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Journal of Toxicology

Tennille K Marx, Robin Reddeman, Amy E Clewell, John R Endres, Erzsébet Béres, Adél Vértesi, Róbert Glávits, Gábor Hirka, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
A battery of toxicological studies was conducted on a supercritical CO2 extract of the aerial parts of the Cannabis sativa plant, containing approximately 25% cannabinoids. No evidence of genotoxicity was found in a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames), in an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, or in an in vivo mouse micronucleus study. A 14-day repeated oral dose-range finding study conducted in Wistar rats at 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg bw/day resulted in effects where a NOAEL could not be concluded...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Boddapati Srinivasa Rao, C V Chandrasekaran, H S Srikanth, Murugan Sasikumar, R Edwin Jothie, Begum Haseena, Bethapudi Bharathi, Ramasamy Selvam, D'Souza Prashanth
Herbal products are being used and trusted globally for thousands of years for their health benefits and limited side effects. Globally, a general belief amongst the consumers is that herbal supplements are always safe because they are "natural." But later, research reveals that they may not be safe. This raises concern on their safety and implications for their use as feed supplement or medicine. Toxicity testing can reveal some of the risks that may be associated with use of herbs, therefore avoiding potential harmful effects...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Sooad Saud Al-Otaibi, Maha Mohamad Arafah, Bechan Sharma, Abdullah Salih Alhomida, Nikhat Jamal Siddiqi
Objectives: The present study was carried out to study the protective effects of quercetin and α -lipoic acid alone and in combination against aluminum chloride induced neurotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of eight groups, namely, Group 1: control rats, Group 2: rats receiving aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal route (i.p) for two weeks, Group 3: rats receiving quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. for two weeks, Group 4: rats receiving quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight followed by aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight i...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Hanane Benzeid, Fadma Gouaz, Abba Hamadoun Touré, Mustapha Bouatia, Mohamed Oulad Bouyahya Idrissi, Mustapha Draoui
Since they are natural, plants are wrongly considered nondangerous; therefore people used them in various contexts. Each plant is used alone or in mixture with others, where knowledge and the requirements of preparation and consumption are not mastered. Thus, intoxications due to the use of plants have become more and more frequent. The reports of intoxications made at the Antipoison Center and Pharmacovigilance of Morocco (ACPM) support this finding, since the interrogations suffered by the victims show that the use of plants is practiced irrationally, anarchically, and uncontrollably...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Fabien Havas, Shlomo Krispin, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez, Liki von Oppen-Bezalel
The colorless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene are comparatively understudied compounds found in common foods (e.g., tomatoes) and in human plasma, internal tissues, and skin. Being naturally present in common foods, their intake at dietary levels is not expected to present a safety concern. However, since the interest in these compounds in the context of many applications is expanding, it is important to conduct studies aimed at assessing their safety. We present here results of in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies, revealing no significant cytotoxic or genotoxic potential and of short- and long-term human in vivo skin compatibility studies with phytoene- and phytofluene-rich tomato and Dunaliella salina alga extracts, showing a lack of irritancy or sensitization reactions...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Chunlei Xia, Longwen Fu, Zuoyi Liu, Hui Liu, Lingxin Chen, Yuedan Liu
Video tracking based biological early warning system achieved a great progress with advanced computer vision and machine learning methods. Ability of video tracking of multiple biological organisms has been largely improved in recent years. Video based behavioral monitoring has become a common tool for acquiring quantified behavioral data for aquatic risk assessment. Investigation of behavioral responses under chemical and environmental stress has been boosted by rapidly developed machine learning and artificial intelligence...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Anindita Dutta, Anindita Chakraborty
In recent years, natural bioactive components draw a major attention for their potent anticarcinogenic activity. Cinnamon, one of the traditional spices, most frequently used in almost every household of tropical countries has got enormous efficacy to combat cancer. Cinnamon as a whole and/or its active components exhibited significant antineoplastic activity in different types of cancer. This review has been carried out to elicit the molecular mechanisms of action of cinnamon and its components on oncogenic regulators and related pathways...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Li Wang, Eric Lin, Mary J Johansen, Timothy Madden, Edward Felix, Karen S Martirosyan, Steven J Frank
The novel positive-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker C4 consists of an aqueous solution of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) complexed with the chelator N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We evaluated whether the presence of C4 or its components would produce reactive oxygen species (ROS, including hydroxyl, peroxyl, or other reactive oxygen species) in cultured cells. Human cancer or normal cells were incubated with 1% (w/v) CoCl2 ·6H2 O or 2% NAC or a combination of both (1% CoCl2 ·6H2 O : 2% NAC in an aqueous solution, abbreviated as Co : NAC) in the presence or absence of H2 O2 ...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Yuedan Liu, Chunlei Xia, Zhongya Fan, Renren Wu, Xianglin Chen, Zuoyi Liu
Movement behaviors of an indicator species, Daphnia magna , in response to contaminants have been implemented to monitor environmental disturbances. Complexity in movement tracks of Daphnia magna was characterized by use of fractal dimension and self-organizing map. The individual movement tracks of D. magna were continuously recorded for 24 hours before and after treatments with toluene at the concentration of 10 mg/L, respectively. The general complexity in movement tracks (10 minutes) was characterized by fractal dimension...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Alastimmanahalli Narasimhiah Ravikumar, Joby Jacob, Sreeraj Gopi, Tumkur Subbarao Jagannath
A series of toxicological investigations were conducted in order to evaluate the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of CuroWhite, a proprietary extract of curcumin that has been hydrogenated and standardized to not less than 25% hydrogenated curcuminoid content. All tests were conducted in general accordance with internationally accepted standards. The test item was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation test or in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and no in vivo genotoxic activity was observed in rat bone marrow in the micronucleus test...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Aldilane Gonçalves Fonseca, Luzia Leiros Sena Fernandes Ribeiro Dantas, Júlia Morais Fernandes, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Adley Antoninni Neves Lima, Luiz Alberto Lira Soares, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Telma Maria Araújo Moura Lemos
The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis , known as "Saião , " has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis . The action of the extract (concentrations from 0...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Elikana Lekei, Aiwerasia V Ngowi, Leslie London
Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP) is a serious problem worldwide. Because the burden of childhood APP is unknown in Tanzania, this study describes the distribution, circumstances, and patterns of APP involving children under 18 years in Tanzania. Methodology: A 12-month prospective study was conducted in 10 Tanzanian healthcare facilities in 2006 using a data collection tool for surveillance. Results: Of 53 childhood poisoning cases identified, 56...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
Fernando Siller-López, Sandra Garzón-Castaño, Martha E Ramos-Márquez, Iván Hernández-Cañaveral
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, hydrolyzes several organophosphate pesticides and oxidized lipids. The PON1 Q192R polymorphism affects the catalytic efficiency and is considered a risk factor for pesticide intoxication and cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the association is not consistent between individuals or populations. We aimed to study the association of PON1 Q192R polymorphism with CVD risk in coffee harvesters of central Colombia. Demographics were collected from 205 subjects via standardized questionnaires...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
José Abraham Márquez-Ramos, Isela Hernández-Plata, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz, Verónica M Rodríguez
The herbicide atrazine (ATR) has a potential toxic effect on the neuronal circuits of the brain, specifically on two major dopaminergic pathways: the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic circuits. In this work, we repeatedly exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to 6 injections of 100 mg ATR/kg of body weight (for two weeks) and one saline injection two days after ATR administration. Locomotor activity was assessed for 15 minutes and/or 2 hours after ATR or saline injection and 2 months after the final ATR administration...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Katherine E Pelch, Carol F Kwiatkowski
Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial agent used in personal care products. Although frequently studied with another antimicrobial, triclosan, it is not as well researched, and there are very few reviews of the biological activity of TCC. TCC has been shown to be a possible endocrine disruptor, acting by enhancing the activity of endogenous hormones. TCC has been banned in the US for certain applications; however, many human populations, in and outside the US, exhibit exposure to TCC. Because of the concern of the health effects of TCC, we conducted a scoping review in order to map the current body of literature on the endocrine, reproductive, and developmental effects of TCC...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem, Osama A Hassan, Rasha F Ahmed, Nagwa M Zenhom, Rehab A Rifaai, Nashwa F El-Tahawy
Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups)...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
Qing Ren, Ruibin Zhao, Cheng Wang, Shangge Li, Tingting Zhang, Zongming Ren, Meiyi Yang, Hongwei Pan, Shiguo Xu, Jianping Zhu, Xun Wang
The unpredictable toxicity of insecticides may cause behavior disorder of biological organisms. In order to assess the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in swimming behavior of Daphnia magna , a correlation analysis of both parameters in 24 h exposure of deltamethrin (DM) and methomyl (MT) was investigated. The behavior responses of D. magna in DM (13.36  μ g/L and 33.40  μ g/L) and MT (19.66  μ g/L and 49.15  μ g/L) suggested that recovery behavior in the adjustment phase was crucial, and behavior homeostasis provided them with an optimal way to achieve a wider tolerance against environmental stress...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
Zhai Wu, Ye Xu, Minggang Cai, Sha-Yen Cheng, Huorong Chen, Dongren Huang, Kai Chen, Yan Lin, Tianyao Li, Mengyang Liu, Hengxiang Deng, Minjie Ni, Hongwei Ke
In order to assess the bioaccumulation of metals associated with gender, tissues, and their potential ecological risk, four species of fish were collected from the Yongshu Island in the Southern South China Sea. Metals and stable Pb isotopes in their tissues (muscle, gill, liver, intestine, and ovary) were determined. The concentrations of metals (mg/kg, dry weight) in these species were ND-21.60 (Cd), 1.21-4.87 (Cr), 0.42-22.4 (Cu), 1.01-51.8 (Mn), 0.30-3.28 (Ni), 6.04-1.29 × 103 (Zn), 14.89-1.40 × 103 (Fe), and 0...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
Fares Najari, Anahita Alizadeh-Ghamsari, Maryam Vahabzadeh, Bita Dadpour, Seyed Reza Mousavi, Ideh Baradaran Kayal
Objectives: Clinical studies to reduce the side effects of tramadol, such as seizure, are necessary. Owing to the high prevalence of tramadol consumption and subsequent complications that result from seizures, the aim of the present study was to find a relationship between clonus and prediction of seizure outcome in patients with tramadol overdose. This can be used to determine the need for essential actions if a significant indicator of preventive medical measures is observed. Methods: In this case-control study, three groups of patients poisoned with tramadol and with marked ankle clonus were evaluated...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
Karen Suárez-Larios, Ana-María Salazar-Martínez, Regina Montero-Montoya
A study was realized to ascertain whether eight selected pesticides would induce double strand breaks (DSB) in lymphocyte cultures and whether this damage would induce greater levels of proteins Rad51 participating in homologous recombination or of p-Ku80 participating in nonhomologous end joining. Only five pesticides were found to induce DSB of which only glyphosate and paraoxon induced a significant increase of p-Ku80 protein, indicating that nonhomologous end joining recombinational DNA repair system would be activated...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
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