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Journal of Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458688/long-term-safety-of-pegylated-coagulation-factor-viii-in-the-immune-deficient-rowett-nude-rat
#1
Caroline E Rasmussen, Jette Nowak, Julie M Larsen, Emma Moore, David Bell, Kai Chiu Liu, Nanna Skall Sorensen, Wendela A Kappers, Thomas Krogh-Meibom, Hanne Offenberg
Turoctocog alfa pegol (N8-GP) is a glycoPEGylated human recombinant factor VIII for the treatment of hemophilia A. The safety profile of rFVIII, and polyethylene glycols (PEG) technology, is well-established. Conducting long-term toxicity studies in animals using human proteins can be complicated by anti-drug antibody (ADA) development. To evaluate long-term safety of N8-GP, 26- and 52-week toxicity studies were conducted in immune-deficient rats dosed intravenously every fourth day with 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1200 IU/kg N8-GP...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392800/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-acephate-on-human-sperm
#2
M A Thamali Dhanushka, L Dinithi C Peiris
Extensive use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) could alter semen quality and sperm DNA at different stages of spermatogenesis. Acephate is a highly toxic extensively used OP and, therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of acephate on human semen quality and sperm DNA integrity. Sperm collected from healthy males were exposed to 0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL of acephate and incubated for 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h. Subsequently, sperm motility, vitality, functional integrity of plasma membrane, sperm capacitation, and DNA damage were examined...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261269/comparative-hepatotoxicity-of-fluconazole-ketoconazole-itraconazole-terbinafine-and-griseofulvin-in-rats
#3
Star Khoza, Ishmael Moyo, Denver Ncube
Oral ketoconazole was recently the subject of regulatory safety warnings because of its association with increased risk of inducing hepatic injury. However, the relative hepatotoxicity of antifungal agents has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to compare the hepatotoxicity induced by five commonly prescribed oral antifungal agents. Rats were treated with therapeutic oral doses of griseofulvin, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and terbinafine. After 14 days, only ketoconazole had significantly higher ALT levels (p = 0...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255298/distribution-of-heavy-metals-in-surface-sediments-of-the-bay-of-bengal-coast
#4
M Z H Khan, M R Hasan, M Khan, S Aktar, K Fatema
The concentrations of major (Si, Al, Ca, Fe, and K) and minor (Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn, Co, Cr, As, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr,) elements in the surficial sediments were studied in an attempt to establish their concentration in the Bengal coast. It was revealed that the majority of the trace elements have been introduced into the Bengal marine from the riverine inflows that are also affected by the impact of industrial, ship breaking yard, gas production plant, and urban wastes. The concentration of heavy metals was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence instruments...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115933/cisplatin-associated-ototoxicity-a-review-for-the-health-professional
#5
REVIEW
Jessica Paken, Cyril D Govender, Mershen Pillay, Vikash Sewram
Cisplatin is an effective drug used in the treatment of many cancers, yet its ototoxic potential places cancer patients, exposed to this drug, at risk of hearing loss, thus negatively impacting further on a patient's quality of life. It is paramount for health care practitioners managing such patients to be aware of cisplatin's ototoxic properties and the clinical signs to identify patients at risk of developing hearing loss. English peer-reviewed articles from January 1975 to July 2015 were assessed from PubMed, Science Direct, and Ebscohost...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090207/role-of-bioadsorbents-in-reducing-toxic-metals
#6
REVIEW
Blessy Baby Mathew, Monisha Jaishankar, Vinai George Biju, Krishnamurthy Nideghatta Beeregowda
Industrialization and urbanization have led to the release of increasing amounts of heavy metals into the environment. Metal ion contamination of drinking water and waste water is a serious ongoing problem especially with high toxic metals such as lead and cadmium and less toxic metals such as copper and zinc. Several biological materials have attracted many researchers and scientists as they offer both cheap and effective removal of heavy metals from waste water. Therefore it is urgent to study and explore all possible sources of agrobased inexpensive adsorbents for their feasibility in the removal of heavy metals...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053604/comparisons-of-curative-effects-of-chlorophyll-from-sauropus-androgynus-l-merr-leaf-extract-and-cu-chlorophyllin-on-sodium-nitrate-induced-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#7
Suparmi Suparmi, Minidian Fasitasari, Martanto Martosupono, Jubhar Christian Mangimbulude
Sodium nitrate (NaNO2) widely used as food additive for coloring and preserving meat has been reported to induce oxidative stress and cause histopathologic changes, nitrosative tissue damage, and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney. Therefore, the present study compared the curative effect of chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr and Cu-chlorophyllin as antioxidant in NaNO2-induced female Wistar rats based on haematological, serum biochemical, and histological evaluation. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into six groups of five rats each...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974891/impact-of-exposure-to-fenitrothion-on-vital-organs-in-rats
#8
Rasha Abdel-Ghany, Ebaa Mohammed, Shimaa Anis, Waleed Barakat
This study was designed to investigate the impact of oral administration of fenitrothion (10 mg/kg) on liver, kidney, brain, and lung function in rats. The effect was studied on days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42. Our results have shown deterioration in liver function as evidenced by the elevation in serum ALT, AST, ALP, and bilirubin and reduction in albumin and hepatic glycogen. This was associated with a state of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and increased prothrombin time, while hemoglobin content was reduced...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882048/pattern-and-epidemiology-of-poisoning-in-the-east-african-region-a-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Dexter Tagwireyi, Patience Chingombe, Star Khoza, Mandy Maredza
The establishment and strengthening of poisons centres was identified as a regional priority at the first African regional meeting on the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) in June 2006. At this meeting, the possibility of a subregional poisons centre, that is, a centre in one country serving multiple countries, was suggested. The WHO Headquarters following consultation with counterparts at the WHO Regional Office for Africa (AFRO) and the SAICM Africa Regional Focal Point successfully submitted a proposal to the SAICM Quick Start Programme (QSP) Trust Fund Committee for a feasibility study into a subregional poisons centre in the Eastern Africa subregion...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703475/evaluation-of-dream-herb-calea-zacatechichi-for-nephrotoxicity-using-human-kidney-proximal-tubule-cells
#10
Miriam E Mossoba, Thomas J Flynn, Sanah Vohra, Paddy Wiesenfeld, Robert L Sprando
A recent surge in the use of dietary supplements, including herbal remedies, necessitates investigations into their safety profiles. "Dream herb," Calea zacatechichi, has long been used in traditional folk medicine for a variety of purposes and is currently being marketed in the US for medicinal purposes, including diabetes treatment. Despite the inherent vulnerability of the renal system to xenobiotic toxicity, there is a lack of safety studies on the nephrotoxic potential of this herb. Additionally, the high frequency of diabetes-associated kidney disease makes safety screening of C...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635133/a-90-day-oral-toxicological-evaluation-of-the-methylurate-purine-alkaloid-theacrine
#11
Amy Clewell, Gábor Hirka, Róbert Glávits, Philip A Palmer, John R Endres, Timothy S Murbach, Tennille Marx, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on the methylurate purine alkaloid theacrine, which is found naturally in certain plants. Four groups of Hsd.Brl.Han Wistar rats (ten/sex/group) were administered theacrine by gavage doses of 0 (vehicle only), 180, 300, and 375 mg/kg bw/day. Two females and one male in the 300 and 375 mg/kg bw/day groups, respectively, died during the study. Histological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis as the probable cause of death...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610134/macro-and-microelemental-composition-and-toxicity-of-unsweetened-natural-cocoa-powder-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Isaac Julius Asiedu-Gyekye, Samuel Frimpong-Manso, Benoit Banga N'guessan, Mahmood Abdulai Seidu, Paul Osei-Prempeh, Daniel Kwaku Boamah
Unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP) is a pulverized high-grade powder of compressed solid blocks which remains after extraction. Little scientific data is available concerning its safety despite the presence of potential toxic elements. Elemental composition in UNCP was analyzed with ED-XRF spectroscopy. Single oral high dose toxicity study was conducted on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g) by the limit test method. One group received water and the test group 2000 mg/kg UNCP. All animals were observed for 14 days and then euthanized for haematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418928/the-effect-of-parathion-on-red-blood-cell-acetylcholinesterase-in-the-wistar-rat
#13
Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B Bird
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375740/chronic-exposure-to-arsenic-in-drinking-water-causes-alterations-in-locomotor-activity-and-decreases-striatal-mrna-for-the-d2-dopamine-receptor-in-cd1-male-mice
#14
Claudia Leticia Moreno Ávila, Jorge H Limón-Pacheco, Magda Giordano, Verónica M Rodríguez
Arsenic exposure has been associated with sensory, motor, memory, and learning alterations in humans and alterations in locomotor activity, behavioral tasks, and neurotransmitters systems in rodents. In this study, CD1 mice were exposed to 0.5 or 5.0 mg As/L of drinking water for 6 months. Locomotor activity, aggression, interspecific behavior and physical appearance, monoamines levels, and expression of the messenger for dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were assessed. Arsenic exposure produced hypoactivity at six months and other behaviors such as rearing and on-wall rearing and barbering showed both increases and decreases...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066073/tolerability-of-capsaicinoids-from-capsicum-extract-in-a-beadlet-form-a-pilot-study
#15
Jayant Deshpande, Shankaranarayanan Jeyakodi, Vijaya Juturu
UNLABELLED: A single center, open-label, dose-finding adaptive study was conducted in twelve healthy overweight female subjects. The study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the capsaicinoids (CAPs) from Capsicum extract in a beadlet form compared to placebo in a healthy overweight population. The investigational product capsaicinoids (CAPs) from Capsicum extract in a beadlet form (Capsimax®) a proprietary encapsulated form of Capsicum extract in beadlet form supplemented at 2 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg, 8 mg and 10 mg of CAPs...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057163/estimation-of-the-mechanism-of-adrenal-action-of-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-using-a-computational-model-of-adrenal-steroidogenesis-in-nci-h295r-cells
#16
Ryuta Saito, Natsuko Terasaki, Makoto Yamazaki, Naoya Masutomi, Naohisa Tsutsui, Masahiro Okamoto
Adrenal toxicity is one of the major concerns in drug development. To quantitatively understand the effect of endocrine-active compounds on adrenal steroidogenesis and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs, we developed a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295R cells. The model includes cellular proliferation, intracellular cholesterol translocation, diffusional transport of steroids, and metabolic pathways of adrenal steroidogenesis, which serially involve steroidogenic proteins and enzymes such as StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, CYP21A2, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, HSD17B3, and CYP19A1...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034665/neurotoxic-effect-of-benzo-a-pyrene-and-its-possible-association-with-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-neurobehavioral-changes-during-early-adolescence-period-in-rats
#17
Saroj Kumar Das, Bhupesh Patel, Manorama Patri
Exposure to persistent genotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) during postnatal days causes neurobehavioral changes in animal models. However, neurotoxic potential of B[a]P and its association with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced neurobehavioral changes are yet to be explored. The growth of rat brain peaks at the first week of birth and continues up to one month with the attainment of adolescence. Hence, the present study was conducted on male Wistar rats at postnatal day 5 (PND 5) following single intracisternal administration of B[a]P to compare with neurobehavioral and neurotransmitter changes induced by 6-OHDA at PND 30...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989411/modified-rice-straw-as-adsorbent-material-to-remove-aflatoxin-b1-from-aqueous-media-and-as-a-fiber-source-in-fino-bread
#18
Sherif R Mohamed, Tarek A El-Desouky, Ahmed M S Hussein, Sherif S Mohamed, Khayria M Naguib
The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alkali consumption due to the modification process...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981120/evaluating-the-effects-of-tetrachloro-1-4-benzoquinone-an-active-metabolite-of-pentachlorophenol-on-the-growth-of-human-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Binbing Ling, Bosong Gao, Jian Yang
Tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), an active metabolite of pentachlorophenol (PCP), is genotoxic and potentially carcinogenic. As an electrophilic and oxidative molecule, TCBQ can conjugate with deoxyguanosine in DNA molecules and/or impose oxidative stress in cells. In the current study, we investigated the effects of TCBQ on intracellular ROS production, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity against three different subtypes of human breast cancer cells. Luminal A subtype MCF7 (ER(+), PR(+), HER2(-)) cells maintained the highest intracellular ROS level and were subjected to TCBQ-induced ROS reduction, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981119/biomonitoring-with-micronuclei-test-in-buccal-cells-of-female-farmers-and-children-exposed-to-pesticides-of-maneadero-agricultural-valley-baja-california-mexico
#20
Idalia Jazmin Castañeda-Yslas, María Evarista Arellano-García, Marco Antonio García-Zarate, Balam Ruíz-Ruíz, María Guadalupe Zavala-Cerna, Olivia Torres-Bugarín
Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38)...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
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