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Epidemiology and Health

Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Maryam Nasserinejad, Hadis Najafimehr, Mohammad Reza Zali
Objective: Cured in Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients occurs when mortality rate in the disease group of individuals returns to the same level as the expected in the general population. This study aims to assess the impact of risk factors on cure fraction of CRC patients. Methods: This study is conducted on medical records of 512 patients who were diagnosed with CRC at Taleghani hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2001 to 2007. Non-mixture non-parametric cure rate model was applied to data after using stepwise selection to find the risk factors of CRC...
September 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
You Sun Chung, Su-Kyoung Park
Objectives: To analyze the current status and problems of hearing screening tests for newborns of low income class in the southeastern region of Korea. Methods: This study analyzed the data of the Ministry of Health and Welfare's project on the early detection of hearing loss in low income class newborns from the southeastern region of Korea (2011 to 2015). Results: The referral rate was 1.33%, 1.69%, and 1.27% in Daegu, Gyeongbuk, and Ulsan, respectively...
September 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Jong-Myon Bae
Objectives: The 2017 guideline for the prevention of travelers' diarrhea (TD) by International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM) suggested that 'there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of commercially available prebiotics or probiotics to prevent or treat TD'. But, a meta-analysis published in 2007 reported significant efficacy of probiotics on TD [summary RR (sRR) =0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.91). The aim was to synthesize efficacy of probiotics on TD by updating the meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized human trials...
August 29, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Hamed Akbari, Fakhradin Ghasemi, Hesam Akbari, Amir Adibzadeh
Purpose: Recent studies have shown that the rate of needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs) are unacceptably high in Iranian hospitals. The aim of the present study was to use a systematic approach for predicting and reducing these injuries. Methods: The study was conducted in five hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Eleven variables supposed to affect NSIs were categorized based on Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework and modelled using Bayesian network...
August 20, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Aliakbar Haghdoost, Milad Ahmadi Gohari, Ali Mirzazadeh, Farzaneh Zolala, Mohammad Reza Baneshi
Purpose: Network Scale Up (NSU) is an indirect size estimation method, where participants are questioned on sensitive behaviors of their social network members. Therefore the visibility of the behavior affects the replies and estimates. Many attempts to estimate the visibility are made. The aims of this manuscript are to review main methods to address the visibility, and to provide a summary of reported Visibility Factor (VF) across populations. Methods: We systematically searched relevant data bases and Google...
August 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Kyungsuk Jung, Jong Chul Park, Hyunseok Kang, Johann Brandes
Objectives: We investigated whether androgen deprivation therapy use in prostate cancer patients is associated with decreased risks for second primary lung cancer in the US veterans. Methods: Prostate cancer diagnoses among the US Veterans Affairs Cancer Registry between 1999 and 2008 were identified. Use of hormonal therapy and diagnoses of second primary lung cancer were determined from the registry. Synchronous prostate and lung cancers, defined as two diagnoses made within 1 year were excluded from the analysis...
August 11, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Eunjin Kim, Hyeon Woo Yim, Hyunsuk Jeong, Sun-Jin Jo, Hae Kook Lee, Hye Jung Son, Hyun-Ho Han
Objectives: Open and supportive communication between parents and children is known to reduce adolescents' delinquent behavior. Recently, risk of Internet gaming addiction is increasing in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of parent - child communication methods on the relationship between adolescent aggressiveness and risk of Internet gaming addiction. Methods: Participants of this study were 402 the 1st grade students from four junior high schools in Seoul who enrolled in the Internet user Cohort for Unbiased Recognition of gaming disorder in Early adolescence (iCURE) and completed baseline assessment in 2016...
August 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Somayeh Momenyan, Amir Kavousi, Jalal Poorolajal, Narges Momenyan
Objectives: Understanding of the geographic variation of HIV/AIDS mortality risk and HIV infection could help identify high burden areas. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of predictors on the time of HIV diagnosis to death whereas accounting the spatial correlations across the counties and to assess patterns of spatial inequalities in the risk of HIV/AIDS death in Hamadan province, Iran. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 585 patients...
August 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Kyung Sook Cho
The TB incidence rate and mortality rate in the Republic of Korea are 77 and 5.2 per 100,000 people respectively (2016), which are the highest among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Recently, the Republic of Korea's TB incidence decreased dramatically among people in their teens and twenties. This is largely attributed to the contact investigation efforts in targeting schools over the past few years. However, the TB incidence in the elderly still remains high and is even increasing compared to the past 10 years...
August 2, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Kyeong Hyang Byeon, Bo Youl Choi, Jai Yong Kim, Bo Young Choi
Objectives: This study aim to identify the estimated proportion for influenza vaccination and related factors depending on chronic disease in Korean adults aged 50 and older. Methods: The 2016 Community Health Survey(CHS) was used for analysis. Chi-square test was performed to investigate the estimated proportion for influenza vaccination depending on chronic disease, and a multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with influenza vaccination, by chronic disease...
July 24, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Myung-Jae Hwang, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Jong-Hun Kim, Youn Seo Koo, Hui-Young Yun
OBJECTIVES: Air pollution causes various disease in exposed populations, and can lead to premorbid health effects manifested as both physical and psychological functional impairment. The present study investigated the subjective stress level in daily life in relation to the level of air pollution. METHODS: Data from the Community Health Survey (2013), comprising 99,162 men, and 121,273 women residing in 253 healthcare administrative districts, were combined with air pollutant concentration modelling data from the Korean Air Quality Forecasting System, and were stratified by subjective stress levels into five strata for multiple logistic regression...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Bo Youl Choi, Jun Yong Choi, Sang Hoon Han, Sang Il Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee, Min Ja Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Sung Soon Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Nam Su Ku, Jin-Soo Lee, Joo-Shil Lee, Yunsu Choi, Kyong Sil Park, Joon Young Song, Jun Hee Woo, Moon Won Kang, June Kim
The number of persons infected by HIV/AIDS has consistently increased in Korea since the first case of HIV/AIDS infection in 1985 and reached 15,208 by 2016. About 1,100 new patients with HIV/ AIDS infections have emerged every year since 2013. In Korea, the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study was established for the evidenced-based prevention, treatment, and effective management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in December 2006. This study monitored 1,438 patients, who accounted for about 10% of all patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea, for 10 years with the following aims: (1) to develop an administrative system for the establishment of a HIV/AIDS cohort-based study; (2) to standardize methodologies and the case report forms; and (3) to standardize multi-cohort data and develop a data cleaning method...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Ehsan Zarei, Roghayeh Khabiri, Maryam Tajvar, Shirin Nosratnejad
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the knowledge of Iranian women about HIV/AIDS and whether they had accepting attitudes towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sought to identify factors correlated with their knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: The data analyzed in the present study were taken from Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, a national survey conducted in 2015. In total, 42,630 women aged 15-49 years were identified through multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling and interviewed...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Ahmad Khosravi, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Hassan Hashemi, Akbar Fotouhi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-hypertension and its sub-classification on the development of diabetes. METHODS: In this cohort study, 2,941 people 40 to 64 years old without hypertension or diabetes were followed from 2009 through 2014. According to the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC)-7 criteria, we classified participants into normal and pre-hypertension groups...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Padukudru Anand Mahesh, Komarla Sundararaja Lokesh, Purnima Madhivanan, Sindaghatta Krishnarao Chaya, Biligere Siddaiah Jayaraj, Koustav Ganguly, Murali Krishna
Between 2006 and 2010, in 16 randomly selected villages in rural areas of Mysore district, in south India, 8,457 subjects aged 30 and above were screened for symptoms of chronic respiratory disease. Of the 8,457 subjects, 1,692 were randomly invited for further evaluation of lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by spirometry, and 1,085 of these subjects underwent lung function assessments for prevalent COPD and its risk factors. These 1,085 subjects, who were then aged between 35 and 80 years, constituted the Mysuru stUdies of Determinants of Health in Rural Adults (MUDHRA) cohort...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Biresaw Wassihun, Leul Deribe, Nadia Worede, Teklemariam Gultie
OBJECTIVES: Disrespect and abuse are an often-unacknowledged cause of maternal mortality and morbidity globally. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of disrespect and abuse of women during childbirth at a health facility in the town of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. METHODS: In this community-based cross-sectional study, 422 mothers were interviewed from March 1 to 30, 2017 using a systematic random sampling technique with the kth value of 23 calculated based on the number of households in each sub-city and the expected sample size from sub-cities...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Kourosh Kabir, Ali Bahari, Mohammad Hajizadeh, Hamid Allahverdipour, Mohammad Javad Tarrahi, Ali Fakhari, Hossein Ansari, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl
OBJECTIVES: Substance abuse behaviors among university freshmen in Iran are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify, for the first time, subgroups of university freshmen in Iran on the basis of substance abuse behaviors. Moreover, it examined the effects of socio-demographic characteristics on membership in each specific subgroup. METHODS: Data for the study were collected cross-sectionally in December 2013 and January 2014 from 4 major cities in Iran: Tabriz, Qazvin, Karaj, and Khoramabad...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Masoud Neghab, Zeinab Jabari, Fatemeh Kargar Shouroki
OBJECTIVES: The possible adverse respiratory effects of airborne pollutants in sawmills have not been thoroughly investigated in Iran. Additionally, the extent to which workers are exposed to this organic dust and its associated bioaerosols has not been extensively quantified. Likewise, the predominant bacterial and fungal species associated with wood dust have not been characterized. The present study was undertaken to address these issues. METHODS: One hundred male individuals exposed to wood dust and 100 unexposed male subjects were investigated...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Erfan Ayubi, Mohammad Barati, Arasb Dabbagh Moghaddam, Ali Reza Khoshdel
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to map the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Iranian army units (IAUs) and to identify possible spatial clusters. METHODS: This ecological study investigated incident cases of CL between 2014 and 2017. CL data were extracted from the CL registry maintained by the deputy of health of AJA University of Medical Sciences. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of CL was computed with a Besag, York, and Mollié model. The purely spatial scan statistic was employed to detect the most likely highand low-rate clusters and to obtain the observed-to-expected (O/E) ratio for each detected cluster...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
Eun Hee Kim, Jong-Myon Bae
The prevalence of latnet Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the first-grade high school students in South Korea was 2.1%, which was the lowest level at congregated settings in 2017. For LTBI cases refusing anti-tuberculosis (TB) medication or having poor compliance, additional support should be considered. Eight systematic reviews concluded that vitamin D (VD) deficiency is a risk factor for TB. While three of four South Korean adolescents were VD deficiency, VD supplementation could be a practical remedy to protect LTBI students of refusing anti-TB medication or having poor compliance...
2018: Epidemiology and Health
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