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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339432/deregulation-of-hdac5-by-viral-interferon-regulatory-factor-3-plays-an-essential-role-in-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-induced-lymphangiogenesis
#1
Hye-Ra Lee, Fan Li, Un Yung Choi, Hye Ryun Yu, Grace M Aldrovandi, Pinghui Feng, Shou-Jiang Gao, Young-Kwon Hong, Jae U Jung
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which is one of the most common HIV-associated neoplasms. The endothelium is the thin layer of squamous cells where vascular blood endothelial cells (BECs) line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are in direct contact with lymphatic vessels. The KS lesions contain a prominent compartment of neoplastic spindle morphology cells that are closely related to LECs. Furthermore, while KSHV can infect both LECs and BECs in vitro, its infection activates genetic programming related to lymphatic endothelial cell fate, suggesting that lymphangiogenic pathways are involved in KSHV infection and malignancy...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339431/molecular-insights-into-function-and-competitive-inhibition-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-multiple-virulence-factor-regulator
#2
Tomoe Kitao, Francois Lepine, Seda Babloudi, Frederick Walte, Stefan Steinbacher, Klaus Maskos, Michael Blaesse, Michele Negri, Michael Pucci, Bob Zahler, Antonio Felici, Laurence G Rahme
New approaches to antimicrobial drug discovery are urgently needed to combat intractable infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Multiple virulence factor regulator (MvfR or PqsR), a Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing transcription factor, regulates functions important in both acute and persistent infections. Recently identified non-ligand-based benzamine-benzimidazole (BB) inhibitors of MvfR suppress both acute and persistent P. aeruginosa infections in mice without perturbing bacterial growth...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339430/simultaneous-binding-of-multiple-ef-tu-copies-to-translating-ribosomes-in-live-escherichia-coli
#3
Mainak Mustafi, James C Weisshaar
In bacteria, elongation factor Tu is a translational cofactor that forms ternary complexes with aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) and GTP. Binding of a ternary complex to one of four flexible L7/L12 units on the ribosome tethers a charged tRNA in close proximity to the ribosomal A site. Two sequential tests for a match between the aa-tRNA anticodon and the current mRNA codon then follow. Because one elongation cycle can occur in as little as 50 ms and the vast majority of aa-tRNA copies are not cognate with the current mRNA codon, this testing must occur rapidly...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339429/the-biochemistry-of-sensing-enteric-pathogens-regulate-type-iii-secretion-in-response-to-environmental-and-host-cues
#4
REVIEW
Nicole J De Nisco, Giomar Rivera-Cancel, Kim Orth
Enteric pathogens employ sophisticated strategies to colonize and infect mammalian hosts. Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter jejuni, are among the leading causes of gastrointestinal tract infections worldwide. The virulence strategies of many of these Gram-negative pathogens rely on type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which are macromolecular syringes that translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. However, synthesis of T3SS proteins comes at a cost to the bacterium in terms of growth rate and fitness, both in the environment and within the host...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339428/mucosal-infections-and-invasive-potential-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-are-enhanced-by-oligopeptide-binding-proteins-alic-and-alid
#5
Jessica L Bradshaw, Haley R Pipkins, Lance E Keller, James K Pendarvis, Larry S McDaniel
Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp) is an emerging human pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx and is associated with noninvasive diseases such as otitis media (OM), conjunctivitis, and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Since capsule expression was previously thought to be necessary for establishment of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype-specific polysaccharide capsules are targeted by currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines. Yet, NESp expressing oligopeptide binding proteins AliC and AliD have been isolated during IPD...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339427/pandemic-paradox-early-life-h2n2-pandemic-influenza-infection-enhanced-susceptibility-to-death-during-the-2009-h1n1-pandemic
#6
Alain Gagnon, Enrique Acosta, Stacey Hallman, Robert Bourbeau, Lisa Y Dillon, Nadine Ouellette, David J D Earn, D Ann Herring, Kris Inwood, Joaquin Madrenas, Matthew S Miller
Recent outbreaks of H5, H7, and H9 influenza A viruses in humans have served as a vivid reminder of the potentially devastating effects that a novel pandemic could exert on the modern world. Those who have survived infections with influenza viruses in the past have been protected from subsequent antigenically similar pandemics through adaptive immunity. For example, during the 2009 H1N1 "swine flu" pandemic, those exposed to H1N1 viruses that circulated between 1918 and the 1940s were at a decreased risk for mortality as a result of their previous immunity...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339426/gut-microbial-glycerol-metabolism-as-an-endogenous-acrolein-source
#7
Jianbo Zhang, Shana Sturla, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Acrolein is a highly reactive electrophile causing toxic effects, such as DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, immune dysfunction, and membrane damage. This Opinion/Hypothesis provides an overview of endogenous and exogenous acrolein sources, acrolein's mode of action, and its metabolic fate. Recent reports underpin the finding that gut microbial glycerol metabolism leading to the formation of reuterin is an additional source of endogenous acrolein. Reuterin is an antimicrobial multicomponent system consisting of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, its dimer and hydrate, and also acrolein...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339425/secondary-metabolism-and-interspecific-competition-affect-accumulation-of-spontaneous-mutants-in-the-gacs-gaca-regulatory-system-in-pseudomonas-protegens
#8
Qing Yan, Lucas D Lopes, Brenda T Shaffer, Teresa A Kidarsa, Oliver Vining, Benjamin Philmus, Chunxu Song, Virginia O Stockwell, Jos M Raaijmakers, Kerry L McPhail, Fernando D Andreote, Jeff H Chang, Joyce E Loper
Secondary metabolites are synthesized by many microorganisms and provide a fitness benefit in the presence of competitors and predators. Secondary metabolism also can be costly, as it shunts energy and intermediates from primary metabolism. In Pseudomonas spp., secondary metabolism is controlled by the GacS-GacA global regulatory system. Intriguingly, spontaneous mutations in gacS or gacA (Gac- mutants) are commonly observed in laboratory cultures. Here we investigated the role of secondary metabolism in the accumulation of Gac- mutants in Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339424/clostridium-sordellii-pathogenicity-locus-plasmid-pcs1-1-encodes-a-novel-clostridial-conjugation-locus
#9
Callum J Vidor, Thomas D Watts, Vicki Adams, Dieter Bulach, Edward Couchman, Julian I Rood, Neil F Fairweather, Milena Awad, Dena Lyras
A major virulence factor in Clostridium sordellii-mediated infection is the toxin TcsL, which is encoded within a region of the genome called the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc). C. sordellii isolates carry the PaLoc on the pCS1 family of plasmids, of which there are four characterized members. Here, we determined the potential mobility of pCS1 plasmids and characterized a fifth unique pCS1 member. Using a derivative of the pCS1-1 plasmid from strain ATCC 9714 which had been marked with the ermB erythromycin resistance gene, conjugative transfer into a recipient C...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339423/immune-protection-against-lethal-fungal-bacterial-intra-abdominal-infections
#10
Elizabeth A Lilly, Melanie Ikeh, Evelyn E Nash, Paul L Fidel, Mairi C Noverr
Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are clinically prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially those involving fungi. Our laboratory developed a mouse model of IAI and demonstrated that intraperitoneal inoculation with Candida albicans or other virulent non-albicans Candida (NAC) species plus Staphylococcus aureus resulted in 70 to 80% mortality in 48 to 72 h due to robust local and systemic inflammation (sepsis). Surprisingly, inoculation with Candida dubliniensis or Candida glabrata with S...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317514/erratum-for-barouch-bentov-et-al-hepatitis-c-virus-proteins-interact-with-the-endosomal-sorting-complex-required-for-transport-escrt-machinery-via-ubiquitination-to-facilitate-viral-envelopment
#11
Rina Barouch-Bentov, Gregory Neveu, Fei Xiao, Melanie Beer, Elena Bekerman, Stanford Schor, Joseph Campbell, Jim Boonyaratanakornkit, Brett Lindenbach, Albert Lu, Yves Jacob, Shirit Einav
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317513/cyclic-amp-regulates-bacterial-persistence-through-repression-of-the-oxidative-stress-response-and-sos-dependent-dna-repair-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#12
Roberto C Molina-Quiroz, Cecilia Silva-Valenzuela, Jennifer Brewster, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Stuart B Levy, Andrew Camilli
Bacterial persistence is a transient, nonheritable physiological state that provides tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics. The stringent response, toxin-antitoxin modules, and stochastic processes, among other mechanisms, play roles in this phenomenon. How persistence is regulated is relatively ill defined. Here we show that cyclic AMP, a global regulator of carbon catabolism and other core processes, is a negative regulator of bacterial persistence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli, as measured by survival after exposure to a β-lactam antibiotic...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317512/streptococcus-pneumoniae-modulates-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-dispersion-and-the-transition-from-colonization-to-invasive-disease
#13
Ryan M Reddinger, Nicole R Luke-Marshall, Shauna L Sauberan, Anders P Hakansson, Anthony A Campagnari
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are ubiquitous upper respiratory opportunistic pathogens. Individually, these Gram-positive microbes are two of the most common causative agents of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza A virus infection, and they constitute a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, rates of cocolonization with both of these bacterial species have increased, despite the traditional view that they are antagonistic and mutually exclusive...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317511/exploration-of-the-germline-genome-of-the-ciliate-chilodonella-uncinata-through-single-cell-omics-transcriptomics-and-genomics
#14
Xyrus X Maurer-Alcalá, Rob Knight, Laura A Katz
Separate germline and somatic genomes are found in numerous lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life, often separated into distinct tissues (e.g., in plants, animals, and fungi) or distinct nuclei sharing a common cytoplasm (e.g., in ciliates and some foraminifera). In ciliates, germline-limited (i.e., micronuclear-specific) DNA is eliminated during the development of a new somatic (i.e., macronuclear) genome in a process that is tightly linked to large-scale genome rearrangements, such as deletions and reordering of protein-coding sequences...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317510/the-f-box-protein-fbp1-shapes-the-immunogenic-potential-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#15
Jorge Masso-Silva, Vanessa Espinosa, Tong-Bao Liu, Yina Wang, Chaoyang Xue, Amariliz Rivera
Cryptococcus neoformans is the main etiologic agent of cryptococcal meningitis and causes a significant number of deadly infections per year. Although it is well appreciated that host immune responses are crucial for defense against cryptococcosis, our understanding of factors that control the development of effective immunity to this fungus remains incomplete. In previous studies, we identified the F-box protein Fbp1 as a novel determinant of C. neoformans virulence. In this study, we found that the hypovirulence of the fbp1Δ mutant is linked to the development of a robust host immune response...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317509/human-placental-syncytiotrophoblasts-restrict-toxoplasma-gondii-attachment-and-replication-and-respond-to-infection-by-producing-immunomodulatory-chemokines
#16
Stephanie E Ander, Elizabeth N Rudzki, Nitin Arora, Yoel Sadovsky, Carolyn B Coyne, Jon P Boyle
Toxoplasma gondii is a major source of congenital disease worldwide, but the cellular and molecular factors associated with its vertical transmission are largely unknown. In humans, the placenta forms the key interface between the maternal and fetal compartments and forms the primary barrier that restricts the hematogenous spread of microorganisms. Here, we utilized primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells isolated from full-term placentas and human midgestation chorionic villous explants to determine the mechanisms by which human trophoblasts restrict and respond to T...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317508/spatiotemporally-heterogeneous-population-dynamics-of-gut-bacteria-inferred-from-fecal-time-series-data
#17
Hidetoshi Inamine, Stephen P Ellner, Peter D Newell, Yuan Luo, Nicolas Buchon, Angela E Douglas
A priority in gut microbiome research is to develop methods to investigate ecological processes shaping microbial populations in the host from readily accessible data, such as fecal samples. Here, we demonstrate that these processes can be inferred from the proportion of ingested microorganisms that is egested and their egestion time distribution, by using general mathematical models that link within-host processes to statistics from fecal time series. We apply this framework to Drosophila melanogaster and its gut bacterium Acetobacter tropicalis Specifically, we investigate changes in their interactions following ingestion of a food bolus containing bacteria in a set of treatments varying the following key parameters: the density of exogenous bacteria ingested by the flies (low/high) and the association status of the host (axenic or monoassociated with A...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295916/correction-for-nguyen-et-al-bacteriophage-transcytosis-provides-a-mechanism-to-cross-epithelial-cell-layers
#18
Sophie Nguyen, Kristi Baker, Benjamin S Padman, Ruzeen Patwa, Rhys A Dunstan, Thomas A Weston, Kyle Schlosser, Barbara Bailey, Trevor Lithgow, Michael Lazarou, Antoni Luque, Forest Rohwer, Richard S Blumberg, Jeremy J Barr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295915/in-nature-there-is-only-diversity
#19
Michael R McLaren, Benjamin J Callahan
Microbial ecology has been transformed by the advent of high-throughput marker gene and metagenomic sequencing methods. These tools provide expansive descriptions of microbial communities, but the descriptions are framed in terms of molecular objects, such as 97% ribosomal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), rather than biological objects, such as species. A recent study by A. B. Chase and colleagues (mBio 8:e01809-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01809-17) explores the so-called microdiversity within the Curtobacterium OTU, the most abundant OTU in a leaf litter community...
January 2, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295914/timing-is-everything
#20
Luis M Schang
N. Drayman et al. in their recent article (mBio 8:e01612-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01612-17) have used dynamic proteomics and machine learning to show that the cell cycle state of any individual cell affects the outcome of a productive herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Cells infected from early G1 through S were most permissive for expression of genes from the HSV-1 genome, whereas cells infected in late G2 to mitosis were much less so. Most of the infected cells that underwent mitosis became permanently nonpermissive for HSV-1 gene expression afterward...
January 2, 2018: MBio
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