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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789370/a-single-domain-response-regulator-functions-as-an-integrating-hub-to-coordinate-general-stress-response-and-development-in-alphaproteobacteria
#1
C Lori, A Kaczmarczyk, I de Jong, U Jenal
The alphaproteobacterial general stress response is governed by a conserved partner-switching mechanism that is triggered by phosphorylation of the response regulator PhyR. In the model organism Caulobacter crescentus , PhyR was proposed to be phosphorylated by the histidine kinase PhyK, but biochemical evidence in support of such a role of PhyK is missing. Here, we identify a single-domain response regulator, MrrA, that is essential for general stress response activation in C. crescentus We demonstrate that PhyK does not function as a kinase but accepts phosphoryl groups from MrrA and passes them on to PhyR, adopting the role of a histidine phosphotransferase...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789369/-wolbachia-w-stri-blocks-zika-virus-growth-at-two-independent-stages-of-viral-replication
#2
M J Schultz, A L Tan, C N Gray, S Isern, S F Michael, H M Frydman, J H Connor
Mosquito-transmitted viruses are spread globally and present a great risk to human health. Among the many approaches investigated to limit the diseases caused by these viruses are attempts to make mosquitos resistant to virus infection. Coinfection of mosquitos with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis from supergroup A is a recent strategy employed to reduce the capacity for major vectors in the Aedes mosquito genus to transmit viruses, including dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus (ZIKV)...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789368/the-case-for-an-expanded-concept-of-trained-immunity
#3
Antonio Cassone
Trained immunity was originally proposed as a program of innate immunity memory by innate immunity cells of hematopoietic origin such as the monocytes/macrophages and the NK cells. Here I discuss some old and new data justifying this program and some specific, still unanswered, questions it raises regarding the model fungus Candida albicans and the chronic, inflammatory vulvovaginal disease it causes. Building upon this well-established program, the recent reports that epithelial cells of mammals can also acquire memory from previous stimulations, and the apparent intrinsic ability of many living cells from bacteria to mammals to learn from experience, I suggest an expansion of the concept of trained immunity to include all cells of different lineages with the potential of memorizing previous microbial encounters...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789367/multiple-selected-changes-may-modulate-the-molecular-interaction-between-laverania-rh5-and-primate-basigin
#4
LETTER
Diego Forni, Chiara Pontremoli, Rachele Cagliani, Uberto Pozzoli, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789366/loss-of-upc2p-inducible-erg3-transcription-is-sufficient-to-confer-niche-specific-azole-resistance-without-compromising-candida-albicans-pathogenicity
#5
Arturo Luna-Tapia, Hubertine M E Willems, Josie E Parker, Hélène Tournu, Katherine S Barker, Andrew T Nishimoto, P David Rogers, Steven L Kelly, Brian M Peters, Glen E Palmer
Inactivation of sterol Δ5,6 -desaturase (Erg3p) in the prevalent fungal pathogen Candida albicans is one of several mechanisms that can confer resistance to the azole antifungal drugs. However, loss of Erg3p activity is also associated with deficiencies in stress tolerance, invasive hyphal growth, and attenuated virulence in a mouse model of disseminated infection. This may explain why relatively few erg3 -deficient strains have been reported among azole-resistant clinical isolates. In this study, we examined the consequences of Erg3p inactivation upon C...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789365/structural-alteration-of-gut-microbiota-during-the-amelioration-of-human-type-2-diabetes-with-hyperlipidemia-by-metformin-and-a-traditional-chinese-herbal-formula-a-multicenter-randomized-open-label-clinical-trial
#6
Xiaolin Tong, Jia Xu, Fengmei Lian, Xiaotong Yu, Yufeng Zhao, Lipeng Xu, Menghui Zhang, Xiyan Zhao, Jian Shen, Shengping Wu, Xiaoyan Pang, Jiaxing Tian, Chenhong Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Linhua Wang, Bing Pang, Feng Chen, Zhiping Peng, Jing Wang, Zhong Zhen, Chao Fang, Min Li, Limei Chen, Liping Zhao
Accumulating evidence implicates gut microbiota as promising targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With a randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that alteration of gut microbiota may be involved in the alleviation of T2DM with hyperlipidemia by metformin and a specifically designed herbal formula (AMC). Four hundred fifty patients with T2DM and hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to either the metformin- or AMC-treated group. After 12 weeks of treatment, 100 patients were randomly selected from each group and assessed for clinical improvement...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789364/bacterial-quorum-sensing-and-microbial-community-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Rhea G Abisado, Saida Benomar, Jennifer R Klaus, Ajai A Dandekar, Josephine R Chandler
Many bacteria use a cell-cell communication system called quorum sensing to coordinate population density-dependent changes in behavior. Quorum sensing involves production of and response to diffusible or secreted signals, which can vary substantially across different types of bacteria. In many species, quorum sensing modulates virulence functions and is important for pathogenesis. Over the past half-century, there has been a significant accumulation of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms, signal structures, gene regulons, and behavioral responses associated with quorum-sensing systems in diverse bacteria...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789363/role-of-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-viroporins-e-3a-and-8a-in-replication-and-pathogenesis
#8
Carlos Castaño-Rodriguez, Jose M Honrubia, Javier Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Marta L DeDiego, Jose L Nieto-Torres, Jose M Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose A Regla-Nava, Raul Fernandez-Delgado, Carmina Verdia-Báguena, Maria Queralt-Martín, Grazyna Kochan, Stanley Perlman, Vicente M Aguilella, Isabel Sola, Luis Enjuanes
Viroporins are viral proteins with ion channel (IC) activity that play an important role in several processes, including virus replication and pathogenesis. While many coronaviruses (CoVs) encode two viroporins, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) encodes three: proteins 3a, E, and 8a. Additionally, proteins 3a and E have a PDZ-binding motif (PBM), which can potentially bind over 400 cellular proteins which contain a PDZ domain, making them potentially important for the control of cell function...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789362/reply-to-forni-et-al-multiple-selected-changes-may-modulate-the-molecular-interaction-between-laverania-rh5-and-primate-basigin
#9
Lindsey J Plenderleith, Weimin Liu, Oscar A MacLean, Yingying Li, Dorothy E Loy, Sesh A Sundararaman, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H Learn, Beatrice H Hahn, Paul M Sharp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789361/breaching-pathogeographic-barriers-by-the-bat-white-nose-fungus
#10
Johanna Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher
Bat white-nose syndrome has become associated with unparalleled mortality in bat species across the United States since 2006. In a recent article, Drees and colleagues (mBio 8:e01941-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01941-17) utilized both whole-genome sequencing and microsatellite data to explore the origin and spread of the causative agent of bat white-nose syndrome, Pseudogymnoascus destructans The research by Drees et al. supports the hypothesis that P. destructans was introduced into North America from Europe, with molecular dating suggesting a divergence from European isolates approximately 100 years ago...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789360/bat-caliciviruses-and-human-noroviruses-are-antigenically-similar-and-have-overlapping-histo-blood-group-antigen-binding-profiles
#11
Jacob F Kocher, Lisa C Lindesmith, Kari Debbink, Anne Beall, Michael L Mallory, Boyd L Yount, Rachel L Graham, Jeremy Huynh, J Edward Gates, Eric F Donaldson, Ralph S Baric
Emerging zoonotic viral diseases remain a challenge to global public health. Recent surveillance studies have implicated bats as potential reservoirs for a number of viral pathogens, including coronaviruses and Ebola viruses. Caliciviridae represent a major viral family contributing to emerging diseases in both human and animal populations and have been recently identified in bats. In this study, we blended metagenomics, phylogenetics, homology modeling, and in vitro assays to characterize two novel bat calicivirus (BtCalV) capsid sequences, corresponding to strain BtCalV/A10/USA/2009, identified in Perimyotis subflavus near Little Orleans, MD, and bat norovirus...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789359/conserved-responses-in-a-war-of-small-molecules-between-a-plant-pathogenic-bacterium-and-fungi
#12
Joseph E Spraker, Philipp Wiemann, Joshua A Baccile, Nandhitha Venkatesh, Julia Schumacher, Frank C Schroeder, Laura M Sanchez, Nancy P Keller
Small-molecule signaling is one major mode of communication within the polymicrobial consortium of soil and rhizosphere. While microbial secondary metabolite (SM) production and responses of individual species have been studied extensively, little is known about potentially conserved roles of SM signals in multilayered symbiotic or antagonistic relationships. Here, we characterize the SM-mediated interaction between the plant-pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and the two plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium fujikuroi and Botrytis cinerea We show that cellular differentiation and SM biosynthesis in F...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764953/fighting-antibiotic-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-with-sweet-immune-targets
#13
Roberto Adamo, Immaculada Margarit
Antibiotics and vaccines have greatly impacted human health in the last century by dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The recent challenge posed by the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria could possibly be addressed by novel immune prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. Among the newly threatening pathogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae is particularly worrisome in the nosocomial setting, and its surface polysaccharides are regarded as promising antigen candidates...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764952/samhd1-phosphorylation-coordinates-the-anti-hiv-1-response-by-diverse-interferons-and-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition
#14
Matthew A Szaniawski, Adam M Spivak, James E Cox, Jonathan L Catrow, Timothy Hanley, Elizabeth S C P Williams, Michel J Tremblay, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles
Macrophages are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection despite abundant expression of antiviral proteins. Perhaps the most important antiviral protein is the restriction factor sterile alpha motif domain and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1). We investigated the role of SAMHD1 and its phospho-dependent regulation in the context of HIV-1 infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and the ability of various interferons (IFNs) and pharmacologic agents to modulate SAMHD1...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764951/predictable-phenotypes-of-antibiotic-resistance-mutations
#15
M Knopp, D I Andersson
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria represent a major threat to our ability to treat bacterial infections. Two factors that determine the evolutionary success of antibiotic resistance mutations are their impact on resistance level and the fitness cost. Recent studies suggest that resistance mutations commonly show epistatic interactions, which would complicate predictions of their stability in bacterial populations. We analyzed 13 different chromosomal resistance mutations and 10 host strains of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli to address two main questions...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764950/cagy-dependent-regulation-of-type-iv-secretion-in-helicobacter-pylori-is-associated-with-alterations-in-integrin-binding
#16
Emma C Skoog, Vasilios A Morikis, Miriam E Martin, Greg A Foster, Lucy P Cai, Lori M Hansen, Beibei Li, Jennifer A Gaddy, Scott I Simon, Jay V Solnick
Strains of Helicobacter pylori that cause ulcer or gastric cancer typically express a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island ( cag PAI). CagY is an ortholog of VirB10 that, unlike other VirB10 orthologs, has a large middle repeat region (MRR) with extensive repetitive sequence motifs, which undergo CD4+ T cell-dependent recombination during infection of mice. Recombination in the CagY MRR reduces T4SS function, diminishes the host inflammatory response, and enables the bacteria to colonize at a higher density...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764949/toward-an-improved-meningococcal-serogroup-b-assay
#17
Jan Poolman
Because of diverse sequences and differential expression of surface structures on individual invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) strains, predicting the efficacy of MenB vaccines using traditional human serum bactericidal assays (hSBA) is impractical. The meningococcal antigen surface expression (MEASURE) assay uses flow cytometry to quantitate the expression of factor H binding proteins (fHbp) contained in the bivalent rLP2086 MenB vaccine. To date, experience with MEASURE has been lacking, and in a long-awaited article, McNeil et al...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764948/inducible-lung-epithelial-resistance-requires-multisource-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-to-protect-against-viral-infections
#18
Carson T Kirkpatrick, Yongxing Wang, Miguel M Leiva Juarez, Pooja Shivshankar, Jezreel Pantaleón García, Alexandria K Plumer, Vikram V Kulkarni, Hayden H Ware, Fahad Gulraiz, Miguel A Chavez Cavasos, Gabriela Martinez Zayes, Shradha Wali, Andrew P Rice, Hongbing Liu, James M Tour, William K A Sikkema, Ana S Cruz Solbes, Keith A Youker, Michael J Tuvim, Burton F Dickey, Scott E Evans
Viral pneumonias cause profound worldwide morbidity, necessitating novel strategies to prevent and treat these potentially lethal infections. Stimulation of intrinsic lung defenses via inhalation of synergistically acting Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists protects mice broadly against pneumonia, including otherwise-lethal viral infections, providing a potential opportunity to mitigate infectious threats. As intact lung epithelial TLR signaling is required for the inducible resistance and as these cells are the principal targets of many respiratory viruses, the capacity of lung epithelial cells to be therapeutically manipulated to function as autonomous antiviral effectors was investigated...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764947/biological-roles-played-by-sphingolipids-in-dimorphic-and-filamentous-fungi
#19
REVIEW
Caroline Mota Fernandes, Gustavo H Goldman, Maurizio Del Poeta
Filamentous and dimorphic fungi cause invasive mycoses associated with high mortality rates. Among the fungal determinants involved in the establishment of infection, glycosphingolipids (GSLs) have gained increased interest in the last few decades. GSLs are ubiquitous membrane components that have been isolated from both filamentous and dimorphic species and play a crucial role in polarized growth as well as hypha-to-yeast transition. In fungi, two major classes of GSLs are found: neutral and acidic GSLs. Neutral GSLs comprise glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide, which utilize Δ4-Δ8-9-methyl-sphingadienine as a sphingoid base, linked to a C16-18 fatty acid chain, forming ceramide, and to a sugar residue, such as glucose or galactose...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764946/comparative-genomics-reveals-the-core-gene-toolbox-for-the-fungus-insect-symbiosis
#20
Yan Wang, Matt Stata, Wei Wang, Jason E Stajich, Merlin M White, Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Modern genomics has shed light on many entomopathogenic fungi and expanded our knowledge widely; however, little is known about the genomic features of the insect-commensal fungi. Harpellales are obligate commensals living in the digestive tracts of disease-bearing insects (black flies, midges, and mosquitoes). In this study, we produced and annotated whole-genome sequences of nine Harpellales taxa and conducted the first comparative analyses to infer the genomic diversity within the members of the Harpellales...
May 15, 2018: MBio
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