologues present in a full MS spectrum, where the threshold for the weight factor was determined by a simulation study assuming different levels of Gaussian white noise contamination...
April 21, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657581/implications-of-direct-amplification-for-measuring-antimicrobial-resistance-using-point-of-care-devices
#12
M R Williams, R D Stedtfeld, H Waseem, T Stedtfeld, B Upham, W Khalife, B Etchebarne, M Hughes, J M Tiedje, S A Hashsham
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is recognized as a global threat to human health. Rapid detection and characterization of AMR is a critical component of most antibiotic stewardship programs. Methods based on amplification of nucleic acids for detection of AMR are generally faster than culture-based approaches but they still require several hours to more than a day due to the need for transporting the sample to a centralized laboratory, processing of sample, and sometimes DNA purification and concentration. Nucleic acids-based point-of-care (POC) devices are capable of rapidly diagnosing antibiotic-resistant infections which may help in making timely and correct treatment decisions...
February 28, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034007/microfluidic-iterative-mechanical-characteristics-imech-analyzer-for-single-cell-metastatic-identification
#13
Hesam Babahosseini, Jeannine S Strobl, Masoud Agah
This study describes the development of a microfluidic biosensor called the iterative mechanical characteristics (iMECH) analyzer which enables label-free biomechanical profiling of individual cells for distinction between metastatic and non-metastatic human mammary cell lines. Previous results have demonstrated that pulsed mechanical nanoindentation can modulate the biomechanics of cells resulting in distinctly different biomechanical responses in metastatic and non-metastatic cell lines. The iMECH analyzer aims to move this concept into a microfluidic, clinically more relevant platform...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286575/chiral-determination-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-enantiomers-in-rat-serum
#14
Michael D Hambuchen, Howard P Hendrickson, S Michael Owens
The emerging stimulant drug of abuse (3,4)-methylenedioxypyrovalerone [( R,S )-MDPV] is self-administered as a racemic mixture by intranasal, iv, oral, and smoking routes. The individual enantiomers are known to have widely different pharmacological effects, with ( S )-MDPV showing much greater potency than ( R )-MDPV in pharmacological testing. The goal of these studies was to develop and validate an analytical method for quantitation of ( R )-MDPV, ( S )-MDPV and ( R,S )-MDPV in small volumes of rat serum using a chiral separation column and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
January 28, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217148/profiling-metals-in-cordyceps-sinensis-by-using-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#15
Xin Wei, Hankun Hu, Baogeng Zheng, Zikri Arslan, Hung-Chung Huang, Weidong Mao, Yi-Ming Liu
Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2...
January 28, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104617/monitoring-carnosine-uptake-by-raw-264-7-macrophage-cells-using-microchip-electrophoresis-with-fluorescence-detection
#16
Claudia G Fresta, Michael L Hogard, Giuseppe Caruso, Elton E Melo Costa, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Susan M Lunte
Carnosine, a dipeptide found in a variety of tissues, is believed to possess antioxidant properties. It serves as a scavenger of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS), which are important stress mediators of pro-inflammatory conditions and can lead to macrophage activation. In this study, intracellular concentrations of carnosine in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were determined using microchip electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection following derivatization with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and cyanide...
January 21, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713441/analysis-of-raw-biofluids-by-mass-spectrometry-using-microfluidic-diffusion-based-separation
#17
Joshua Heinemann, Brigit Noon, Daniel Willems, Katherine Budeski, Brian Bothner
Elucidation and monitoring of biomarkers continues to expand because of their medical value and potential to reduce healthcare costs. For example, biomarkers are used extensively to track physiology associated with drug addiction, disease progression, aging, and industrial processes. While longitudinal analyses are of great value from a biological or healthcare perspective, the cost associated with replicate analyses is preventing the expansion of frequent routine testing. Frequent testing could deepen our understanding of disease emergence and aid adoption of personalized healthcare...
January 21, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458724/online-fluorescence-anisotropy-immunoassay-for-monitoring-insulin-secretion-from-islets-of-langerhans
#18
Adrian M Schrell, Nikita Mukhitov, Lian Yi, Joel E Adablah, Joshua Menezes, Michael G Roper
Insulin secretion from islets of Langerhans is a dynamic process that is essential for maintaining glucose homeostasis. The ability to measure dynamic changes in insulin levels upon glucose stimulation from single islets will allow testing of therapeutics and investigating mechanisms of defective secretion observed in metabolic diseases. Most approaches to date for measurement of rapid changes in insulin levels rely on separations, making the assays difficult to translate to non-specialist laboratories. To enable rapid measurements of secretion dynamics from a single islet in a manner that will be more suitable for transfer to non-specialized laboratories, a microfluidic online fluorescence anisotropy immunoassay was developed...
January 7, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651308/dart-ms-analysis-of-inorganic-explosives-using-high-temperature-thermal-desorption
#19
Thomas P Forbes, Edward Sisco, Matthew Staymates, Greg Gillen
An ambient mass spectrometry (MS) platform coupling resistive Joule heating thermal desorption (JHTD) and direct analysis in real time (DART) was implemented for the analysis of inorganic nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, and perchlorate salts. The resistive heating component generated discrete and rapid heating ramps and elevated temperatures, up to approximately 400 °C s-1 and 750 °C, by passing a few amperes of DC current through a nichrome wire. JHTD enhanced the utility and capabilities of traditional DART-MS for the trace detection of previously difficult to detect inorganic compounds...
2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255494/fast-quantitation-of-pyrazole-fungicides-in-wine-by-ambient-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#20
Fan Pu, Wenpeng Zhang, Chao Han, Zheng Ouyang
Fungicides are widely used for growing the grapes that are used for making wines. Chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry is usually time and labor consuming for quantitation of fungicides in wines. In this work, a simple ambient mass spectrometry method using paper capillary spray was developed for the fast quantitation of four pyrazole fungicides in wines. Direct analysis of the wine samples was achieved without any sample preparation, obtaining limits of quantitation as low as 2 ng/mL for all four pyrazole fungicides...
2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
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