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International Journal of Biomaterials

Michelle Griffin, Naghmeh Naderi, Deepak M Kalaskar, Edward Malins, Remzi Becer, Catherine A Thornton, Iain S Whitaker, Ash Mosahebi, Peter E M Butler, Alexander M Seifalian
An effective sterilisation technique that maintains structure integrity, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility is essential for the translation of new biomaterials to the clinical setting. We aimed to establish an effective sterilisation technique for a biodegradable (POSS-PCL) and nonbiodegradable (POSS-PCU) nanocomposite scaffold that maintains stem cell biocompatibility. Scaffolds were sterilised using 70% ethanol, ultraviolet radiation, bleach, antibiotic/antimycotic, ethylene oxide, gamma irradiation, argon plasma, or autoclaving...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Sundus Riaz, Nosheen Fatima, Ahmed Rasheed, Mehvish Riaz, Faiza Anwar, Yamna Khatoon
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable thermoplastic polyester. In 2010, PLA became the second highest consumed bioplastic in the world due to its wide application. Conventionally, PLA is produced by direct condensation of lactic acid monomer and ring opening polymerization of lactide, resulting in lower molecular weight and lesser strength of polymer. Furthermore, conventional methods of PLA production require a catalyst which makes it inappropriate for biomedical applications. Newer method utilizes metabolic engineering of microorganism for direct production of PLA through fermentation which produces good quality and high molecular weight and yield as compared to conventional methods...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Yaowalak Srisuwan, Yodthong Baimark, Supakij Suttiruengwong
A poly( ε -caprolactone- co -L-lactide) copolyester was synthesized and employed to toughen poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) by reactive melt blending in the presence of an epoxy-based chain extender. The effects of chain extension reaction and copolyester content on properties of PLLA-based blends were studied. The chain extension reaction reduced crystallinity and melt flow index of PLLA/copolyester blends. Meanwhile the copolyester blending improved the crystallinities of the chain-extended PLLA up to 20 wt% copolyester...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Carlo Galli, Giuseppe Pedrazzi, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte, Stefano Guizzardi
Implantable biomaterials are extensively used to promote bone regeneration or support endosseous prosthesis in orthopedics and dentistry. Their use, however, would benefit from additional strategies to improve bone responses. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) have long been known to act on osteoblasts and bone, affecting their metabolism, in spite of our poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Hence, we have the hypothesis that PEMFs may also ameliorate cell responses to biomaterials, improving their growth, differentiation, and the expression of a mature phenotype and therefore increasing the tissue integration of the implanted devices and their clinical success...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Pawan Kumar
The present focus is on the synthesis of highly effective, porous, biocompatible, and inert scaffold by using ceramic nanoparticles and natural polymer for the application in tissue engineering. Freeze-drying method was used to fabricate nano-TiO2 doped chitosan sample scaffold. Nano-TiO2 /chitosan scaffold can considered as an effective solution for damaged tissue regeneration. The interaction between chitosan (polysaccharide) and nano-TiO2 makes it highly porous and brittle that could be an effective substitute for bone tissue engineering...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Mohammed Yunus, Mohammad S Alsoufi
Hybrid polymer matrix composites (HPMC) are prominent material for the formation of biomaterial and offer various advantages such as low cost, high strength, and the fact that they are easy to manufacture. However, they are associated with low mechanical (low hardness) and tribological properties (high wear rate). The average hip joint load fluctuates between three to five times of the body weight during jumping and jogging and depends on various actions relating to body positions. Alternate bone and prosthesis material plays a critical role in attaining strength as it determines the method of load transferred to the system...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Firdos Alam Khan, Sultan Akhtar, Dana Almohazey, Munthar Alomari, Sarah Ameen Almofty
Both nanoparticles and cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) possess anticancer properties, but they do not elicit a significant response on cancer cells when treated alone. In the present study, we have tested fluorescent magnetic submicronic polymer nanoparticles (FMSP-nanoparticles) in combination with crude clove extracts on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) to examine whether the combination approach enhance the cancer cell death. The MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations (1.25  μ g/mL, 12.5  μ g/mL, 50  μ g/mL, 75  μ g/mL, and 100  μ g/mL) of FMSP-nanoparticles alone and in combination with 50  μ g/mL crude clove extracts...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Roohollah Sharifi, Davood Almasi, Izman Bin Sudin, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir, Ladan Jamshidy, Seyed Mojtaba Amiri, Hamid Reza Mozaffari, Maliheh Sadeghi, Fatemeh Roozbahani, Nida Iqbal
The mechanical properties of coated layers are one of the important factors for the long-term success of orthopeadic and dental implants. In this study, the mechanical properties of the porous coated layer were examined via scratch and nanoindentation tests. The effect of compression load on the porous coated layer of sulphonated poly ether ether ketone/Hydroxyapatite was studied to determine whether it changes its mechanical properties. The water contact angle and surface roughness of the compressed coated layer were also measured...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Afaf Y Al-Haddad, Muralithran G Kutty, Zeti Adura Che Ab Aziz
Objectives: To evaluate the push-out bond strength of experimental apatite calcium phosphate coated gutta-percha (HAGP) compared to different commercially available coated gutta-percha root obturation points. Methods: Extracted teeth were selected and instrumented using ProTaper rotary files. The canals were assigned into five equal groups and obturated using matching single cone technique as follows: EndoREZ cones and EndoREZ sealer, Bioceramic Endosequence gutta-percha (BCGP) with Endosequence BC sealer, Active GP with Endosequence BC sealer (ActiV GP), conventional GP with Endosequence BC sealer, and HAGP with Endosequence BC sealer...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Yong-Seok Jang, Phonelavanh Manivong, Yu-Kyoung Kim, Kyung-Seon Kim, Sook-Jeong Lee, Tae-Sung Bae, Min-Ho Lee
Beta-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics are widely used as bone replacement scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. The purpose of this study is to develop beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold with the optimum mechanical properties and porosity and to identify the effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine loaded to beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold on the enhancement of biocompatibility. The various interconnected porous scaffolds were fabricated using slurries containing various concentrations of beta-tricalcium phosphate and different coating times by replica method using polyurethane foam as a passing material...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Hasan Subhi, Fazal Reza, Adam Husein, Saaid Ayesh Al Shehadat, Asma-Abdullah Nurul
Effective pulp capping material must be biocompatible and have the ability to induce dentin bridge formation as well as having suitable physical and mechanical properties; however, many current materials do not satisfy the clinical requirements. This study aimed to assess the physical and mechanical properties of gypsum-based chitosan material (Gp-CT) and to evaluate its effects on cellular properties of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). The experimental material was prepared with different concentrations of chitosan (CT) with or without BMP-2...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Watcharaphong Chaemsawang, Weerapong Prasongchean, Konstantinos I Papadopoulos, Suchada Sukrong, W John Kao, Phanphen Wattanaarsakit
Microencapsulation with biodegradable polymers has potential application in drug and cell delivery systems and is currently used in probiotic delivery. In the present study, microcapsules of human fibroblast cells (CRL2522) were prepared by emulsion cross-linking technique. Tween 80 surfactant at a 2% concentration through phase inversion resulted in the most efficient and stable size, morphology, and the cells survival at least 50% on day 14. Emulsion cross-linking microcapsule preparation resulted in smaller and possibly more diverse particles that can be developed clinically to deliver encapsulated mammalian cells for future disease treatments...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Oscar Janson, Maria Strømme, Håkan Engqvist, Ken Welch
Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the debridement efficacy of different solutions of H2 O2 and rutile particles against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms attached to titanium surfaces when exposed to visible light. Materials and Methods: Titanium discs cultivated with biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa were subjected for 1 min to suspensions consisting of rutile particles mixed with high (950 mM) or low (2 mM) concentrations of H2 O2 under visible light irradiation (405 nm; 2...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
K Z M Abdul Motaleb, Md Shariful Islam, Mohammad B Hoque
Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites were prepared by compression molding. The fiber content varied from 25% to 45% by weight. Water uptake percentages of the composites containing various wt% of fiber were measured. All the composites demonstrated lower water uptake percentages and maximum of 1.93% for 45 wt% PALF/PP composite treated with 7(w/v)% NaOH. Tensile Strength (TS), Tensile Modulus (TM), Elongation at Break (Eb %), Bending Strength (BS), Bending Modulus (BM), and Impact Strength (IS) were evaluated for various fiber content...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Daisaku Iwamoto, Nobuhiro Kato, Shunji Taniguchi, Yoshitomo Taguchi, Masao Kishi, Kazuhiro Saeki
Single embryo culture is useful for assessing the developmental competence of an embryo in detail. Recently, a device made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), which is biocompatible and nontoxic, has been widely used for culture various types of cells. However, PDMS plates are porous, causing the serious osmolality increment of the medium (over 600 mOsm/kg from Day 4 to Day 7). Here, we report that curing the PDMS under low pressure (LP-PDMS) greatly reduced the porosity, resulting in a constant osmolality of the medium...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Manjul Gondwal, Geeta Joshi Nee Pant
An ecofriendly and green method for the synthesis of silver and copper nanoparticles has developed using aqueous leaves extract of Cassia occidentalis . The formation of AgNPs and CuNPs was monitored by measuring the UV-Vis spectra. The morphology and crystalline phase of the metal nanoparticles were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The synthesized metal nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical and oval in shape...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Qiang Wei, Nan-Nan Deng, Junling Guo, Jie Deng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Vivekjot Brar, Gurpreet Kaur
Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) of Okra gum (OKG) extracted from fruits of Hibiscus esculentus (Malvaceae) and chitosan (CH) were prepared using ionic gelation technique. The PECs were insoluble and maximum yield was obtained at weight ratio of 7 : 3. The supernatant obtained after extracting PECs was clearly representing complete conversion of polysaccharides into PECs. Complexation was also evaluated by measuring the viscosity of supernatant after precipitation of PECs. The dried PECs were characterized using FTIR, DSC, zeta potential, water uptake, and SEM studies...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Yingge Zhou, Joanna Chyu, Mimi Zumwalt
As a versatile nanofiber manufacturing technique, electrospinning has been widely employed for the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Since the structure of natural extracellular matrices varies substantially in different tissues, there has been growing awareness of the fact that the hierarchical 3D structure of scaffolds may affect intercellular interactions, material transportation, fluid flow, environmental stimulation, and so forth. Physical blending of the synthetic and natural polymers to form composite materials better mimics the composition and mechanical properties of natural tissues...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
Anh Khoa Nguyen, Thi Hiep Nguyen, Bui Quoc Bao, Long Giang Bach, Dai Hai Nguyen
Porous nanosilica (PNS) has been regarded as a promising candidate for controlled delivery of anticancer drugs. Unmodified PNS-based nanocarriers, however, showed a burst release of encapsulated drugs, which may limit their clinical uses. In this report, PNS was surface conjugated with adamantylamine (ADA) via disulfide bridges (-SS-), PNS-SS-ADA, which was further modified with cyclodextrin-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether conjugate (CD-mPEG) to form a core@shell structure PNS-SS-ADA@CD-mPEG for redox triggered delivery of doxorubicin (DOX), DOX/PNS-SS-ADA@CD-mPEG...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
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