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Journal of Toxicology

Fabiana F Ferreira, Evelise M Nazari, Yara M R Müller
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a known neurodevelopmental toxicant, which causes changes in various structures of the central nervous system (CNS). However, ultrastructural studies of its effects on the developing CNS are still scarce. Here, we investigated the effect of MeHg on the ultrastructure of the cells in spinal cord layers. Chicken embryos at E3 were treated in ovo with 0.1 μ g MeHg/50 μ L saline solution and analyzed at E10. Then, we used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify possible damage caused by MeHg to the structures and organelles of the spinal cord cells...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
J I Raji, C K Onwuamah, P G C Odeigah
Artemisinin-based combination therapy is used to treat uncomplicated malaria disease in most endemic countries. Although most antimalarial drugs are effective in killing the parasite, there is a concern of induced toxicity to the cell. Here, the cytogenotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine phosphate (DHAP), a coformulation for artemisinin-based combination therapy, was evaluated using Allium cepa model. The toxicity on the mitotic index varies with the duration of exposure and dose tested. Chromosome aberrations observed include chromosome fragments, chromosome bridges, binucleated cells, and micronucleated cells...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Amal A Raslan, Seham Elbadry, Wageh Sobhy Darwish
Milk is nearly a perfect natural food and is widely used by all segments of our population especially for infants and the elderly. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used worldwide, particularly in many African countries as in Egypt for the control of pests. OCPs are characterized by their bioaccumulation in the environment, especially in the food chain, where they find their way into the human body. The objectives of this study were initially to estimate the residual concentrations of different OCPs in three kinds of fresh and raw milk from different animals (cattle, buffalo, and goat) marketed in Egypt...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Erico R Carmona, Alba García-Rodríguez, Ricard Marcos
Copper and nickel nanoparticles (Cu-NPs and Ni-NPs, respectively) are used in a variety of industrial applications, such as semiconductors, catalysts, sensors, and antimicrobial agents. Although studies on its potential genotoxicity already exist, few of them report in vivo data. In the present study we have used the wing-spot assay in Drosophila melanogaster to determine the genotoxic activity of Cu-NPs and Ni-NPs, and these data have been compared with those obtained with their microparticle forms (MPs). Additionally, a complete physical characterization of NPs using transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) techniques was also performed...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Sreenivasa Rao Damarla, Rajesh Komma, Upendra Bhatnagar, Navin Rajesh, Sadik Mohmad Abdulhamid Mulla
A battery of toxicological studies was conducted in accordance with international guidelines to investigate the genotoxicity and repeated-dose oral toxicity in rats of synthetic curcumin (VEAMIN 99, >99% purity). There was no evidence of mutagenicity in a bacterial reverse mutation test, whereas an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test was positive for induction of chromosomal aberrations which is in line with results reported for natural curcumin. There was no evidence of genotoxicity in an in vivo mammalian micronucleus test...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Modupeade Christianah Adetunji, Ogechi Precious Alika, Ngozi Precious Awa, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Mulunda Mwanza
Nuts are one of the commonly consumed snacks but poor handling and storage practices can make them prone to foodborne infections. The study aimed at assessing the microbiological quality and risk assessment for aflatoxins in groundnuts and cashew nuts consumed in selected locations in Nigeria. The moisture content, colony counts, incidence of pathogenic bacteria, aflatoxin contamination, and risk assessment for aflatoxins were evaluated using standard methods. The moisture content and total viable count ranged from 5...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Tennille K Marx, Robin Reddeman, Amy E Clewell, John R Endres, Erzsébet Béres, Adél Vértesi, Róbert Glávits, Gábor Hirka, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
A battery of toxicological studies was conducted on a supercritical CO2 extract of the aerial parts of the Cannabis sativa plant, containing approximately 25% cannabinoids. No evidence of genotoxicity was found in a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames), in an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, or in an in vivo mouse micronucleus study. A 14-day repeated oral dose-range finding study conducted in Wistar rats at 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg bw/day resulted in effects where a NOAEL could not be concluded...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Boddapati Srinivasa Rao, C V Chandrasekaran, H S Srikanth, Murugan Sasikumar, R Edwin Jothie, Begum Haseena, Bethapudi Bharathi, Ramasamy Selvam, D'Souza Prashanth
Herbal products are being used and trusted globally for thousands of years for their health benefits and limited side effects. Globally, a general belief amongst the consumers is that herbal supplements are always safe because they are "natural." But later, research reveals that they may not be safe. This raises concern on their safety and implications for their use as feed supplement or medicine. Toxicity testing can reveal some of the risks that may be associated with use of herbs, therefore avoiding potential harmful effects...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Sooad Saud Al-Otaibi, Maha Mohamad Arafah, Bechan Sharma, Abdullah Salih Alhomida, Nikhat Jamal Siddiqi
Objectives: The present study was carried out to study the protective effects of quercetin and α -lipoic acid alone and in combination against aluminum chloride induced neurotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of eight groups, namely, Group 1: control rats, Group 2: rats receiving aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal route (i.p) for two weeks, Group 3: rats receiving quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. for two weeks, Group 4: rats receiving quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight followed by aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight i...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Hanane Benzeid, Fadma Gouaz, Abba Hamadoun Touré, Mustapha Bouatia, Mohamed Oulad Bouyahya Idrissi, Mustapha Draoui
Since they are natural, plants are wrongly considered nondangerous; therefore people used them in various contexts. Each plant is used alone or in mixture with others, where knowledge and the requirements of preparation and consumption are not mastered. Thus, intoxications due to the use of plants have become more and more frequent. The reports of intoxications made at the Antipoison Center and Pharmacovigilance of Morocco (ACPM) support this finding, since the interrogations suffered by the victims show that the use of plants is practiced irrationally, anarchically, and uncontrollably...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Fabien Havas, Shlomo Krispin, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez, Liki von Oppen-Bezalel
The colorless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene are comparatively understudied compounds found in common foods (e.g., tomatoes) and in human plasma, internal tissues, and skin. Being naturally present in common foods, their intake at dietary levels is not expected to present a safety concern. However, since the interest in these compounds in the context of many applications is expanding, it is important to conduct studies aimed at assessing their safety. We present here results of in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies, revealing no significant cytotoxic or genotoxic potential and of short- and long-term human in vivo skin compatibility studies with phytoene- and phytofluene-rich tomato and Dunaliella salina alga extracts, showing a lack of irritancy or sensitization reactions...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Chunlei Xia, Longwen Fu, Zuoyi Liu, Hui Liu, Lingxin Chen, Yuedan Liu
Video tracking based biological early warning system achieved a great progress with advanced computer vision and machine learning methods. Ability of video tracking of multiple biological organisms has been largely improved in recent years. Video based behavioral monitoring has become a common tool for acquiring quantified behavioral data for aquatic risk assessment. Investigation of behavioral responses under chemical and environmental stress has been boosted by rapidly developed machine learning and artificial intelligence...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Anindita Dutta, Anindita Chakraborty
In recent years, natural bioactive components draw a major attention for their potent anticarcinogenic activity. Cinnamon, one of the traditional spices, most frequently used in almost every household of tropical countries has got enormous efficacy to combat cancer. Cinnamon as a whole and/or its active components exhibited significant antineoplastic activity in different types of cancer. This review has been carried out to elicit the molecular mechanisms of action of cinnamon and its components on oncogenic regulators and related pathways...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Li Wang, Eric Lin, Mary J Johansen, Timothy Madden, Edward Felix, Karen S Martirosyan, Steven J Frank
The novel positive-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker C4 consists of an aqueous solution of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) complexed with the chelator N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We evaluated whether the presence of C4 or its components would produce reactive oxygen species (ROS, including hydroxyl, peroxyl, or other reactive oxygen species) in cultured cells. Human cancer or normal cells were incubated with 1% (w/v) CoCl2 ·6H2 O or 2% NAC or a combination of both (1% CoCl2 ·6H2 O : 2% NAC in an aqueous solution, abbreviated as Co : NAC) in the presence or absence of H2 O2 ...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Yuedan Liu, Chunlei Xia, Zhongya Fan, Renren Wu, Xianglin Chen, Zuoyi Liu
Movement behaviors of an indicator species, Daphnia magna , in response to contaminants have been implemented to monitor environmental disturbances. Complexity in movement tracks of Daphnia magna was characterized by use of fractal dimension and self-organizing map. The individual movement tracks of D. magna were continuously recorded for 24 hours before and after treatments with toluene at the concentration of 10 mg/L, respectively. The general complexity in movement tracks (10 minutes) was characterized by fractal dimension...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Alastimmanahalli Narasimhiah Ravikumar, Joby Jacob, Sreeraj Gopi, Tumkur Subbarao Jagannath
A series of toxicological investigations were conducted in order to evaluate the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of CuroWhite, a proprietary extract of curcumin that has been hydrogenated and standardized to not less than 25% hydrogenated curcuminoid content. All tests were conducted in general accordance with internationally accepted standards. The test item was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation test or in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and no in vivo genotoxic activity was observed in rat bone marrow in the micronucleus test...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Aldilane Gonçalves Fonseca, Luzia Leiros Sena Fernandes Ribeiro Dantas, Júlia Morais Fernandes, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Adley Antoninni Neves Lima, Luiz Alberto Lira Soares, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Telma Maria Araújo Moura Lemos
The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis , known as "Saião , " has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis . The action of the extract (concentrations from 0...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Elikana Lekei, Aiwerasia V Ngowi, Leslie London
Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is a serious problem worldwide. Because the burden of childhood APP is unknown in Tanzania, this study describes the distribution, circumstances, and patterns of APP involving children under 18 years in Tanzania. Methodology: A 12-month prospective study was conducted in 10 Tanzanian healthcare facilities in 2006 using a data collection tool for surveillance. Results: Of 53 childhood poisoning cases identified, 56...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
Fernando Siller-López, Sandra Garzón-Castaño, Martha E Ramos-Márquez, Iván Hernández-Cañaveral
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, hydrolyzes several organophosphate pesticides and oxidized lipids. The PON1 Q192R polymorphism affects the catalytic efficiency and is considered a risk factor for pesticide intoxication and cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the association is not consistent between individuals or populations. We aimed to study the association of PON1 Q192R polymorphism with CVD risk in coffee harvesters of central Colombia. Demographics were collected from 205 subjects via standardized questionnaires...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
José Abraham Márquez-Ramos, Isela Hernández-Plata, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz, Verónica M Rodríguez
The herbicide atrazine (ATR) has a potential toxic effect on the neuronal circuits of the brain, specifically on two major dopaminergic pathways: the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic circuits. In this work, we repeatedly exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to 6 injections of 100 mg ATR/kg of body weight (for two weeks) and one saline injection two days after ATR administration. Locomotor activity was assessed for 15 minutes and/or 2 hours after ATR or saline injection and 2 months after the final ATR administration...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
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