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Journal of Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681934/implementation-of-fractal-dimension-and-self-organizing-map-to-detect-toxic-effects-of-toluene-on-movement-tracks-of-daphnia-magna
#1
Yuedan Liu, Chunlei Xia, Zhongya Fan, Renren Wu, Xianglin Chen, Zuoyi Liu
Movement behaviors of an indicator species, Daphnia magna , in response to contaminants have been implemented to monitor environmental disturbances. Complexity in movement tracks of Daphnia magna was characterized by use of fractal dimension and self-organizing map. The individual movement tracks of D. magna were continuously recorded for 24 hours before and after treatments with toluene at the concentration of 10 mg/L, respectively. The general complexity in movement tracks (10 minutes) was characterized by fractal dimension...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610573/a-toxicological-evaluation-of-a-standardized-hydrogenated-extract-of-curcumin-curowhite%C3%A2
#2
Alastimmanahalli Narasimhiah Ravikumar, Joby Jacob, Sreeraj Gopi, Tumkur Subbarao Jagannath
A series of toxicological investigations were conducted in order to evaluate the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of CuroWhite, a proprietary extract of curcumin that has been hydrogenated and standardized to not less than 25% hydrogenated curcuminoid content. All tests were conducted in general accordance with internationally accepted standards. The test item was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation test or in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and no in vivo genotoxic activity was observed in rat bone marrow in the micronucleus test...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593788/-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-toxicity-evaluation-of-hydroethanolic-extract-of-kalanchoe-brasiliensis-crassulaceae-leaves
#3
Aldilane Gonçalves Fonseca, Luzia Leiros Sena Fernandes Ribeiro Dantas, Júlia Morais Fernandes, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Adley Antoninni Neves Lima, Luiz Alberto Lira Soares, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Telma Maria Araújo Moura Lemos
The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis , known as "Saião , " has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis . The action of the extract (concentrations from 0...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441090/acute-pesticide-poisoning-in-children-hospital-review-in-selected-hospitals-of-tanzania
#4
Elikana Lekei, Aiwerasia V Ngowi, Leslie London
Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is a serious problem worldwide. Because the burden of childhood APP is unknown in Tanzania, this study describes the distribution, circumstances, and patterns of APP involving children under 18 years in Tanzania. Methodology: A 12-month prospective study was conducted in 10 Tanzanian healthcare facilities in 2006 using a data collection tool for surveillance. Results: Of 53 childhood poisoning cases identified, 56...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430251/association-of-paraoxonase-1-q192r-rs662-single-nucleotide-variation-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-coffee-harvesters-of-central-colombia
#5
Fernando Siller-López, Sandra Garzón-Castaño, Martha E Ramos-Márquez, Iván Hernández-Cañaveral
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, hydrolyzes several organophosphate pesticides and oxidized lipids. The PON1 Q192R polymorphism affects the catalytic efficiency and is considered a risk factor for pesticide intoxication and cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the association is not consistent between individuals or populations. We aimed to study the association of PON1 Q192R polymorphism with CVD risk in coffee harvesters of central Colombia. Demographics were collected from 205 subjects via standardized questionnaires...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362563/the-hypoactivity-associated-with-the-repeated-exposure-to-atrazine-is-related-to-decreases-in-the-specific-binding-to-d1-da-receptors-in-the-striatum-of-rats
#6
José Abraham Márquez-Ramos, Isela Hernández-Plata, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz, Verónica M Rodríguez
The herbicide atrazine (ATR) has a potential toxic effect on the neuronal circuits of the brain, specifically on two major dopaminergic pathways: the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic circuits. In this work, we repeatedly exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to 6 injections of 100 mg ATR/kg of body weight (for two weeks) and one saline injection two days after ATR administration. Locomotor activity was assessed for 15 minutes and/or 2 hours after ATR or saline injection and 2 months after the final ATR administration...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333157/potential-developmental-and-reproductive-impacts-of-triclocarban-a-scoping-review
#7
REVIEW
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Katherine E Pelch, Carol F Kwiatkowski
Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial agent used in personal care products. Although frequently studied with another antimicrobial, triclosan, it is not as well researched, and there are very few reviews of the biological activity of TCC. TCC has been shown to be a possible endocrine disruptor, acting by enhancing the activity of endogenous hormones. TCC has been banned in the US for certain applications; however, many human populations, in and outside the US, exhibit exposure to TCC. Because of the concern of the health effects of TCC, we conducted a scoping review in order to map the current body of literature on the endocrine, reproductive, and developmental effects of TCC...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279713/tramadol-induced-adrenal-insufficiency-histological-immunohistochemical-ultrastructural-and-biochemical-genetic-experimental-study
#8
Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem, Osama A Hassan, Rasha F Ahmed, Nagwa M Zenhom, Rehab A Rifaai, Nashwa F El-Tahawy
Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups)...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201050/the-role-of-ache-in-swimming-behavior-of-daphnia-magna-correlation-analysis-of-both-parameters-affected-by-deltamethrin-and-methomyl-exposure
#9
Qing Ren, Ruibin Zhao, Cheng Wang, Shangge Li, Tingting Zhang, Zongming Ren, Meiyi Yang, Hongwei Pan, Shiguo Xu, Jianping Zhu, Xun Wang
The unpredictable toxicity of insecticides may cause behavior disorder of biological organisms. In order to assess the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in swimming behavior of Daphnia magna , a correlation analysis of both parameters in 24 h exposure of deltamethrin (DM) and methomyl (MT) was investigated. The behavior responses of D. magna in DM (13.36  μ g/L and 33.40  μ g/L) and MT (19.66  μ g/L and 49.15  μ g/L) suggested that recovery behavior in the adjustment phase was crucial, and behavior homeostasis provided them with an optimal way to achieve a wider tolerance against environmental stress...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201049/metals-in-fishes-from-yongshu-island-southern-south-china-sea-human-health-risk-assessment
#10
Zhai Wu, Ye Xu, Minggang Cai, Sha-Yen Cheng, Huorong Chen, Dongren Huang, Kai Chen, Yan Lin, Tianyao Li, Mengyang Liu, Hengxiang Deng, Minjie Ni, Hongwei Ke
In order to assess the bioaccumulation of metals associated with gender, tissues, and their potential ecological risk, four species of fish were collected from the Yongshu Island in the Southern South China Sea. Metals and stable Pb isotopes in their tissues (muscle, gill, liver, intestine, and ovary) were determined. The concentrations of metals (mg/kg, dry weight) in these species were ND-21.60 (Cd), 1.21-4.87 (Cr), 0.42-22.4 (Cu), 1.01-51.8 (Mn), 0.30-3.28 (Ni), 6.04-1.29 × 103 (Zn), 14.89-1.40 × 103 (Fe), and 0...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158734/a-study-of-the-importance-of-clonus-symptoms-in-patients-with-tramadol-poisoning
#11
Fares Najari, Anahita Alizadeh-Ghamsari, Maryam Vahabzadeh, Bita Dadpour, Seyed Reza Mousavi, Ideh Baradaran Kayal
Objectives: Clinical studies to reduce the side effects of tramadol, such as seizure, are necessary. Owing to the high prevalence of tramadol consumption and subsequent complications that result from seizures, the aim of the present study was to find a relationship between clonus and prediction of seizure outcome in patients with tramadol overdose. This can be used to determine the need for essential actions if a significant indicator of preventive medical measures is observed. Methods: In this case-control study, three groups of patients poisoned with tramadol and with marked ankle clonus were evaluated...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129974/screening-of-pesticides-with-the-potential-of-inducing-dsb-and-successive-recombinational-repair
#12
Karen Suárez-Larios, Ana-María Salazar-Martínez, Regina Montero-Montoya
A study was realized to ascertain whether eight selected pesticides would induce double strand breaks (DSB) in lymphocyte cultures and whether this damage would induce greater levels of proteins Rad51 participating in homologous recombination or of p-Ku80 participating in nonhomologous end joining. Only five pesticides were found to induce DSB of which only glyphosate and paraoxon induced a significant increase of p-Ku80 protein, indicating that nonhomologous end joining recombinational DNA repair system would be activated...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081796/hepatocyte-cyp2b6-can-be-expressed-in-cell-culture-systems-by-exerting-physiological-levels-of-shear-implications-for-adme-testing
#13
REVIEW
Timothy G Hammond, Holly H Birdsall
Cytochrome 2B6 (CYP2B6) has substantial clinical effects on morbidity and mortality and its effects on drug metabolism should be part of hepatotoxicity screening. Examples of CYP2B6's impacts include its linkage to mortality during cyclophosphamide therapy and its role in determining hepatotoxicity and CNS toxicity during efavirenz therapy for HIV infection. CYP2B6 is key to metabolism of many common drugs from opioids to antidepressants, anesthetics, and anticonvulsants. But CYP2B6 has been extremely difficult to express in cell culture, and as a result, it has been largely deemphasized in preclinical toxicity studies...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588614/optimization-of-aflatoxin-b1-aptasensing
#14
Marzieh Jafari, Mohsen Rezaei, Heibatullah Kalantari, Maryam Tabarzad, Bahram Daraei
Combination of aptamers with DNAzymes attracted intense attention for development of DNA-based biosensors for detection of mycotoxins. In the present study a combination of aflatoxin B1 specific aptamer and HRP- (horseradish peroxidase-) mimicking DNAzyme was optimized for detecting aflatoxin B1. Detecting approach is based on the binding affinity of aflatoxin B1 to its specific aptamer and conversion of substrate to a detectable colorimetric signal by a linked DNAzyme. Compared to conventional methods for aflatoxin B1 detection, DNA-based assay has the advantages of low cost, long-term stability, and rapid, simple, and user-friendly steps...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458688/long-term-safety-of-pegylated-coagulation-factor-viii-in-the-immune-deficient-rowett-nude-rat
#15
Caroline E Rasmussen, Jette Nowak, Julie M Larsen, Emma Moore, David Bell, Kai Chiu Liu, Nanna Skall Sorensen, Wendela A Kappers, Thomas Krogh-Meibom, Hanne Offenberg
Turoctocog alfa pegol (N8-GP) is a glycoPEGylated human recombinant factor VIII for the treatment of hemophilia A. The safety profile of rFVIII, and polyethylene glycols (PEG) technology, is well-established. Conducting long-term toxicity studies in animals using human proteins can be complicated by anti-drug antibody (ADA) development. To evaluate long-term safety of N8-GP, 26- and 52-week toxicity studies were conducted in immune-deficient rats dosed intravenously every fourth day with 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1200 IU/kg N8-GP...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392800/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-acephate-on-human-sperm
#16
M A Thamali Dhanushka, L Dinithi C Peiris
Extensive use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) could alter semen quality and sperm DNA at different stages of spermatogenesis. Acephate is a highly toxic extensively used OP and, therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of acephate on human semen quality and sperm DNA integrity. Sperm collected from healthy males were exposed to 0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL of acephate and incubated for 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h. Subsequently, sperm motility, vitality, functional integrity of plasma membrane, sperm capacitation, and DNA damage were examined...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261269/comparative-hepatotoxicity-of-fluconazole-ketoconazole-itraconazole-terbinafine-and-griseofulvin-in-rats
#17
Star Khoza, Ishmael Moyo, Denver Ncube
Oral ketoconazole was recently the subject of regulatory safety warnings because of its association with increased risk of inducing hepatic injury. However, the relative hepatotoxicity of antifungal agents has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to compare the hepatotoxicity induced by five commonly prescribed oral antifungal agents. Rats were treated with therapeutic oral doses of griseofulvin, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and terbinafine. After 14 days, only ketoconazole had significantly higher ALT levels ( p = 0...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255298/distribution-of-heavy-metals-in-surface-sediments-of-the-bay-of-bengal-coast
#18
M Z H Khan, M R Hasan, M Khan, S Aktar, K Fatema
The concentrations of major (Si, Al, Ca, Fe, and K) and minor (Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn, Co, Cr, As, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr,) elements in the surficial sediments were studied in an attempt to establish their concentration in the Bengal coast. It was revealed that the majority of the trace elements have been introduced into the Bengal marine from the riverine inflows that are also affected by the impact of industrial, ship breaking yard, gas production plant, and urban wastes. The concentration of heavy metals was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence instruments...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115933/cisplatin-associated-ototoxicity-a-review-for-the-health-professional
#19
REVIEW
Jessica Paken, Cyril D Govender, Mershen Pillay, Vikash Sewram
Cisplatin is an effective drug used in the treatment of many cancers, yet its ototoxic potential places cancer patients, exposed to this drug, at risk of hearing loss, thus negatively impacting further on a patient's quality of life. It is paramount for health care practitioners managing such patients to be aware of cisplatin's ototoxic properties and the clinical signs to identify patients at risk of developing hearing loss. English peer-reviewed articles from January 1975 to July 2015 were assessed from PubMed, Science Direct, and Ebscohost...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090207/role-of-bioadsorbents-in-reducing-toxic-metals
#20
REVIEW
Blessy Baby Mathew, Monisha Jaishankar, Vinai George Biju, Krishnamurthy Nideghatta Beeregowda
Industrialization and urbanization have led to the release of increasing amounts of heavy metals into the environment. Metal ion contamination of drinking water and waste water is a serious ongoing problem especially with high toxic metals such as lead and cadmium and less toxic metals such as copper and zinc. Several biological materials have attracted many researchers and scientists as they offer both cheap and effective removal of heavy metals from waste water. Therefore it is urgent to study and explore all possible sources of agrobased inexpensive adsorbents for their feasibility in the removal of heavy metals...
2016: Journal of Toxicology
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