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Epidemiology and Health

Schehrazad Selmane, Mohamed L'Hadj
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the recorded data, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province which records the highest number of scorpion stings at national level. METHODS: In addition to the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we carried out the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012...
October 14, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Delelegn Tsegaye, Leul Deribe, Shambel Wodajo
Objectives: Adherence of HIV positive pregnant and lactating mothers to ART is a central component in PMTCT. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure the level of adherence and identify factors associated with adherence to option B+ PMTCT among pregnant and lactating mothers in selected government health facilities of South Wollo Zone, Amhara region, North East Ethiopia. Methods: An institution based cross sectional quantitative study design was employed from March 1 to April 14, 2016 using standard structured data collection instrument...
October 13, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Krishna Prasad Acharya, Nirajan Niroula, Krishna Kaphle
Brucellosis is an abortifacient zoonotic disease which remains prominent in third world countries like Nepal. Brucellosis possess a public health concern, the incidences of which in livestocks can present substantial economic and health burdens for herders and health professionals. In Nepal, several cases of bovine including human brucellosis have been reported. This paper aims to evaluate the current status of the disease, the mechanism of infection, pathogenesis, zoonotic potential, diagnostic advances, treatment regimens, and the preventive measures that can be adopted in managing human brucellosis in under-developed countries like Nepal...
October 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Tantut Susanto, Iis Rahmawati, Emi Wuri Wuryaningsih, Syahrul Syahrul, Ruka Saito, Rumiko Kimura, Akiko Tsuda, Noriko Tabuchi, Junko Sugama
OBJECTIVES: Complex factors related reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents based on the social and culture of each countries, especially in Islamic culture of Indonesia. This study examines the prevalence and related factors of active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique for completing a questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the illustrative questionnaire for interview surveys with young people of the WHO, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance with the context of Indonesia...
September 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
JooYeon Seo, SungYong Choi, Moran Ki, BoYoul Choi
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Korea during 2002-2012 using age-period-cohort analyses. Methods: We used claims data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation for the whole population. Census data from 2010 were used for the standard population. The incidence of hepatitis A was assumed to have a Poisson distribution and the models and effects were evaluated using the intrinsic estimator method, the likelihood ratio, and the Akaike information criterion...
September 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Nils Plato, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Pär Sparén, Gunnar Hillerdal, Elisabete Weiderpass
Objectives: We updated the Swedish component of the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) Study through 2009 in order to investigate the incidence of mesothelioma of the peritoneum and pleura in both sexes, and explored occupational exposures that may be associated with mesothelioma. Methods: The Swedish component of the NOCCA Study includes 6.78 million individuals. Data from this cohort was linked to the population-based Swedish Cancer Registry and Swedish Total Population Registry for three periods between 1961 and 2009 and then further linked to the Swedish NOCCA Job Exposure Matrix, which includes 25 carcinogenic substances and corresponding exposure levels for 280 occupations...
September 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Hamid Soori, Kamyar Mansori, Manoochehr Karami, Erfan Ayubi, Salman Khazaei
Purpose: Speeding and passing are considered as the main human factors resulting in road traffic injuries (RTIs). This study aimed to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) of speeding and passing in rural Iran RTIs during 2012. Methods: The contribution of speeding and passing in RTI related morbidity and mortality was calculated using PAF. The prevalence of speeding and passing was obtained from national traffic police data registry. A logistic regression model was run to measure the association between the above risk factors and RTIs...
August 29, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Toru Fukuhara, Yusuke S Hori
Objectives: Annually reported publically-accessible Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) data by Japanese government is a part of the whole DPC database of Japanese medical reimbursement system for hospitalization. Although medical issues can be evaluated with these data promptly, the applicability of these data in epidemiological analyses has not been assessed. Methods: We performed analyses using only statistical indices reported on the homepage of the government...
July 2, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Mina Ha, Soon Young Lee, Seung-Sik Hwang, Hyesook Park, Seungsoo Sheen, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
OBJECTIVES: As of November 2011, the Korean government recalled and banned humidifier disinfectants (HDs) from the market, because four case-control studies and one retrospective epidemiological study proved the association between HDs and lung injury of unknown cause. The report reviewed the causal role of HDs in lung injury based on scientific evidences. METHODS: A careful examination on the association between the HDs and lung injury was based on the criteria of causality inference by Hill and the US Surgeon General Expert Committee...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Toru Fukuhara, Yusuke Hori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Jong-Myon Bae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Min Sun Park, Kyung-Gyun Hwang, Bo Youl Choi
OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective chewing and pronunciation ability in Korean seniors. Our goal is to provide the data required to develop appropriate oral health interventions programs for seniors. METHODS: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is widely used depressive symptoms assessment. A Korean version was used for the 2009 Community Health Survey, which was consulted to extract the present study's participants comprising 50,694 Korean seniors (males, 20,582; females, 30,112) aged ≥65 years...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Jong-Myon Bae, Eun Hee Kim
OBJECTIVES: In the context of supplementary antioxidants having no anticancer effect, it is important to update the meta-analysis to evaluate whether there is an association between intake of citrus fruit and gastric cancer risk. METHODS: The list of articles to be searched was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed and Scopus. The effect size of each article to be used in meta-analysis was calculated using the interval-collapse method. Summary effect size (sES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained by conducting this meta-analysis...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Elizabeth Carniel, Ehsan Mostafavi
OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Ehsan Mostafavi, Mahshid Nasehi, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Saber Esmaeili, Ebrahim Ghaderi, Saeed Sharafi, Amin Doosti-Irani
OBJECTIVES: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT) are used to identify latent tuberculosis infections (LTBIs). The aim of this study was to determine the agreement between these two tests among health care workers in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 177 tuberculosis (TB) laboratory staff and 67 non-TB staff. TST indurations of 10 mm or more were considered positive. The Student's t-test and the chi-square test were used to compare the mean score and proportion of variables between the TB laboratory staff and the non-TB laboratory staff...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Moo-Song Lee, Hwa Jung Kim
In April 2011 a tertiary hospital located in Seoul, Korea reported several cases of severe respiratory distress of unknown origin in young adults. To find the route of transmission, causative agent and patient risk factors of the outbreak, an investigation of the epidemic was initiated. A hospital based case-control study was conducted to indicate that humidifier detergent use was the cause of the outbreak. This information led the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea issued an order that humidifier detergents should be withdrawn from the market...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Ali Akbar Momen, Abdolhussein Shakurnia
OBJECTIVES: Investigations into the epidemiology of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) are an essential strategic component of the Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO), and are part of the certification process for polio eradication worldwide. This is an epidemiological report of AFP incidence in children less than 15 years old in southwest Iran. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study, carried out based on WHO guidelines, in which we reviewed non-polio AFP cases recorded from January 2006 to December 2010 in different regions of Khuzestan Province, southwest Iran...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Yong Ho Jee, Sung-Il Cho
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2016: Epidemiology and Health
Yeshi Metaferia, Walelign Dessie, Ibrahim Ali, Anteneh Amsalu
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major blood-borne and sexually transmitted infectious agent that is a significant global public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HBV among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Hawassa University referral hospital in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2015. A total of 269 consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal consultations were enrolled...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
Viroj Wiwanitkit
OBJECTIVES: Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
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