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Epigenomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429622/pharmacoepigenomic-responses-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-pharmacogenes-are-likely-to-be-modulated-by-mirnas
#1
Babu Swathy, Koramannil R Saradalekshmi, Indu V Nair, Chandrasekharan Nair, Moinak Banerjee
AIM: It is imperative to differentiate the role of host epigenetics from pharmacoepigenetics in resolving therapeutic response. Therefore, the objective was to identify how antipsychotic drugs influence epigenetic response on pharmacogenes. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study design was based on in vitro evaluation of pharmacoepigenetic response of haloperidol, clozapine and olanzapine. Post antipsychotic treatment, the alterations in expression of ABCB1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were monitored, and followed up by promoter methylation and their target miRNA expression studies...
April 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403629/methylation-of-slfn11-is-a-marker-of-poor-prognosis-and-cisplatin-resistance-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Tao He, Meiying Zhang, Ruipan Zheng, Shufang Zheng, Enqiang Linghu, James G Herman, Mingzhou Guo
AIM: The expression of human SLFN11 was reported to sensitize cancer cells to DNA damaging agents. This study is to explore the epigenetic change and the function of SLFN11 in human colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS & METHODS: Six CRC cell lines and 128 primary CRC samples were used. RESULTS: SLFN11 was methylated in 55.47% (71/128) of primary CRC. The expression of SLFN11 was regulated by promoter region methylation. Methylation of SLFN11 was significantly associated with age, poor 5-year overall survival and 5-year relapse-free survival (all p < 0...
April 13, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343422/challenges-for-epigenetic-research-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#3
Richard Kellermayer
The human epigenome may link environmental exposures and commensal microbiota changes to host pathology in respect to the developmental origins of inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis [UC] and Crohn's disease [more appropriately Crohn disease, CD]). Genetic predisposition - prenatal, perinatal and pediatric environmental influences - microbiome aberration (dysbiosis) and immune dysregulation appear to be important elements in disease development, progression and maintenance. The prevalence of combined genetic and epigenetic susceptibility toward UC and CD is calculated herein to be as high as 2%, and approximately 1% for UC and CD in highly developed countries, respectively...
March 27, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343418/epigenetic-factors-as-drivers-of-fibrosis-in-systemic-sclerosis
#4
Christina Bergmann, Jörg Hw Distler
Prolonged activation of fibroblasts is a central hallmark of fibrosing disorders such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). Fibroblasts are the key effector cells. They differentiate into an activated myofibroblast phenotype. In contrast to normal wound healing with transient activation, myofibroblasts persist in fibrosing disorders. Current hypothesis suggests that profibrotic cytokines might trigger epigenetic changes which contribute to the persistently activated fibroblast phenotype. In the last years, several epigenetic alterations have been described in SSc and have been linked to different pathogenic aspects of the disease, in particular to aberrant fibroblast activation and tissue fibrosis, but also to vascular manifestations and inflammation...
March 27, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322586/the-neonatal-methylome-as-a-gatekeeper-in-the-trajectory-to-childhood-asthma
#5
Avery DeVries, Donata Vercelli
Asthma is a heterogeneous group of conditions that typically begin in early life and result in recurrent, reversible bronchial obstruction. The role played by epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma is understood only in part. Here we discuss asthma epigenetics within a developmental perspective based on our recent demonstration that the epigenetic trajectory to childhood asthma begins at birth. We next discuss how this trajectory may be affected by prenatal environmental exposures. Finally, we examine in vitro studies that model the impact of asthma-associated exposures on the epigenome...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322585/epigenetic-alterations-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes
#6
Karen M Doody, Nunzio Bottini, Gary S Firestein
Rheumatoid arthritis is an immune-mediated disease that primarily affects diarthrodial joints. Susceptibility and severity of this disease are influenced by nongenetic factors, such as environmental stress, suggesting an important role of epigenetic changes. In this review, we summarize the epigenetic changes (DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNA expression) in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, which are the joint-lining mesenchymal cells that play an important role in joint inflammation and damage. We also review the effects of these epigenetic changes on rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis and discuss their therapeutic potential...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322583/interplay-between-genetic-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, Kerstin Klein, Steffen Gay
Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with epigenetics serving as a possible interface through which risk factors contribute to RA. High-throughput technologies for interrogating genome and epigenome, and the availability of genetic and epigenetic datasets across a diversity of cell types, enable the identification of candidate causal genetic variants for RA to study their function in core RA processes. To date, RA risk variants were studied in the immune cells but not joint resident cells, for example, synovial fibroblasts...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322581/epigenetics-and-allergy-from-basic-mechanisms-to-clinical-applications
#8
Daniel P Potaczek, Hani Harb, Sven Michel, Bilal Alashkar Alhamwe, Harald Renz, Jörg Tost
Allergic diseases are on the rise in the Western world and well-known allergy-protecting and -driving factors such as microbial and dietary exposure, pollution and smoking mediate their influence through alterations of the epigenetic landscape. Here, we review key facts on the involvement of epigenetic modifications in allergic diseases and summarize and critically evaluate the lessons learned from epigenome-wide association studies. We show the potential of epigenetic changes for various clinical applications: as diagnostic tools, to assess tolerance following immunotherapy or possibly predict the success of therapy at an early time point...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322580/macrophage-kdm6b-controls-the-pro-fibrotic-transcriptome-signature-of-foam-cells
#9
Annette E Neele, Koen Hm Prange, Marten A Hoeksema, Saskia van der Velden, Tina Lucas, Stefanie Dimmeler, Esther Lutgens, Jan Van den Bossche, Menno Pj de Winther
AIM: In order to identify regulators of foam cells, we studied the H3K27 demethylase Kdm6b (also known as Jmjd3), a known regulator of macrophages, in controlling the transcriptional profile of foam cells. MATERIALS & METHODS: Foam cells from Kdm6b-deleted or Kdm6b wild-type mice were isolated and used for RNA-sequencing analysis. RESULTS: Pathway analysis revealed that pro-fibrotic pathways were strongly suppressed in Kdm6b-deleted foam cells...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322579/epigenetic-variation-taking-center-stage-in-immunological-research
#10
Simone Ecker, Stephan Beck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322578/interview-with-amr-h-sawalha-epigenetics-and-autoimmunity
#11
Amr H Sawalha
Amr H Sawalha is Professor of Internal Medicine and Marvin and Betty Danto Research Professor of Connective Tissue Research at the University of Michigan, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology. He also holds faculty appointments at the Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics and the Graduate Program in Immunology at the University of Michigan. He was recently appointed as Guest Professor at Central South University in Changsha, China. He received his medical degree from Jordan University of Science and Technology and completed his residency training in internal medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, and his fellowship in rheumatology at the University of Michigan...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322577/bet-proteins-are-a-key-component-of-immunoglobulin-gene-expression
#12
Jung Min Shim, Jin S Lee, Kirsty E Russell, Coen H Wiegman, Peter J Barnes, David Fear, Ian M Adcock, Andrew L Durham
AIM: BET proteins have been shown to regulate gene expression including inflammatory genes. METHODS: In order to investigate the role of the BET proteins in immunoglobulin production we treated the human B-cell line CLNH11.4 and primary human B cells and ozone-exposed mice with BET inhibitors (JQ1 or IBET151). RESULTS: Both proliferation and IgG production were reduced by JQ1 in a concentration-dependent manner. JQ1 significantly reduced immunoglobulin gene transcription...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322575/epigenome-wide-dna-methylation-study-of-ige-concentration-in-relation-to-self-reported-allergies
#13
Weronica E Ek, Muhammad Ahsan, Mathias Rask-Andersen, Liming Liang, Miriam F Moffatt, Ulf Gyllensten, Åsa Johansson
AIM: Epigenetic mechanisms are critical for normal immune development and epigenetic alterations might therefore be possible contributors to immune diseases. To investigate if DNA methylation in whole blood is associated with total and allergen-specific IgE levels. METHODS: We performed an epigenome-wide association study to investigate the association between DNA methylation and IgE level, allergen-specific IgE and self-reported immune diseases and allergies in 728 individuals...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322571/age-associated-dna-methylation-changes-in-naive-cd4-t-cells-suggest-an-evolving-autoimmune-epigenotype-in-aging-t-cells
#14
Mikhail G Dozmorov, Patrick Coit, Kathleen Maksimowicz-McKinnon, Amr H Sawalha
AIM: We sought to define age-associated DNA methylation changes in naive CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS & METHODS: Naive CD4(+) T cells were collected from 74 healthy individuals (age 19-66 years), and age-related DNA methylation changes were characterized. RESULTS: We identified 11,431 age-associated CpG sites, 57% of which were hypermethylated with age. Hypermethylated sites were enriched in CpG islands and repressive transcription factor binding sites, while hypomethylated sites showed T cell specific enrichment in active enhancers marked by H3K27ac and H3K4me1...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378617/epigenetics-of-the-immune-system-and-alterations-in-inflammation-and-autoimmunity
#15
Jorg Tost, Steffen Gay, Gary Firestein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234027/erratum
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234026/epigenetics-studies-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-where-are-we-now
#17
Alexandre A Lussier, Joanne Weinberg, Michael S Kobor
Adverse in utero events can alter the development and function of numerous physiological systems, giving rise to lasting neurodevelopmental deficits. In particular, data have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure can reprogram neurobiological systems, altering developmental trajectories and resulting in increased vulnerability to adverse neurobiological, behavioral and health outcomes. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are potential mediators for the reprogramming of neurobiological systems, as they may provide a link between the genome, environmental conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes...
March 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234025/misclassified-exposure-in-epigenetic-mediation-analyses-does-dna-methylation-mediate-effects-of-smoking-on-birthweight
#18
Linda Valeri, Sarah L Reese, Shanshan Zhao, Christian M Page, Wenche Nystad, Brent A Coull, Stephanie J London
AIMS: Assessing whether epigenetic alterations mediate associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes is increasingly popular. We investigate the impact of exposure misclassification in such investigations. MATERIALS & METHODS: We quantify bias and false-positive rates due to exposure misclassification in mediation analysis and assess the performance of the simulation extrapolation method (SIMEX). We evaluate whether DNA-methylation mediates smoking-birth weight relationship in the Norwegian Mother and Child Study birth cohort...
March 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234024/effects-of-prenatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disruptors-and-toxic-metals-on-the-fetal-epigenome
#19
Paige A Bommarito, Elizabeth Martin, Rebecca C Fry
Exposure to environmental contaminants during pregnancy has been linked to adverse outcomes at birth and later in life. The link between prenatal exposures and latent health outcomes suggests that these exposures may result in long-term epigenetic reprogramming. Toxic metals and endocrine disruptors are two major classes of contaminants that are ubiquitously present in the environment and represent threats to human health. In this review, we present evidence that prenatal exposures to these contaminants result in fetal epigenomic changes, including altered global DNA methylation, gene-specific CpG methylation and microRNA expression...
March 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234023/sexual-epigenetic-dimorphism-in-the-human-placenta-implications-for-susceptibility-during-the-prenatal-period
#20
Elizabeth Martin, Lisa Smeester, Paige A Bommarito, Matthew R Grace, Kim Boggess, Karl Kuban, Margaret R Karagas, Carmen J Marsit, T Michael O'Shea, Rebecca C Fry
AIM: Sex-based differences in response to adverse prenatal environments and infant outcomes have been observed, yet the underlying mechanisms for this are unclear. The placental epigenome may be a driver of these differences. METHODS: Placental DNA methylation was assessed at more than 480,000 CpG sites from male and female infants enrolled in the extremely low gestational age newborns cohort (ELGAN) and validated in a separate US-based cohort. The impact of gestational age on placental DNA methylation was further examined using the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study for a total of n = 467 placentas...
March 2017: Epigenomics
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