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Iben Lyskjær, Mads H Rasmussen, Claus L Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Epigenomics
Bénazir Siddeek, Nadjem Lakhdari, Lilia Inoubli, Rachel Paul-Bellon, Véronique Isnard, Emmanuelle Thibault, André Bongain, Daniel Chevalier, Emanuela Repetto, Michele Trabucchi, Jean-François Michiels, Catherine Yzydorczyk, Umberto Simeoni, Michel Urtizberea, Claire Mauduit, Mohamed Benahmed
AIM: The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease refers to the concept that early exposure to toxicants or nutritional imbalances during perinatal life induces changes that enhance the risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Patients/materials & methods: An experimental model with an adult chronic germ cell phenotype resulting from exposure to a xenoestrogen was used. RESULTS: A reciprocal negative feedback loop involving decreased EZH2 protein level and increased miR-101 expression was identified...
October 20, 2016: Epigenomics
Trine B Rounge, Christian M Page, Maija Lepistö, Pekka Ellonen, Bettina K Andreassen, Elisabete Weiderpass
AIM: We performed an epigenome-wide association study within the Finnish Health in Teens cohort to identify differential DNA methylation and its association with BMI in adolescents. MATERIALS & METHODS: Differential DNA methylation analyses of 3.1 million CpG sites were performed in saliva samples from 50 lean and 50 heavy adolescent girls by genome-wide targeted bisulfite-sequencing. RESULTS: We identified 100 CpG sites with p-values < 0...
October 20, 2016: Epigenomics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Epigenomics
Bernard Thienpont, Eva Galle, Diether Lambrechts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Epigenomics
Moshe Szyf
5'-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a variant of the common covalent epigenetic modification of DNA 5'-methylcytosine (5mC). Although the presence of this modified base in mammalian DNA has been recognized for several decades, it has recently gained center stage as a suspected intermediate in enzymatic active demethylation of 5mC. The role of 5hmC remains elusive in spite of a large body of studies. It is proposed that 5hmC is a variant of the 5mC epigenetic signal and is involved in epigenetic regulation of gene function...
October 13, 2016: Epigenomics
David L Marks, Rachel Lo Olson, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Stromal cells of the tumor microenvironment have been shown to play important roles in both supporting and limiting cancer growth. The altered phenotype of tumor-associated stromal cells (fibroblasts, immune cells, endothelial cells etc.) is proposed to be mainly due to epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression; however, only limited studies have probed the roles of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of stromal cell function. We review recent studies demonstrating how specific epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and histone post-translational modification-based gene expression regulation, and miRNA-mediated translational regulation) drive aspects of stromal cell phenotype, and discuss the implications of these findings for treatment of malignancies...
October 4, 2016: Epigenomics
Olivia M de Goede, Pascal M Lavoie, Wendy P Robinson
AIM: To provide insight into fetal nucleated red blood cell (nRBC) development using genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiling. MATERIALS & METHODS: The DNAm profile (Illumina 450K array) of cord blood (n = 7) derived nRBCs was compared with B cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, natural killer cells, granulocytes, monocytes and placenta (n = 5). RESULTS: nRBCs and placenta had similarly low array-wide DNAm compared with white blood cells, but their patterns of hypomethylation differed at biologically relevant subsets of the array...
September 30, 2016: Epigenomics
Justin A Colacino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Epigenomics
Joanne Ryan, Isabelle Chaudieu, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Richard Saffery
Certain individuals are more susceptible to stress and trauma, as well as the physical and mental health consequences following such exposure, including risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This differing vulnerability is likely to be influenced by genetic predisposition and specific characteristics of the stress itself (nature, intensity and duration), as well as epigenetic mechanisms. In this review we provide an overview of research findings in this field. We highlight some of the key genetic risk factors identified for PTSD, and the evidence that epigenetic processes might play a role in the biological response to trauma, as well as being potential biomarkers of PTSD risk...
September 30, 2016: Epigenomics
Pei Liu, Jacson K Shen, Jianzhong Xu, Carol A Trahan, Francis J Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Chondrosarcoma (CS) is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor. Unlike other bone tumors, CS is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, thus resulting in poor patient outcomes. There is an urgent need to establish alternative therapies for CS. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of CS still remain elusive. Recently, DNA methylation-associated epigenetic changes have been found to play a pivotal role in the initiation and development of human cancers, including CS, by regulating target gene expression in different cellular pathways...
September 30, 2016: Epigenomics
Claudia Knothe, Bruno G Oertel, Alfred Ultsch, Mattias Kettner, Peter Harald Schmidt, Cora Wunder, Stefan W Toennes, Gerd Geisslinger, Jörn Lötsch
AIM: Exposure to opioids has been associated with epigenetic effects. Studies in rodents suggested a role of varying degrees of DNA methylation in the differential regulation of μ-opioid receptor expression across the brain. METHODS: In a translational investigation, using tissue acquired postmortem from 21 brain regions of former opiate addicts, representing a human cohort with chronic opioid exposure, μ-opioid receptor expression was analyzed at the level of DNA methylation, mRNA and protein...
September 29, 2016: Epigenomics
Alexandra E Shields, Lauren A Wise, Edward A Ruiz-Narvaez, Bobak Seddighzadeh, Hyang-Min Byun, Yvette C Cozier, Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R Palmer, Andrea A Baccarelli
AIM: To investigate childhood abuse victimization in relation to adult DNA methylation levels in a novel region of NR3C1, with emotional support as a possible modifier. MATERIALS & METHODS: Two hundred and ninety-five participants from the Black Women's Health Study. Multivariable linear regression models were used to compute differences in mean percent methylation levels. RESULTS: Women reporting childhood abuse victimization exhibited higher mean NR3C1 methylation levels than nonabused women, with a clear dose-response relationship...
September 13, 2016: Epigenomics
Mark M Perry, Francesco Muntoni
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs modulate gene transcription in response to environmental stressors and other stimuli. A role for ncRNAs in muscle pathologies has been demonstrated and further evidence suggests that ncRNAs also play a role in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Studies investigating the differential expression of miRNAs in biological fluids between DMD patients and models of dystrophin deficiency (the MDX mouse model, canine models of DMD) and controls have been published, as these have a role in fibrosis...
September 7, 2016: Epigenomics
Kathleen R Stewart, Lenka Veselovska, Gavin Kelsey
Epigenetic modifications established during gametogenesis regulate transcription and other nuclear processes in gametes, but also have influences in the zygote, embryo and postnatal life. This is best understood for DNA methylation which, established at discrete regions of the oocyte and sperm genomes, governs genomic imprinting. In this review, we describe how imprinting has informed our understanding of de novo DNA methylation mechanisms, highlight how recent genome-wide profiling studies have provided unprecedented insights into establishment of the sperm and oocyte methylomes and consider the fate and function of gametic methylation and other epigenetic modifications after fertilization...
October 2016: Epigenomics
Yi-Lan Weng, Jessica Joseph, Ran An, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
The intrinsic growth capacity of neurons in the CNS declines during neuronal maturation, while neurons in the adult PNS are capable of regeneration. Injured mature PNS neurons require activation of an array of regeneration-associated genes to regain axonal growth competence. Accumulating evidence indicates a pivotal role of epigenetic mechanisms in transcriptional reprogramming and regulation of neuronal growth ability upon injury. In this review, we summarize the latest findings implicating epigenetic mechanisms, including histone and DNA modifications, in axon regeneration and discuss differential epigenomic configurations between neurons in the adult mammalian CNS and PNS...
October 2016: Epigenomics
Aniruddha Chatterjee, Peter A Stockwell, Euan J Rodger, Matthew F Parry, Michael R Eccles
AIM: The Cancer Genome Atlas contains multiple levels of genomic data (mutation, gene expression, DNA methylation, copy number variation) for 33 cancer types for almost 11,000 patients. However, a dearth of appropriate software tools makes it difficult for bench scientists to use these data effectively. MATERIALS & METHODS: Here, we present a suite of flexible, fast and command line-based scripts that will allow retrieval and analysis of DNA methylation (tool: scan_tcga_methylation...
October 2016: Epigenomics
Kira DA Rienecker, Matthew J Hill, Anthony R Isles
The curious patterns of imprinted gene expression draw interest from several scientific disciplines to the functional consequences of genomic imprinting. Methods of probing the function of imprinting itself have largely been indirect and correlational, relying heavily on conventional transgenics. Recently, the burgeoning field of epigenome editing has provided new tools and suggested strategies for asking causal questions with site specificity. This perspective article aims to outline how these new methods may be applied to questions of functional imprinting and, with this aim in mind, to suggest new dimensions for the expansion of these epigenome-editing tools...
October 2016: Epigenomics
Maria Abbondanza Pantaleo, Gloria Ravegnini, Annalisa Astolfi, Vittorio Simeon, Margherita Nannini, Maristella Saponara, Milena Urbini, Lidia Gatto, Valentina Indio, Giulia Sammarini, Donatella Santini, Manuela Ferracin, Massimo Negrini, Patrizia Hrelia, Guido Biasco, Sabrina Angelini
AIM: Currently, little is known about differences in miRNA expression between KIT/PDGFRA mutant and KIT/PDGFRA wild-type (WT)-SDH deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). This prompted us to perform an integrated multiple expression profile of miRNA and mRNA, constructing an original miRNA-mRNA regulatory network in KIT/PDGFRA WT-SDH deficient GIST patients. PATIENTS & METHODS: Analyses were carried out on KIT/PDGFRA mutant versus KIT/PDGFRA WT-SDH deficient GIST...
October 2016: Epigenomics
Wolfgang A Schulz, Wolfgang Goering
DNA methylation alterations are common in urothelial carcinoma, a prevalent cancer worldwide caused predominantly by chemical carcinogens. Recent studies have proposed sets of hypermethylated genes as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers from urine or tissue samples, which require validation. Other studies have revealed intriguing links between specific carcinogens and DNA methylation alterations in cancer tissues or blood that might clarify carcinogenesis mechanisms and aid prevention. Like DNA methylation alterations, mutations in chromatin regulators are frequent, underlining the importance of epigenetic changes...
October 2016: Epigenomics
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