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Epidemiology and Health

Getachew Ferede Endalew, Moges Tiruneh, Ebba Abate, Wondmeneh Jemberie, Yitayih Wondimeneh, Demekech Damtie, Belay Tessema
Objectives: Aedes mosquito is a vector for transmitting many arboviruses. Knowledge of this vector breeding habitat is vital for implementing appropriate interventions. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the breeding habitats and presence of Aedes mosquito species in the study areas. Methods: House to house cross- sectional survey of Aedes mosquito breeding habitats was carried out in Metema and Humera, Ethiopia, in August 2017. All available water-holding containers present in and around the houses were inspected for the presence of immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes, and they were collected and reared to the adult stage for species identification...
April 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Masoud Foroutan, Ali Rostami, Hamidreza Majidiani, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Sasan Khazaei, Milad Badri, Elham Yousefi
Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide distributed parasitic disease with wide range of complications in immunocompromised patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) among patients undergoing hemodialysis patients in Iran. Methods: We searched the English and Persian databases for studies reporting T. gondii seroprevalence in Iranian hemodialysis patients up to 31 December 2017...
April 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Yeong-Jun Song, Jeong-Sun Yang, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Hee Jung Yoon, Hae-Sung Nam, Soon Young Lee, WooJung Park, SungHan Park, Bo Youl Choi, Sung Soon Kim, Moran Ki
Objectives: Asymptomatic infection rates of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vary. To identify rates of asymptomatic MERS infection in healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers, serologic survey was conducted. Methods: Study individuals were selected from the contacts based on a priority system in four MERS prone-regions. Sero-epidemiological analysis was performed in 1,610 contacts (average duration from exposure to test, 4.8 months), and the collected sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunospecific assay (ELISA), immunofluorscence assay (IFA), and plaque reduction neutralization antibody test (PRNT)...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Raihan K Khan, Mark A Strand
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine effects of road dust on human health. Methods: A PubMed search was used to extract references that included the words Road Dust and Health, Fugitive Dust and Health in the title or abstract. A total of 45 references were extracted and selected for the literature review after the primary screening of 949 articles. Results: Respiratory organ system was found to be the most affected system in human body...
April 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Mohammad Hassan Kazemi-Galougahi, Asieh Mansouri, Samaneh Akbarpour, Mahmood Bakhtiyari, Majid Sartipi, Rahmatollah Moradzadeh
Background: Our aim was to measure income-related inequality in completed suicides across provinces of Iran. Methods: This ecological study was performed using data of Urban and Rural Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2010 conducted by Iranian Centre of Statistics, and the data of completed suicides from Iranian Legal Medicine Organization in 2012. We calculated the Gini coefficients of per capita income and completed suicide rates, and the concentration index for per capita income inequality of completed suicides, across different provinces of Iran...
April 2, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Sana Raouafi, Sofiane Achiche, Maxime Raison
Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the association between levels of severity of nurodevelopmental disorders and disabilities (NDD/D) in children, their household socio-economic status (SES), and the frequency of visits to a healthcare provider; and (2) to examine how the severity of disability differs with these determinants among NDD/D subgroups, to make a social policy change and improve access to health care system. Methods: The data from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) on children (5-14y), collected by Statistics Canada, was analyzed (n= 7,072 and weighted n = 340,340)...
March 29, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Boyoung Choi, Tae-Rim Um, Kwang-Soo Lee
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to the cancer screening behavior. Methods: The 2014 community health survey was used for analysis. The dependent variable was cancer screening behavior, and the independent variables were sociodemographic, health behavioral, and regional factors. Propensity score matching(PSM) was used to control health behavioral and regional factors, which were influencing cancer screening behavior. For statistical analysis, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used...
March 29, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Maryam Ataie Asl, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Hossein Dadashzadeh, Christoph Augner, Masumeh Anbarlouei, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl
Objectives: Recent research indicates a negative relationship between happiness and smoking habit among adolescents. There is no study about this relationship among Iranian adolescents. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between happiness and cigarette smoking and hookah smoking among a sample of high school students. Methods: A sample of 1161 10th-grade students in Tabriz (Northwest Iran) was selected by multi-stage proportionally cluster sampling...
March 24, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Jong-Myon Bae
The hygiene hypothesis (HH) proposed by Strachan in 1989 has expanded to explain an inverse association between occurrence of allergy disorders and risk of infectious diseases and parasite infestation. And the microflora hypothesis (MH) suggests that gut microbial dysbiosis on early life might trigger hypersensitivity disorders. The sharing concept of both HH and MH is gene-environment interaction, which is also a key concept of epigenetics. The amalgamation of the epidemiology and epigenetics created a science of epigenetic epidemiology...
March 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Hyemin Lee, Jooyoung Park, Bokyoung Choi, Horim Yi, Seung-Sup Kim
Objectives: Previous literature has documented that transgender people may encounter barriers when they use transition-related healthcare services. This study aims to investigate the experiences of transition-related healthcare and the barriers to those services among transgender adults in South Korea. Methods: In 2017, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey of 278 transgender adults in South Korea. We assessed the prevalence of transition-related healthcare such as Gender Identity Disorder (GID) diagnosis, hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery...
February 27, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Seri Hong, Suyeon Kim, Mina Suh, Boyoung Park, Kui Son Choi, Jae Kwan Jun
OBJECTIVES: Through a survey on perception of lung cancer screening and accompanying medical radiation exposure in Korea, the present study was to investigate its current situations and evaluate various perception of physicians regarding it in order to propose measures for improvements. METHODS: Medical specialists in national cancer screening institutions selected through stratified random sampling were subjected to face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Shiva Borzouei, Ali Reza Soltanian
OBJECTIVES: To identify the most important demographic risk factors for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a neural network model. METHODS: This study was conducted on a sample of 234 individuals, in whom T2DM was diagnosed using hemoglobin A1c levels. A multilayer perceptron artificial neural network was used to identify demographic risk factors for T2DM and their importance. The DeLong method was used to compare the models by fitting in sequential steps...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Shahrzad Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Azin Alavi, Mohammad Shekari, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
OBJECTIVES: Consecutive community health assessments revealed that water-pipe smoking in women and impaired growth in children were among the main health concerns in suburban communities in southern Iran. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of water-pipe smoking during pregnancy on birth weight. METHODS: Data from a population-based prospective cohort study of 714 singleton live pregnancies in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas in southern Iran in 2016-2018 were used in this study...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Cheng-Yang Hsieh, Darren Philbert Wu, Sheng-Feng Sung
Stroke registries are observational databases focusing on the clinical information and outcomes of stroke patients. They play an important role in the cycle of quality improvement. Registry data are collected from real-world experiences of stroke care and are suitable for measuring quality of care. By exposing inadequacies in performance measures of stroke care, research from stroke registries has changed how we manage stroke patients in Taiwan. With the success of various quality improvement campaigns, mortality from stroke and recurrence of stroke have decreased in the past decade...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Sonia Patricia Castedo Paz, Luciana Branco, Marina Alves de Camargo Pereira, Caroline Spessotto, Yara Dadalti Fragoso
OBJECTIVES: John Cunningham virus (JCV) is a polyoma virus that infects humans, mainly in childhood or adolescence, and presents no symptomatic manifestations. JCV can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed individuals, including those undergoing treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). PML is a severe and potentially fatal disease of the brain. The prevalence of JCV antibodies in human serum has been reported to be between 50...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Patrik Hummel, Abha Saxena, Corinna Klingler
This article describes, categorizes, and discusses the results of a rapid literature review aiming to provide an overview of the ethical issues and corresponding solutions surrounding pregnancies in epidemic outbreaks. The review was commissioned by the World Health Organization to inform responses to the Zika outbreak that began in 2015. Due to the urgency of the response efforts that needed to be informed by the literature search, a rapid qualitative review of the literature published in PubMed was conducted...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Sung Uk Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Epidemiology and Health
Moo-Sik Lee, Eun-Young Kim, Sang-Won Lee
OBJECTIVES: The field epidemiologist system of South Korea, which employs public health doctors who are relatively more readily available, was created in 1999 to ensure a ready supply of experts for epidemiological investigations and enable an effective response for new and reemerging infectious diseases. However, the 2015 outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome revealed limitations in the existing systems of management of field epidemiologists and communicable diseases. METHODS: The present study aims to evaluate data on current states, administrative reports, and other literature on the field epidemiologist system that has been in place in South Korea for 16 years since 1999 and to suggest appropriate future improvements in this system...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
Eunyoung Lee, Dahye Baik, Yoon Park, Moran Ki
Childhood and adolescence are critical periods that affect adults' health status. Therefore, the factors influencing the health of children and adolescents should be analyzed. In Korea, a wide range of youth-related health data has been obtained, both on the regional level and on the national level. This report summarizes the current status of studies related to the health of Korean children and adolescents. Data for which open access is offered include the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Study, the Panel Study on Korean Children, the Korean Youth Panel Survey, the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey, and the Student Health Examination...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
Jong-Myon Bae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Epidemiology and Health
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