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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923927/reply-to-understanding-the-role-of-fungi-in-chronic-wounds
#1
Lindsay Kalan, Sue E Gardner, Elizabeth A Grice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923926/reduced-activity-of-mutant-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-1-is-compensated-in-plasmodium-falciparum-through-the-action-of-protein-kinase-g
#2
Abhisheka Bansal, Kayode K Ojo, Jianbing Mu, Dustin J Maly, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Louis H Miller
: We used a sensitization approach that involves replacement of the gatekeeper residue in a protein kinase with one with a different side chain. The activity of the enzyme with a bulky gatekeeper residue, such as methionine, cannot be inhibited using bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs). Here, we have used this approach to study Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (PfCDPK1). The methionine gatekeeper substitution, T145M, although it led to a 47% reduction in transphosphorylation, was successfully introduced into the CDPK1 locus using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923925/biliary-secretion-of-quasi-enveloped-human-hepatitis-a-virus
#3
Asuka Hirai-Yuki, Lucinda Hensley, Jason K Whitmire, Stanley M Lemon
: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV) are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood) sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923924/attenuation-of-the-type-iv-pilus-retraction-motor-influences-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-social-and-infection-behavior
#4
Alyson M Hockenberry, Danielle M Hutchens, Al Agellon, Magdalene So
: Retraction of the type IV pilus (Tfp) mediates DNA uptake, motility, and social and infection behavior in a wide variety of prokaryotes. To date, investigations into Tfp retraction-dependent activities have used a mutant deleted of PilT, the ATPase motor protein that causes the pilus fiber to retract. ΔpilT cells are nontransformable, nonmotile, and cannot aggregate into microcolonies. We tested the hypothesis that these retraction-dependent activities are sensitive to the strength of PilT enzymatic activity by using the pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a model...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923923/antiviral-innate-immune-response-interferes-with-the-formation-of-replication-associated-membrane-structures-induced-by-a-positive-strand-rna-virus
#5
Diede Oudshoorn, Barbara van der Hoeven, Ronald W A L Limpens, Corrine Beugeling, Eric J Snijder, Montserrat Bárcena, Marjolein Kikkert
: Infection with nidoviruses like corona- and arteriviruses induces a reticulovesicular network of interconnected endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and other membrane structures. This network is thought to accommodate the viral replication machinery and protect it from innate immune detection. We hypothesized that the innate immune response has tools to counteract the formation of these virus-induced replication organelles in order to inhibit virus replication...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923922/mechanisms-of-evolution-in-high-consequence-drug-resistance-plasmids
#6
Susu He, Michael Chandler, Alessandro M Varani, Alison B Hickman, John P Dekker, Fred Dyda
: The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923921/high-resolution-ph-imaging-of-living-bacterial-cells-to-detect-local-ph-differences
#7
Yusuke V Morimoto, Nobunori Kami-Ike, Tomoko Miyata, Akihiro Kawamoto, Takayuki Kato, Keiichi Namba, Tohru Minamino
: Protons are utilized for various biological activities such as energy transduction and cell signaling. For construction of the bacterial flagellum, a type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force to drive flagellar protein export, but the energy transduction mechanism remains unclear. Here, we have developed a high-resolution pH imaging system to measure local pH differences within living Salmonella enterica cells, especially in close proximity to the cytoplasmic membrane and the export apparatus...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923920/understanding-the-role-of-fungi-in-chronic-wounds
#8
LETTER
Matthew Malone, Hugh G Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923919/quorum-sensing-coordinates-cooperative-expression-of-pyruvate-metabolism-genes-to-maintain-a-sustainable-environment-for-population-stability
#9
Lisa A Hawver, Jennifer M Giulietti, James D Baleja, Wai-Leung Ng
: Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-cell communication system that regulates gene expression in response to population density to coordinate collective behaviors. Yet, the role of QS in resolving the stresses caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolic by-products at high cell density is not well defined. In response to cell density, QS could be involved in reprogramming of the metabolic network to maintain population stability. Using unbiased metabolomics, we discovered that Vibrio cholerae mutants genetically locked in a low cell density (LCD) QS state are unable to alter the pyruvate flux to convert fermentable carbon sources into neutral acetoin and 2,3-butanediol molecules to offset organic acid production...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923918/identification-of-bicarbonate-as-a-trigger-and-genes-involved-with-extracellular-dna-export-in-mycobacterial-biofilms
#10
Sasha J Rose, Luiz E Bermudez
: Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an integral biofilm matrix component of numerous pathogens, including nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Cell lysis is the source of eDNA in certain bacteria, but the source of eDNA remains unidentified for NTM, as well as for other eDNA-containing bacterial species. In this study, conditions affecting eDNA export were examined, and genes involved with the eDNA export mechanism were identified. After a method for monitoring eDNA in real time in undisturbed biofilms was established, different conditions affecting eDNA were investigated...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899504/gene-function-analysis-in-the-ubiquitous-human-commensal-and-pathogen-malassezia-genus
#11
Giuseppe Ianiri, Anna F Averette, Joanne M Kingsbury, Joseph Heitman, Alexander Idnurm
: The genus Malassezia includes 14 species that are found on the skin of humans and animals and are associated with a number of diseases. Recent genome sequencing projects have defined the gene content of all 14 species; however, to date, genetic manipulation has not been possible for any species within this genus. Here, we develop and then optimize molecular tools for the transformation of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivery of transfer DNA (T-DNA) molecules...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899503/postreplication-roles-of-the-brucella-virb-type-iv-secretion-system-uncovered-via-conditional-expression-of-the-virb11-atpase
#12
Erin P Smith, Cheryl N Miller, Robert Child, Jennifer A Cundiff, Jean Celli
: Brucella abortus, the bacterial agent of the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, primarily infects host phagocytes, where it undergoes an intracellular cycle within a dedicated membrane-bound vacuole, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV). Initially of endosomal origin (eBCV), BCVs are remodeled into replication-permissive organelles (rBCV) derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum, a process that requires modulation of host secretory functions via delivery of effector proteins by the Brucella VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS)...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899502/bacillus-subtilis-early-colonization-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-roots-involves-multiple-chemotaxis-receptors
#13
Rosalie Allard-Massicotte, Laurence Tessier, Frédéric Lécuyer, Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Jean-François Lucier, Daniel Garneau, Larissa Caudwell, Hera Vlamakis, Harsh P Bais, Pascale B Beauregard
: Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899501/unraveling-fungal-radiation-resistance-regulatory-networks-through-the-genome-wide-transcriptome-and-genetic-analyses-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#14
Kwang-Woo Jung, Dong-Hoon Yang, Min-Kyu Kim, Ho Seong Seo, Sangyong Lim, Yong-Sun Bahn
The basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has been known to be highly radiation resistant and has been found in fatal radioactive environments such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the radiation resistance phenotype of C. neoformans, we identified genes affected by gamma radiation through genome-wide transcriptome analysis and characterized their functions. We found that genes involved in DNA damage repair systems were upregulated in response to gamma radiation...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881553/stage-specific-transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses-of-the-filarial-parasite-onchocerca-volvulus-and-its-wolbachia-endosymbiont
#15
Sasisekhar Bennuru, James A Cotton, Jose M C Ribeiro, Alexandra Grote, Bhavana Harsha, Nancy Holroyd, Amruta Mhashilkar, Douglas M Molina, Arlo Z Randall, Adam D Shandling, Thomas R Unnasch, Elodie Ghedin, Matthew Berriman, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B Nutman
: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv)...
November 23, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879338/functional-interplay-between-murine-leukemia-virus-glycogag-serinc5-and-surface-glycoprotein-governs-virus-entry-with-opposite-effects-on-gammaretroviral-and-ebolavirus-glycoproteins
#16
Yadvinder S Ahi, Shu Zhang, Yashna Thappeta, Audrey Denman, Amin Feizpour, Suryaram Gummuluru, Bjoern Reinhard, Delphine Muriaux, Matthew J Fivash, Alan Rein
: Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called "glycogag" (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879337/interactions-between-melanin-enzymes-and-their-atypical-recruitment-to-the-secretory-pathway-by-palmitoylation
#17
Srijana Upadhyay, Xinping Xu, Xiaorong Lin
: Melanins are biopolymers that confer coloration and protection to the host organism against biotic or abiotic insults. The level of protection offered by melanin depends on its biosynthesis and its subcellular localization. Previously, we discovered that Aspergillus fumigatus compartmentalizes melanization in endosomes by recruiting all melanin enzymes to the secretory pathway. Surprisingly, although two laccases involved in the late steps of melanization are conventional secretory proteins, the four enzymes involved in the early steps of melanization lack a signal peptide or a transmembrane domain and are thus considered "atypical" secretory proteins...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879336/beyond-antimicrobial-resistance-evidence-for-a-distinct-role-of-the-acrd-efflux-pump-in-salmonella-biology
#18
Michelle M C Buckner, Jessica M A Blair, Roberto M La Ragione, Jane Newcombe, Daniel J Dwyer, Alasdair Ivens, Laura J V Piddock
: For over 20 years, bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps have been studied because of their impact on resistance to antimicrobials. However, critical questions remain, including why produce efflux pumps under non-antimicrobial treatment conditions, and why have multiple pumps if their only purpose is antimicrobial efflux? Salmonella spp. possess five efflux pump families, including the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pumps. Notably, the RND efflux pump AcrD has a unique substrate profile, distinct from other Salmonella efflux pumps...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879335/catabolite-and-oxygen-regulation-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-virulence
#19
Kimberly M Carlson-Banning, Vanessa Sperandio
: The biogeography of the gut is diverse in its longitudinal axis, as well as within specific microenvironments. Differential oxygenation and nutrient composition drive the membership of microbial communities in these habitats. Moreover, enteric pathogens can orchestrate further modifications to gain a competitive advantage toward host colonization. These pathogens are versatile and adept when exploiting the human colon. They expertly navigate complex environmental cues and interkingdom signaling to colonize and infect their hosts...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879334/intrinsic-resistance-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-to-benzalkonium-chloride
#20
Youngbeom Ahn, Jeong Myeong Kim, Ohgew Kweon, Seong-Jae Kim, Richard C Jones, Kellie Woodling, Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa, John J LiPuma, David Hussong, Bernard S Marasa, Carl E Cerniglia
: Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK) cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl), decyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C10BDMA-Cl), hexyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride was determined by incubation in 1/10-diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB) to determine if BCC bacteria have the ability to survive and inactivate these disinfectants...
November 22, 2016: MBio
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