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Epidemiology and Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330336/postpartum-modern-contraceptive-use-and-associated-factors-in-northern-ethiopia
#1
Teklehaymanot Huluf Abraha, Alemayehu Shimeka Teferra, Abebaw Addis Gelagay
OBJECTIVES: Postpartum period is a critical period to address high unmet needs of family planning and to reduce the risks of closely spaced pregnancies. However, contraception during extended postpartum period has given less emphasis concerning contraceptive practice in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess postpartum modern contraceptive use and associated factors among postpartum women in Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was done from March to April, 2015...
March 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330335/income-gaps-in-self-rated-poor-health-and-its-association-with-life-expectancy-in-245-districts-of-south-korea
#2
Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Sung-Cheol Yun, Young-Ho Khang
Objectives: This study was conducted to examine income gaps in self-rated poor health at the district level of South Korea and to present geographical correlations among self-rated poor health, life expectancy, and their income gaps. Methods: We analyzed 1,578,189 subjects derived from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea collected between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalences of self-rated poor health and their income gaps were calculated. Prior results on life expectancy and its income gaps were used also...
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292008/smokeless-tobacco-paan-and-gutkha-consumption-and-its-prevalence-contributing-toward-oral-cancer
#3
Kamal Niaz, Faheem Maqbool, Fazlullah Khan, Haji Bahadar, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Mohammad Abdollahi
OBJECTIVES: Smokeless tobacco consumption leads to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) condition, which is a long-lasting devastating condition of oral cavity having the potential of malignancy across the world. In this review, we mainly focus on smokeless tobacco such as paan and gutkha consumption, and their role in the induction of OSMF and finally oral cancer. METHODS: The list of articles to be examined was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar...
March 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231687/the-assessment-of-disease-characteristics-on-multiple-sclerosis-patients-quality-of-life-in-iran
#4
Aziz Rezapoor, Abdollah Almasian Kia, Sahar Goodarzi, Mojtaba Hasoumi, Soraya Nouraei Motlagh, Sajad Vahedi
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis, and predict the effect of MS characteristics such as disease course, disease severity and relapse on patients' quality of life. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 171 patients enrolled in the study. The health related quality of life were assessed through Persian version of MSQoL54 questionnaire. To measure patients' disability status, we used Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)...
February 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171715/cancer-mortality-to-incidence-ratio-as-an-indicator-of-cancer-management-outcomes-in-oecd-countries
#5
Eunji Choi, Sangeun Lee, Bui Cam Nhung, Mina Suh, Boyoung Park, Jae Kwan Jun, Kui Son Choi
PURPOSE: Assessing long-term success and efficiency is essential to evaluating cancer control programs. Mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) can serve as an insightful indicator of cancer management outcomes for individual nations. Calculating MIRs for the top five cancers among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, the current study attempted to outline the outcomes of national cancer management policies according to the health system ranking of each country...
February 5, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171712/sensitization-to-common-allergens-among-patients-with-allergy-in-major-iranian-cities-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Mozhgan Moghtaderi, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Shirin Farjadian
Purpose: Various allergens are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in different regions. This study attempted to identify the most common allergens among patients with allergy based on results of skin prick tests in different parts of Iran. Methods: Relevant studies were identified from the Medline database from 2000 to 2016. Six common groups of allergens including animals, cockroaches, foods, fungi, house dust mites and pollen were considered. Subgroup analysis was performed to determine prevalence of each type of allergens...
February 5, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171714/irritable-bowel-syndrome-is-concentrated-in-people-with-higher-educations-in-iran-an-inequality-analysis
#7
Asieh Mansouri, Mostafa Amini Rarani, Mosayeb Fallahi, Iman Alvandi
Purpose: Like any other health-related disorder, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) has a differential distribution by some socioeconomic factors. This study aimed to estimate and decompose the educational inequality in IBS. Methods: Sampling was performed through multi-stage random cluster sampling approach. The data of 1,850 residents of Kish Island aged 15 or older was included and determinants of IBS were identified using General Estimation Equation regression model...
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171713/is-there-evidence-that-kudoa-septempunctata-can-cause-an-outbreak-of-acute-food-poisoning
#8
Young-Bae Chung, Jong-Myon Bae
After publishing results of a study that revealed diarrheagenic and emetic activity in 4-5-day old mice infected with Kudoa septempunctata (K. septempunctata) spores, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 11 events of "Kudoa food poisoning" in 2015. The epidemiological design of the previous study was descriptive rather than analytical; therefore, this study aimed to further investigate the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata. Academic articles showing evidence of the pathogenicity of K...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092931/the-criteria-for-metabolic-syndrome-and-the-national-health-screening-and-education-system-in-japan
#9
REVIEW
Kazumasa Yamagishi, Hiroyasu Iso
Two major definitions of metabolic syndrome have been proposed. One focuses on the accumulation of risk factors, a measure used by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); the other focuses on abdominal obesity, a measure used by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Japanese government. The latter definition takes waist circumference (WC) into consideration as an obligatory component, whereas the former does not. In 2009, the IDF, NHLBI, AHA, and other organizations attempted to unify these criteria; as a result, WC is no longer an obligatory component of those systems, while it remains obligatory in the Japanese criteria...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092930/prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-tuberculosis-laboratory-workers-in-iran
#10
Mahshid Nasehi, Abdolrazagh Hashemi-Shahraki, Amin Doosti-Irani, Saeed Sharafi, Ehsan Mostafavi
OBJECTIVES: The risk of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients to health care workers (HCWs) is a neglected problem in many countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) among TB laboratory staff in Iran, and to elucidate the risk factors associated with LTBI. METHODS: All TB laboratory staff (689 individuals) employed in the TB laboratories of 50 Iranian universities of medical sciences and a random sample consisting of 317 low-risk HCWs were included in this cross-sectional study...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092933/estimation-of-the-size-of-the-iatrogenic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-outbreak-associated-with-cadaveric-dura-mater-grafts-in-korea
#11
Byoug-Hak Jeon, Jinseob Kim, GangHyun Kim Kim, Soo Chul Park, SangYun Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong
Purpose: This study estimated the overall magnitude of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) based on dura graft cases in Korea using a mathematical model. Methods: We estimated the number of annual cases of dura grafts performed between 1980 and 1995 by applying the proportion of dura grafts recorded by the Health Insurance Review Agency claim dataset in Korea to the number of nationwide neurosurgery cases. The distribution of the incubation period was assumed to fall under a Weibull distribution with density function or a log-logistic distribution with density function...
December 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788566/prescribing-patterns-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-medications-among-children-and-adolescents-in-korea-2007-2011
#12
Inmyung Song, Ju Young Shin
Objectives: This study analyzed the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication users among children and adolescents in Korea between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011. Methods: Using the Korea National Health Insurance claims database, we identified the patients aged between 1 and 17 years who had at least one medical claim for the diagnosis of ADHD (ICD-10: F90.0). The annual prevalence of ADHD diagnosis was calculated, using national census data from the Statistics Korea on the population aged between 1 and 17 years as the denominator...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738348/forecasting-and-prediction-of-scorpion-sting-cases-using-a-sarima-model-in-biskra-province-algeria
#13
Schehrazad Selmane, Mohamed L'Hadj
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the recorded data, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province which records the highest number of scorpion stings at national level. METHODS: In addition to the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we carried out the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012...
October 14, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703129/overview-of-brucellosis-in-nepal
#14
Krishna Prasad Acharya, Nirajan Niroula, Krishna Kaphle
Brucellosis is an abortifacient zoonotic disease which remains prominent in third world countries like Nepal. Brucellosis possess a public health concern, the incidences of which in livestocks can present substantial economic and health burdens for herders and health professionals. In Nepal, several cases of bovine including human brucellosis have been reported. This paper aims to evaluate the current status of the disease, the mechanism of infection, pathogenesis, zoonotic potential, diagnostic advances, treatment regimens, and the preventive measures that can be adopted in managing human brucellosis in under-developed countries like Nepal...
October 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703128/prevalence-and-related-factors-of-reproductive-health-behavior-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-the-society-and-culture-of-indonesian-adolescents
#15
Tantut Susanto, Iis Rahmawati, Emi Wuri Wuryaningsih, Syahrul Syahrul, Ruka Saito, Rumiko Kimura, Akiko Tsuda, Noriko Tabuchi, Junko Sugama
OBJECTIVES: Complex factors related reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents based on the social and culture of each countries, especially in Islamic culture of Indonesia. This study examines the prevalence and related factors of active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique for completing a questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the illustrative questionnaire for interview surveys with young people of the WHO, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance with the context of Indonesia...
September 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196409/mental-health-status-of-people-isolated-due-to-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#16
Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Yeong-Jun Song, Moran Ki, Jung-Ah Min, Juhee Cho, Jeong-Ho Chae
OBJECTIVES: Isolation due to the management of infectious diseases is thought to affect mental health, but the effects are still unknown. We examined the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and anger in persons isolated during the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) epidemic both at isolation period and at four to six months after release from isolation. We also determined risk factors associated with these symptoms at four to six months. METHODS: Of 14,992 individuals isolated for 2-week due to having contact with MERS patients in 2015, when MERS was introduced to Korea, 1,692 individuals were included in this study...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092934/visceral-leishmaniasis-treatment-outcome-and-its-determinants-in-northwest-ethiopia
#17
Getachew Mebrahtu Welay, Kefyalew Addis Alene, Berihun Assefa Dachew
OBJECTIVES: Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for the high mortality rate of this condition in resource-limited settings such as Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify the proportion of poor VL treatment outcomes in northwest Ethiopia and to evaluate the determinants associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital in northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092932/the-burden-of-infectious-and-cardiovascular-diseases-in-india-from-2004-to-2014
#18
Kajori Banerjee, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi
OBJECTIVES: In India, both communicable and non-communicable diseases have been argued to disproportionately affect certain socioeconomic strata of the population. Using the 60th (2004) and 71st (2014) rounds of the National Sample Survey, this study assessed the balance between infectious diseases and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) from 2004 to 2014, as well as changes in the disease burden in various socioeconomic and demographic subpopulations. METHODS: Prevalence rates, hospitalization rates, case fatality rates, and share of in-patients deaths were estimated to compare the disease burdens at these time points...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092929/the-effect-of-smoking-on-lung-cancer-ethnic-differences-and-the-smoking-paradox
#19
REVIEW
Keum Ji Jung, Christina Jeon, Sun Ha Jee
The objectives of this review were to determine whether the smoking paradox still exists and to summarize possible explanations for the smoking paradox. Based on published data, we compared the risk of cigarette smoking for lung cancer in Western and Asian countries. We extracted data from the relevant studies about annual tobacco consumption, lung cancer mortality rates according to smoking status from each country, and possible explanations for the smoking paradox. A significantly greater risk of lung cancer death was found among current smokers in Asian countries than among nonsmokers, with relative risks (RRs) of 4...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092928/meta-analysis-for-genome-wide-association-studies-using-case-control-design-application-and-practice
#20
REVIEW
Sungryul Shim, Jiyoung Kim, Wonguen Jung, In-Soo Shin, Jong-Myon Bae
This review aimed to arrange the process of a systematic review of genome-wide association studies in order to practice and apply a genome-wide meta-analysis (GWMA). The process has a series of five steps: searching and selection, extraction of related information, evaluation of validity, meta-analysis by type of genetic model, and evaluation of heterogeneity. In contrast to intervention meta-analyses, GWMA has to evaluate the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in the third step and conduct meta-analyses by five potential genetic models, including dominant, recessive, homozygote contrast, heterozygote contrast, and allelic contrast in the fourth step...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
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