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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634243/erratum-for-perkowski-et-al-the-exit-strategy-an-approach-for-identifying-bacterial-proteins-exported-during-host-infection
#1
E F Perkowski, K E Zulauf, D Weerakoon, J D Hayden, T R Ioerger, D Oreper, S M Gomez, J C Sacchettini, M Braunstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634242/type-ii-secretion-substrates-of-legionella-pneumophila-translocate-out-of-the-pathogen-occupied-vacuole-via-a-semipermeable-membrane
#2
Hilary K Truchan, Harry D Christman, Richard C White, Nakisha S Rutledge, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Legionella pneumophila replicates in macrophages in a host-derived phagosome, termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). While the translocation of type IV secretion (T4S) effectors into the macrophage cytosol is well established, the location of type II secretion (T2S) substrates in the infected host cell is unknown. Here, we show that the T2S substrate ProA, a metalloprotease, translocates into the cytosol of human macrophages, where it associates with the LCV membrane (LCVM). Translocation is detected as early as 10 h postinoculation (p...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634241/psl-produced-by-mucoid-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-contributes-to-the-establishment-of-biofilms-and-immune-evasion
#3
Christopher J Jones, Daniel J Wozniak
Despite years of research and clinical advances, chronic pulmonary infections with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain the primary concern for cystic fibrosis patients. Much of the research on these strains has focused on the contributions of the polysaccharide alginate; however, it is becoming evident that the neutral polysaccharide Psl also contributes to biofilm formation and the maintenance of chronic infections. Here, we demonstrate that Psl produced by mucoid strains has significant roles in biofilm structure and evasion of immune effectors...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634240/leucine-biosynthesis-is-involved-in-regulating-high-lipid-accumulation-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#4
Eduard J Kerkhoven, Young-Mo Kim, Siwei Wei, Carrie D Nicora, Thomas L Fillmore, Samuel O Purvine, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Richard D Smith, Scott E Baker, Thomas O Metz, Jens Nielsen
The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a potent accumulator of lipids, and lipogenesis in this organism can be influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics and environmental conditions. Using a multifactorial study, we elucidated the effects of both genetic and environmental factors on regulation of lipogenesis in Y. lipolytica and identified how two opposite regulatory states both result in lipid accumulation. This study involved comparison of a strain overexpressing diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGA1) with a control strain grown under either nitrogen or carbon limitation conditions...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634239/the-dual-activity-responsible-for-the-elongation-and-branching-of-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-in-the-fungal-cell-wall
#5
Vishukumar Aimanianda, Catherine Simenel, Cecile Garnaud, Cecile Clavaud, Rui Tada, Lise Barbin, Isabelle Mouyna, Christoph Heddergott, Laura Popolo, Yoshikazu Ohya, Muriel Delepierre, Jean-Paul Latge
β-(1,3)-Glucan, the major fungal cell wall component, ramifies through β-(1,6)-glycosidic linkages, which facilitates its binding with other cell wall components contributing to proper cell wall assembly. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we developed a protocol to quantify β-(1,6)-branching on β-(1,3)-glucan. Permeabilized S. cerevisiae and radiolabeled substrate UDP-((14)C)glucose allowed us to determine branching kinetics. A screening aimed at identifying deletion mutants with reduced branching among them revealed only two, the bgl2Δ and gas1Δ mutants, showing 15% and 70% reductions in the branching, respectively, compared to the wild-type strain...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634238/electron-transport-chain-is-biochemically-linked-to-pilus-assembly-required-for-polymicrobial-interactions-and-biofilm-formation-in-the-gram-positive-actinobacterium-actinomyces-oris
#6
Belkys C Sanchez, Chungyu Chang, Chenggang Wu, Bryan Tran, Hung Ton-That
The Gram-positive actinobacteria Actinomyces spp. are key colonizers in the development of oral biofilms due to the inherent ability of Actinomyces to adhere to receptor polysaccharides on the surface of oral streptococci and host cells. This receptor-dependent bacterial interaction, or coaggregation, requires a unique sortase-catalyzed pilus consisting of the pilus shaft FimA and the coaggregation factor CafA forming the pilus tip. While the essential role of the sortase machine SrtC2 in pilus assembly, biofilm formation, and coaggregation has been established, little is known about trans-acting factors contributing to these processes...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634237/the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-psl-polysaccharide-is-a-social-but-noncheatable-trait-in-biofilms
#7
Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E L Roberts, Kasper N Kragh, Vernita D Gordon, Jaime Hutchison, Rosalind J Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A West, Stephen P Diggle
Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides population-level benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic tolerance; (iii) the benefits of PSL production are social and are shared with other cells; (iv) the benefits of PSL production appear to be preferentially directed toward cells which produce PSL; (v) cells which do not produce PSL are unable to successfully exploit cells which produce PSL...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634236/alternative-evolutionary-pathways-for-drug-resistant-small-colony-variant-mutants-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#8
Sha Cao, Douglas L Huseby, Gerrit Brandis, Diarmaid Hughes
Staphylococcus aureus is known to generate small colony variants (SCVs) that are resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics and can cause persistent and recurrent infections. The SCV phenotype is unstable, and compensatory mutations lead to restored growth, usually with loss of resistance. However, the evolution of improved growth, by mechanisms that avoid loss of antibiotic resistance, is very poorly understood. By selection with serial passaging, we isolated and characterized different classes of extragenic suppressor mutations that compensate for the slow growth of small colony variants...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611252/the-primary-enveloped-virion-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-its-role-in-nuclear-egress
#9
William W Newcomb, Juan Fontana, Dennis C Winkler, Naiqian Cheng, J Bernard Heymann, Alasdair C Steven
Many viruses migrate between different cellular compartments for successive stages of assembly. The HSV-1 capsid assembles in the nucleus and then transfers into the cytoplasm. First, the capsid buds through the inner nuclear membrane, becoming coated with nuclear egress complex (NEC) protein. This yields a primary enveloped virion (PEV) whose envelope fuses with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing the capsid into the cytoplasm. We investigated the associated molecular mechanisms by isolating PEVs from US3-null-infected cells and imaging them by cryo-electron microscopy and tomography...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611251/erratum-for-mund-et-al-the-fitness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-signal-cheats-is-influenced-by-the-diffusivity-of-the-environment
#10
Anne Mund, Stephen P Diggle, Freya Harrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611250/translational-control-of-the-sigr-directed-oxidative-stress-response-in-streptomyces-via-if3-mediated-repression-of-a-noncanonical-gtc-start-codon
#11
Morgan A Feeney, Govind Chandra, Kim C Findlay, Mark S B Paget, Mark J Buttner
The major oxidative stress response in Streptomyces is controlled by the sigma factor SigR and its cognate antisigma factor RsrA, and SigR activity is tightly controlled through multiple mechanisms at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Here we show that sigR has a highly unusual GTC start codon and that this leads to another level of SigR regulation, in which SigR translation is repressed by translation initiation factor 3 (IF3). Changing the GTC to a canonical start codon causes SigR to be overproduced relative to RsrA, resulting in unregulated and constitutive expression of the SigR regulon...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611249/a-herpesviral-immediate-early-protein-promotes-transcription-elongation-of-viral-transcripts
#12
Hannah L Fox, Jill A Dembowski, Neal A DeLuca
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genes are transcribed by cellular RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). While four viral immediate early proteins (ICP4, ICP0, ICP27, and ICP22) function in some capacity in viral transcription, the mechanism by which ICP22 functions remains unclear. We observed that the FACT complex (comprised of SSRP1 and Spt16) was relocalized in infected cells as a function of ICP22. ICP22 was also required for the association of FACT and the transcription elongation factors SPT5 and SPT6 with viral genomes...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611248/the-aspergillus-fumigatus-crza-transcription-factor-activates-chitin-synthase-gene-expression-during-the-caspofungin-paradoxical-effect
#13
Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Marina Campos Rocha, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Roberto Nascimento Silva, Fernanda Zanolli Freitas, Leandro José de Assis, Maria Célia Bertolini, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised humans. The echinocandin caspofungin, adopted as a second-line therapy in combating IA, is a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, which, when used in high concentrations, reverts the anticipated A. fumigatus growth inhibition, a phenomenon called the "caspofungin paradoxical effect" (CPE). The CPE has been widely associated with increased chitin content in the cell wall due to a compensatory upregulation of chitin synthase-encoding genes...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611247/the-malaria-parasite-cyclin-h-homolog-pfcyc1-is-required-for-efficient-cytokinesis-in-blood-stage-plasmodium-falciparum
#14
Jonathan A Robbins, Sabrina Absalon, Vincent A Streva, Jeffrey D Dvorin
All well-studied eukaryotic cell cycles are driven by cyclins, which activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and these protein kinase complexes are viable drug targets. The regulatory control of the Plasmodium falciparum cell division cycle remains poorly understood, and the roles of the various CDKs and cyclins remain unclear. The P. falciparum genome contains multiple CDKs, but surprisingly, it does not contain any sequence-identifiable G1-, S-, or M-phase cyclins. We demonstrate that P. falciparum Cyc1 (PfCyc1) complements a G1 cyclin-depleted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and confirm that other identified malaria parasite cyclins do not complement this strain...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611246/inhibition-of-avian-influenza-a-virus-replication-in-human-cells-by-host-restriction-factor-tufm-is-correlated-with-autophagy
#15
Shu-Ming Kuo, Chi-Jene Chen, Shih-Cheng Chang, Tzu-Jou Liu, Yi-Hsiang Chen, Sheng-Yu Huang, Shin-Ru Shih
Avian influenza A viruses generally do not replicate efficiently in human cells, but substitution of glutamic acid (Glu, E) for lysine (Lys, K) at residue 627 of avian influenza virus polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) can serve to overcome host restriction and facilitate human infectivity. Although PB2 residue 627 is regarded as a species-specific signature of influenza A viruses, host restriction factors associated with PB2627E have yet to be fully investigated. We conducted immunoprecipitation, followed by differential proteomic analysis, to identify proteins associating with PB2627K (human signature) and PB2627E (avian signature) of influenza A/WSN/1933(H1N1) virus, and the results indicated that Tu elongation factor, mitochondrial (TUFM), had a higher binding affinity for PB2627E than PB2627K in transfected human cells...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588136/a-cautionary-tale-tn903-aph-kanamycin-resistance-redux-in-the-environment
#16
LETTER
Vivian P W Miao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588135/spatial-distribution-and-ribosome-binding-dynamics-of-ef-p-in-live-escherichia%C3%A2-coli
#17
Sonisilpa Mohapatra, Heejun Choi, Xueliang Ge, Suparna Sanyal, James C Weisshaar
In vitro assays find that ribosomes form peptide bonds to proline (Pro) residues more slowly than to other residues. Ribosome profiling shows that stalling at Pro-Pro-X triplets is especially severe but is largely alleviated in Escherichia coli by the action of elongation factor EF-P. EF-P and its eukaryotic/archaeal homolog IF5A enhance the peptidyl transfer step of elongation. Here, a superresolution fluorescence localization and tracking study of EF-P-mEos2 in live E. coli provides the first in vivo information about the spatial distribution and on-off binding kinetics of EF-P...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588134/the-rcs-regulated-colanic-acid-capsule-maintains-membrane-potential-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#18
Jasmine M Pando, Joyce E Karlinsey, Jimmie C Lara, Stephen J Libby, Ferric C Fang
The Rcs phosphorelay and Psp (phage shock protein) systems are envelope stress responses that are highly conserved in gammaproteobacteria. The Rcs regulon was found to be strongly induced during metal deprivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking the Psp response. Nineteen genes activated by the RcsA-RcsB response regulator make up an operon responsible for the production of colanic acid capsular polysaccharide, which promotes biofilm development. Despite more than half a century of research, the physiological function of colanic acid has remained elusive...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588133/novel-nonreplicating-vaccinia-virus-vector-enhances-expression-of-heterologous-genes-and-suppresses-synthesis-of-endogenous-viral-proteins
#19
Linda S Wyatt, Wei Xiao, Jeffrey L Americo, Patricia L Earl, Bernard Moss
Viruses are used as expression vectors for protein synthesis, immunology research, vaccines, and therapeutics. Advantages of poxvirus vectors include the accommodation of large amounts of heterologous DNA, the presence of a cytoplasmic site of transcription, and high expression levels. On the other hand, competition of approximately 200 viral genes with the target gene for expression and immune recognition may be disadvantageous. We describe a vaccinia virus (VACV) vector that uses an early promoter to express the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase; has the A23R intermediate transcription factor gene deleted, thereby restricting virus replication to complementing cells; and has a heterologous gene regulated by a T7 promoter...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588132/enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-adherence-fimbriae-drive-inflammatory-cell-recruitment-via-interactions-with-epithelial-muc1
#20
Erik J Boll, Jorge Ayala-Lujan, Rose L Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Rachel Z Smith, Karen A Krogfelt, James P Nataro, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Beth A McCormick
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea and intestinal inflammation worldwide. EAEC strains are characterized by the presence of aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF), which play a key role in pathogenesis by mediating attachment to the intestinal mucosa and by triggering host inflammatory responses. Here, we identify the epithelial transmembrane mucin MUC1 as an intestinal host cell receptor for EAEC, demonstrating that AAF-mediated interactions between EAEC and MUC1 facilitate enhanced bacterial adhesion...
June 6, 2017: MBio
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