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Journal of Toxicology

Lebeth C Manguilimotan, Jayzon G Bitacura
The use of microorganisms in decontaminating the environment encumbered with heavy metal pollutants through biosorption is considered as a good option for bioremediation. This study was conducted to isolate Cadmium (Cd) tolerant fungi from coastal waters and sediments, compare their biosorption capabilities, and identify the isolates with the highest Cd uptake. Water and sediment samples were collected near the effluent sites of industrial belt in Ibo, Lapu-lapu City, Cebu, Philippines. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates containing Cd (25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm) were used to isolate Cd tolerant fungi from the samples...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Pooja Mahajan, Jyotsna Kaushal
Heavy metals are a noxious form of pollutants present in soil and water. A new plant-based solar energy driven technology, phytoremediation, emerges as eco-friendly and cost-effective approach to remove heavy metal from various media with the help of hyperaccumulating plant species. This review paper aims to provide information on phytoremediation and its mechanisms for heavy metal removal especially to focus on Cadmium (Cd) metal and highlights the role of various hyperaccumulating plants for Cd metal remediation in soil and water...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi, Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi
Studies have revealed that anti-inflammatory agents could provide beneficial effect in lowering the incidence/progression of neurological diseases. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effect of essential oils from Nigeria ginger and turmeric rhizomes on some cytokines in cadmium induced neurotoxicity. The result revealed that essential oil from ginger and turmeric rhizomes exerts anti-inflammatory effect by preventing alterations of some cytokines/inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-Alpha) levels and inhibits both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities (important enzymes relevant in the management/prevention of neurodegenerative diseases) in Cd treated rats...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Claudia J Labrador-Rached, Rebecca T Browning, Laura K Braydich-Stolle, Kristen K Comfort
Due to their distinctive physicochemical properties, platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have emerged as a material of interest for a number of biomedical therapeutics. However, in some instances NP exposure has been correlated to health and safety concerns, including cytotoxicity, activation of cellular stress, and modification to normal cell functionality. As PtNPs have induced differential cellular responses in vitro , the goal of this study was to further characterize the behavior and toxicological potential of PtNPs within a HepG2 liver model...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Yos Adi Prakoso, Puspitasari, Chylen Setiyo Rini, Andika Aliviameita, Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia, Kurniasih, Ahmad Fadhli Dzil Ikram, Baristha Walalangi, Kukuh Priya Utama, Muhammad Fajar Al Huda, Neneng Ayu Su'udiyah
Aflatoxin (AF) is the secondary metabolite of Aspergillus flavus and commonly contaminates feed during storage. AF causes lowered growth rate, stress, and increased mortality in the poultry, especially for broiler industries. The aims of this study are to determine the effects of Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. leaf powder (SAP) in the chickens fed a diet naturally contaminated with AF. A total of 108 chickens are divided into 6 group: group I fed with basal diet (AF not detectable); group II fed with basal diet (AF not detectable) + 5% SAP; group III with AF (>1 ppb <50 ppb); group IV with AF (>1 ppb <50 ppb) + 5% SAP; group V with AF (>51 ppb <100 ppb) + 5% SAP; group VI with AF (>101 ppb <150 ppb) + 5% SAP...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Duminda S B Dissanayake, Lasanthika D Thewarage, Roshitha N Waduge, J G S Ranasinghe, S A M Kularatne, R P V Jayanthe Rajapakse
Several countries residing envenomation due to Naja naja had revealed a disparity in the venom composition according to their geographic location and Sri Lankan cobra still lacks the evidence to support this. Therefore, the current study was focused on addressing relationship between the histopathological changes according to geographic variation of Sri Lankan N. naja venom. The histopathological changes in vital organs and muscle tissues following intramuscular administration of venom of N. naja were studied using BALB/c mice...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Bernard E Igiri, Stanley I R Okoduwa, Grace O Idoko, Ebere P Akabuogu, Abraham O Adeyi, Ibe K Ejiogu
The discharge of untreated tannery wastewater containing biotoxic substances of heavy metals in the ecosystem is one of the most important environmental and health challenges in our society. Hence, there is a growing need for the development of novel, efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective approach for the remediation of inorganic metals (Cr, Hg, Cd, and Pb) released into the environment and to safeguard the ecosystem. In this regard, recent advances in microbes-base heavy metal have propelled bioremediation as a prospective alternative to conventional techniques...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Bahia Belatar, Abdallah Elabidi, Malika Barkiyou, Mamoun El Faroudi, Rachid Eljaoudi, Laila Lahlou, Saad Kabbaj, Wajdi Maazouzi
Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible role of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and imbalance of trace elements (chromium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese) in death among patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Material and Methods: A case-control study was conducted with 64 comatose patients with severe TBI, in the Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Ibn Sina University Hospital and Hospital of Specialties in Rabat, Morocco; 22 healthy volunteers were recruited in Blood Transfusion Center of Rabat...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Wynand Malherbe, Johan H J van Vuren, Victor Wepener
Many biotic integrity indices are not able to isolate community effects due to pesticide exposure as the communities also respond to other anthropogenic and natural stressors. A macroinvertebrate trait bioindicator system that is pesticide specific was therefore developed to overcome these challenges. This system, called SPEAR (SPEcies At Risk), was applied in South Africa as an indicator to link known pesticide catchment usage to changes in the macroinvertebrate community, especially when analytical methods are inconclusive...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Mackenzie M Spicer, Amber N Stokes, Trevor L Chapman, Edmund D Brodie, Edmund D Brodie, Brian G Gall
We investigated the concentration of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in sections of skin containing and lacking red dorsal spots in both Eastern newt ( Notophthalmus viridescens ) efts and adults. Several other species, such as Pleurodeles waltl and Echinotriton andersoni, have granular glands concentrated in brightly pigmented regions on the dorsum, and thus we hypothesized that the red dorsal spots of Eastern newts may also possess higher levels of TTX than the surrounding skin. We found no difference between the concentrations of TTX in the red spots as compared to neighboring skin lacking these spots in either efts or adults...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
K Yogeswara Chari, Picheswara Rao Polu, Rekha R Shenoy
Background: Cancer is one of the most important public health burdens in developed and developing countries. Colon cancer (CC) is the sixth most common cause of death in India and third most important cause in developed countries. For treating cancer, several synthetic agents are available but they cause side effects. Therefore, there is a need to investigate plant derived anticancer agents with lesser side effects. In this direction, we have made an attempt to unravel the potential of pumpkin seed extract for treating colon cancer...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Fabiana F Ferreira, Evelise M Nazari, Yara M R Müller
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a known neurodevelopmental toxicant, which causes changes in various structures of the central nervous system (CNS). However, ultrastructural studies of its effects on the developing CNS are still scarce. Here, we investigated the effect of MeHg on the ultrastructure of the cells in spinal cord layers. Chicken embryos at E3 were treated in ovo with 0.1 μ g MeHg/50 μ L saline solution and analyzed at E10. Then, we used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify possible damage caused by MeHg to the structures and organelles of the spinal cord cells...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
J I Raji, C K Onwuamah, P G C Odeigah
Artemisinin-based combination therapy is used to treat uncomplicated malaria disease in most endemic countries. Although most antimalarial drugs are effective in killing the parasite, there is a concern of induced toxicity to the cell. Here, the cytogenotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine phosphate (DHAP), a coformulation for artemisinin-based combination therapy, was evaluated using Allium cepa model. The toxicity on the mitotic index varies with the duration of exposure and dose tested. Chromosome aberrations observed include chromosome fragments, chromosome bridges, binucleated cells, and micronucleated cells...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Amal A Raslan, Seham Elbadry, Wageh Sobhy Darwish
Milk is nearly a perfect natural food and is widely used by all segments of our population especially for infants and the elderly. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used worldwide, particularly in many African countries as in Egypt for the control of pests. OCPs are characterized by their bioaccumulation in the environment, especially in the food chain, where they find their way into the human body. The objectives of this study were initially to estimate the residual concentrations of different OCPs in three kinds of fresh and raw milk from different animals (cattle, buffalo, and goat) marketed in Egypt...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Erico R Carmona, Alba García-Rodríguez, Ricard Marcos
Copper and nickel nanoparticles (Cu-NPs and Ni-NPs, respectively) are used in a variety of industrial applications, such as semiconductors, catalysts, sensors, and antimicrobial agents. Although studies on its potential genotoxicity already exist, few of them report in vivo data. In the present study we have used the wing-spot assay in Drosophila melanogaster to determine the genotoxic activity of Cu-NPs and Ni-NPs, and these data have been compared with those obtained with their microparticle forms (MPs). Additionally, a complete physical characterization of NPs using transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) techniques was also performed...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Sreenivasa Rao Damarla, Rajesh Komma, Upendra Bhatnagar, Navin Rajesh, Sadik Mohmad Abdulhamid Mulla
A battery of toxicological studies was conducted in accordance with international guidelines to investigate the genotoxicity and repeated-dose oral toxicity in rats of synthetic curcumin (VEAMIN 99, >99% purity). There was no evidence of mutagenicity in a bacterial reverse mutation test, whereas an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test was positive for induction of chromosomal aberrations which is in line with results reported for natural curcumin. There was no evidence of genotoxicity in an in vivo mammalian micronucleus test...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Modupeade Christianah Adetunji, Ogechi Precious Alika, Ngozi Precious Awa, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Mulunda Mwanza
Nuts are one of the commonly consumed snacks but poor handling and storage practices can make them prone to foodborne infections. The study aimed at assessing the microbiological quality and risk assessment for aflatoxins in groundnuts and cashew nuts consumed in selected locations in Nigeria. The moisture content, colony counts, incidence of pathogenic bacteria, aflatoxin contamination, and risk assessment for aflatoxins were evaluated using standard methods. The moisture content and total viable count ranged from 5...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Tennille K Marx, Robin Reddeman, Amy E Clewell, John R Endres, Erzsébet Béres, Adél Vértesi, Róbert Glávits, Gábor Hirka, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
A battery of toxicological studies was conducted on a supercritical CO2 extract of the aerial parts of the Cannabis sativa plant, containing approximately 25% cannabinoids. No evidence of genotoxicity was found in a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames), in an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, or in an in vivo mouse micronucleus study. A 14-day repeated oral dose-range finding study conducted in Wistar rats at 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg bw/day resulted in effects where a NOAEL could not be concluded...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Boddapati Srinivasa Rao, C V Chandrasekaran, H S Srikanth, Murugan Sasikumar, R Edwin Jothie, Begum Haseena, Bethapudi Bharathi, Ramasamy Selvam, D'Souza Prashanth
Herbal products are being used and trusted globally for thousands of years for their health benefits and limited side effects. Globally, a general belief amongst the consumers is that herbal supplements are always safe because they are "natural." But later, research reveals that they may not be safe. This raises concern on their safety and implications for their use as feed supplement or medicine. Toxicity testing can reveal some of the risks that may be associated with use of herbs, therefore avoiding potential harmful effects...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Sooad Saud Al-Otaibi, Maha Mohamad Arafah, Bechan Sharma, Abdullah Salih Alhomida, Nikhat Jamal Siddiqi
Objectives: The present study was carried out to study the protective effects of quercetin and α -lipoic acid alone and in combination against aluminum chloride induced neurotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of eight groups, namely, Group 1: control rats, Group 2: rats receiving aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal route (i.p) for two weeks, Group 3: rats receiving quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. for two weeks, Group 4: rats receiving quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight followed by aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight i...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
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